Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Economic Geography: Matter and Resources

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Economic Geography: Matter and Resources The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Economic Geography: Matter and Resources and select needs one.

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Economic Geography: Matter and Resources

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Economic Geography: Matter and Resources Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Economic geography: Matter and Resources

Chapter: 1



Q1. What is economic geography? What is its main subject matter ? Mention the important branches of economic geography.

Ans.Economic geography is the branch of geography which studies human activities related to production, distribution, consumption and exchange of resources with respect to spatial and temporal aspects .

(i)  Production of resources

(ii)  Distribution of resources

(iii)  Consumption of resources

(iv)  Exchange of resources 

None of these economic activities of man can take place without resources . Therefore, the availability of resources, their development and utilisation is the principal subject matter of economic geography.

The main branches of economic geography are:

(i) Agriculture geography.

(ii)  Industrial geography.

(iii) Geography of resources. 

(iv) Transport geography. 

(v) Marketing geography. 

(vi) Geography of planning and development.

(vii)  Geography of tourism. 

Q 2. Write in brief about the scope of economic  geography.

Ans. George Chisholm, the father of modern economic geography, has defined that the main scope and objective of economic geography is to determine the economic development trend and direction of a place. While economic geographers C.F. Jones and G.G. Darkenwald, have said that the subject is about man’s productive occupations or activities and deals with the finding out of answers to why certain religions are more advanced in production and export while others in import and trade. Thus it can be said that the study of economic geography deals with the relationship between man’s productive activities and environmental conditions. The scope of economic geography can be defined to lie in the following five questions under two broad divisions.

[I] Traditional Economic Geography:

(i)  Where is the economic activity located? 

(ii) What are the characteristics of the economic activity?

(iii) To what other phenomena is the economic activity related?

[II]  Morden Economic Geography:

(i) Why is the economic activity located where it is? 

(ii)  Would it not be better located elsewhere?

The economic activity of man that comes under the scope of study of Economic Geography can be classified into four types:

(i)  primary occupations: Those activities by which man collect s natural resources.

(ii)  secondary occupations: Those activities by which man transformer natural commodities into usable forms .

(iii)  Tertiary occupations: Those activities by which commodities produced by primary and secondary activities are delivered to consumers.

Quaternary occupations:Those activities by which secondary and tertiary activities are made more easy and productive.

Q 3. What do you mean by economic activities of man ? What are such economic activities? 

Ans: Economic activities or occupations of man the various activities that man perform to earn his living to sustain his life on earth. The various economic activities/occupations of man are: 

(i)  primary activities: Activities by which people collect necessary items such as food , clothing, etc.from the natural environment and use them directly are known as primary activities. e.g agriculture, collecting of food from forests, mining , fishing ,etc.

(ii)  secondary activities: Activities by which people use raw materials supplied by primary activity to transform them into useable from with the aid to technology are known as primary secondary activities.e.g. trade,commerce, business industrial production, etc.

(iii)  Tertiary activities: Activities by which people supply primary or secondary to the user and connect producer and consumers are known as  Tertiary activities.e.g. transport, communication, vities, wholesale or  retail selling, tourism activity , etc.

(iv) Quaternary activities: Activities which some degree of skill, intelligence, foresight, expertise, etc. are known as quaternary activities. e.g. banking and financial services, publicity media, administration, education, and research, etc.

Q 4. Write briefly about the subject matter of the important branches of economic geography.

Ans: The subject matter of the important  branches of economic geography are:

(i)  Agricultural geography : Agricultural geography mainly studies factors associated with agricultural activity, crop production and its associated theory, marketing, export and import of industrial goods, etc. 

(ii) Industrial Geography: Industrial geography studies factors associated with establishment of industry, types of industry, geographical distribution of industries, production of industrial goods, localisation of industries, marketing, export-import of industrial goods, etc.

(iii) Geography of resources: Geography of resources studies types of resources , religion and distribution of resources, exploration and production of resources, relationships between resources and development, conservation and management of resources, etc.

(iv) Transport geography: Transport geography  primary includes factors associated with the types of Transport system,role of Transport on resources distribution, 

movement and economic activities of man, economic development like industrial development, agricultural development, etc.

(v) Geography of marketing: Geography of marketing covers factors associated with pastabilities markets, types of distribution of markets and related theories, etc.

(vi) Geography of planning and development: Geography of planning and development studies factors  related to economic development, planning strategies, sustainable development , regional and resources-based development process, etc.

(vii) Geography of tourism: Geography of tourism deals with factors related to tourism and types of tourism, development and planning process of tourism system, etc.

Q 5. Why is ‘resources geography’  know as an  important branch of economic geography?

Ans: The economic development of a   country is so closely associated with the quality of resources available in that country and their proper utilisation. Moreover, the study of economic geography and all of its branches and sub – branches is directly related to geography of resources. It is in this context that resources are considered as an important branch of economic geography.

Q 6. What is meant by ‘resource’? Mantion it’s characteristics.

Ans: A source of wealth, revenue, supply or support essential for the function of living organisms and ecosystems is known as a resource. In other words, things that satisfy various human need are known as resources. it is defined as a country’s collective means of support.Natural things available in nature like air,water,sunrays, soil, plants mineral,fish,etc. Found on the earth are considered as resources because they help human existence on earth in one way or the other.

According to a famous economist Zimmerman, the main characteristics/properties of a resource are: 

(i) Utility: Resources should be useful to man in one way or other. It should satisfy some of his needs required for living.

(ii) Functionality: Every resources has certain functionality, i.e. it should have certain function or usefulness. Thus, each resource has a unique usefulness of its own.

Q 7. ‘Resource is dynamic’. Explain.

Ans: One of the significant features of a resource is its dynamic aspect. Sometimes, a commodity found in nature may not be useful today, but during a later period of time, it may become a useful item and turn into a resource. Such materials are called natural stuff .e.g. ocean water may not be of much use today, but it is expected that this water may have substances that may be beneficial to mankind. in the same way, some of the presently useful resources may become useless when some other alternative commodities are discovered. Mineral oil is a highly useful resource today and without it, the economic development of a country cannot take place But the discovery of an alternate source that is cheap and easily available can make this wonderful resource, a useless one in the near future. Hence, the utility of a resource is temporary and can change with time. 

The commodities that are harmful to main are called resistance.e.g. the flood water of Damodar river caused a great deal  of harm and damage to human life and property. But when this flood water was controlled by suitable check dams, the water became  highly useful resource which enhanced human habitation and agricultural. Thus, a residence can became resource.Therefore, in this context we can  say that is dynamic.

Q 8. Briefly discuss about the necessity of  resources with example?

Ans: Resources help man in numerous ways. Following are some of the  necessities of resources: 

(i) Improve living condition: The availability of resources not only fulfill the primary needs of man, i.e. food clothing and shelters but also satisfies many other requirements. The improves the overall living condition or standard o of living of man .e.g. agricultural products like rice wheat etc. serves man with his food as well as help him in earning his livelihood.

(ii)  socio-economic development : No country can ever progress Resources such as minerals, agricultural crop s, forest products, human resources,ect.

Hence, the socio-economic development of a country is greatly dependent on the availability of resources.

(iii)  Human welfare : The progress of Human society is directly associated with resources and their poper utilisation. Resources satisfy the various needs of man required for his living.

Q 9.  Write in brief about the relationship between resource and man.

Ans: There is a closer relationship between resource and man. One cannot survive or develop without the other. Man is associated with resource in two different ways: 

(i) As a producer of resources: man is the ultimate producer of resource. Although many of the resources useful to be a man are provided by nature, but most of them are found in  their raw from or not in a useful state. Such resources are transformed by man according to his romance into more consumable forms. Mineral resources, forest resources,water resources, agricultural resources,ect.cannot developed without the active support of man. Hence, man is the prime mover of all resources e.g. resources produced by man include technology, house, roads, industries, school, office, vehicle, ect.

(ii)  As a consumer of resources : Man isa consumer resource. Man consumer or uses various food crops,cloth, mineral oils and various other man -made commodities. Man cannot live a normal life on the earth without the use of essential elements for supporting life on earth.

Besides, man is considered as a resource himself. How the natural resources or man-made resources are used or developed by man depends on man himself.Human knowledege and its extent are responsible for the level of development of  resources. Even the dynamic nature of a resource is dependent on human demand and development of new technology by man.

Q 10. Briefly discuss about the relationship between resource and science- technology.

Ans: Resources and science-technology are  closely associated with each other. The interrelationships between the two can be understood from the following: 

(i)  Discovery of resources: Science has enable man to discover almost all the resources.Many of the mineral resources that we use today may be have remained buried deep within the earth, had  they not be had been extracted by using Modern scientific technology.

(2)  Tarnsportmantions of neutal stuff : due to the development of science and technology ,may of the natural stuff and residence found on the earth are getting transformed into resources, thought.the application of human skills efforts. 

(3) Better utilisation of resources: science and technology has facilitated better utilisation and existing resources.New use of many of the existing  resources are discovered by scientist and researchers , thereby making the existing resources more useful and beneficial to man.

Q 11. Write about classification of resources with examples.


The classification of resources can be explained on the basis of:

[A] Origin 

( i) Natural resources : The resources which after natural formation remain distributed on the earth are called natural resources. e.g. water, air, sunlight, land, mineral, soil, plants, animals, rivers etc.

(ii) Man-made resources : the various commodities produced from natural resources using modern science and technology by man are called Man -made resources.e.g. paper from bamboo, cloth from cottons, synthetic rubber, medicines, fertilisers, etc.

(iii)  human resources : The population of a country which is capable of making use of the resources efficiently and productively are known as human resources .The most important resources  of a country is its human resources.

[B]  physical structure or composition :

(i) Biotic resources : The resources which have life are called Biotic resources.

e.g. plants, animals, fishes, crops, etc.

(ii) Abiotic resources :  The resources which do not have life are called Abiotic resources. e.g. soil, rock, water, air, mineral, sand, ect.

[C] Availability or renewability or durability : 

(i) Renewable resource : The resources which do not get depleted on use and can be used again through the process of regeneration are called renewable resources. e.g. sunshine, water, soil, ect.

(ii)  National  resources : the resources under the responsibility or possession of a country are called National resources. e.g. transport for network, land, river, minerals, animals of the forest, agricultural crops, various manufactured   goods, people, etc.

(iii) international resources : the national resources belonging to different countries which are under the possession of the whole world are called international resources.

e.g. oceans, sea, atmosphere, forests, etc.

[D] Ownership:

(i) Individual or personal resources: The things in possession of a person or an individual are called individual resources. e.g. land, household items, personal attributes such as good character, education, various skills, etc. 

(ii) National resources: The resources under the responsibility or possession of a country are called national resources. e.g. transport network, land, rivers, minerals, animals of the forests, agricultural crops, various manufactured goods, people etc.

(iii) International resources: The national resources belonging to different countries which are under the possession of the whole world are called international resources. e.g. oceans, seas, atmosphere, forests, etc.

[E] Distribution :

(i)  Ubiquitous resources : The resources that are found all over the world are called Ubiquitous resources. e.g. sunshine, heat, air, space, sky, ect. 

(ii) Localised resources : the resources which are found only in certain parts of the world are known as Localised resources. e.g. minerals such as iron  reo petroleum, uranium, coal, ect 

Note: some resources are found to overlap with one another, e.g. plants are natural resources and also biotic resources and renewable resources. Similarly, gold is a natural, abiotic, non-renewable, individual or National resources.

Q 12. What is meant by natural resources? Write briefly with examples.

Ans: Natural resources are resources which after natural formation remain distributed on the earth. These can be in solid, liquid or gaseous States, and metallic or nonmetallic from. Many natural resources are used as they are available , while others are as raw materials for different  industries. Examples of natural resources are air, water , sunlight, land, minerals, natural gas,plant animals, river, oceans, etc.

Q 13. What are man-made resources? Write in briefly about its use with examples.

Ans: Man-made  resources are those resources which are made from natural resources with the application of human effort. The resources are made by man by converting natural resources into more usable commodities by modern science and technology. Examples of such resources are making paper from plants; metals from ores; ect.

Q 14. What are the differences between renewable and non -renewable resources? Discuss briefly with examples.

Asn: The difference between renewable and non -renewable are:

Q 15. What is meant by ‘ conservation of resources’ ? What it’s necessary?

Ans: Conversation of resources is the process of preservation and judicious use of resources to achieve maximum utility, abovid wasteful consumption and missuse.

Following are the  reason leading to the necessity of conservation of resources : 

(i) Limited resources : Resources provided by nature are unevenly distributed and their supply is also limited. There is no single country which has all the resources.This calls for conversation and proper utilisation of resources that a country has. Many of the resources that man uses today are non- renewable or exhaustible resources . Hence, a planned use of the limited resources is required so that they  last for a long time.

(ii) Rising population : With the rapid  expansion of population, the demand for various resources is also  rising . Increased population is depleting the existing resources  rapidly. Although the countries such as the USA, Canada, Japan, Germany, England, ect.are not thickly populated, the use of natural resources is very high in this country due to their economic advancement. Even in the developing countries like India and China, the extent of use of the mineral resources such as cola, oli, natural gas, copper, iron , bauxite, etc.  is quite high. All these call   for planning and conservation of resources.    

(iii) Protection of endangered species : As a result of improve use of various resources and environment population,many species of plants and animals are becoming endangered and extinct. The total population of animals like tiger , elephant,lion,rhino,etc. is decreasing valuable plant species of Assam such as Sarpagandha, chalmogra, kalmegh, Arjun, etc. are on the verge of becoming extinct. Similarly, animals such as golden langur, hoolock gibbon, wild buffalo, etc. are also becoming endangered species. The destruction of such Biotic resources can  bring about certain negative impact on the biosphere. Therefore , there is an urgent need to conserve all living and nonliving resources of the earth bin a judicious manner.

(iv) Avoid pollution: The extraction and processing of resources often lead to environmental pollution. The use of chemical s, fertilisers, pesticide, vehicles , etc. and the increased use of mineral resources such as oil, coal, natural gas, etc.causes a great deal of  environmental pollution, which in turn leads to health hazards.Therefore, there has to be a planned use of  resources minimising their harmful effects.

Q 16. Write in brief about the methods of resources conversation.

Asn. The various methods of resources conservation are : 

(i) Discovery of alternative resources : One of the ways to overuse resources is to find out the alternative resources having similar qualities or features. This requires an extensive study and research. e.g. use of synthetic fibre in place of cotton, electric power in place of petrol or diesel in vehicles, etc. Moreover, solar energy, hydroelectricity, biogas, etc. Should be used instead of coal, oil, minerals, etc. to reduce the overuse of non-renewable resources.

(ii)  Recycling : The use of raw materials can be reduced by reusing the usable  disposal garbages through the process of recycling .e.g. recycling of used water or paper, etc.

(iii) Innovation: With the help of necessary study and recherche, many innovative methods can be applied to make better  and effective use of available resources . This helps in reducing the misuse of raw materials and enhances resources production.e.g.chemical fertilisers can be replaced by organic fertilisers.

(iv) Waste control : If the wastes are properly collected and scientifically treated, a lot of new products can be obtained. e.g. the wastewater from factories and city drains can be treated and converted into clean water again by using  certain scientific methods.

(v) Spread of knowledge regarding conversation : A great deal of conversation can take place if the public aware of the need for convsering the vital resources of a country through public awareness Campinas, seminars, public involved management of resources, ect.

(vi) Enforcement of conversation related acts : For the proper Conversation of resources there should be proper laws to ban their misuse. The government must make sure that the acts are strictly implemented and stringent actions are taken against those who break such laws.

(vii) proper assessment of resources reserve : proper assessment of resources is essential for the development of any nation. Once the authorities know the extent of Availability of the resources, they can plan the available resources.

(viii) Assessment of Future requirement: it is only important for calculate the extent of the availability of the resources , but it is equally important to estimate the 

future requirement of such resources, so that planned use of resources can be undertaken. 

Q 17.  Write in brief about the organisation associated with resources conservation and their role.

Ans. Rapid population, overuse of existing resources, growing environmental problems caused by unscientific use of resources, etc. have resulted in the depletion of many vital resources of the world. Without an adequate amount of resources, life on earth will become difficult and no country can progress or develop. Therefore, many international organisations have been established to  take steps to conserve existing resources and to reduce environmental pollution caused by use of resources. In this context, the following organizations deserve a special mention:

(i) IUCN: IUCN stands for international union for conservation of nature. It was formed in 1948 and has played a commendable role in preserving and conserving the existing resources of the was founded by the British Biologist , julian Huxley, the founder Director General of UNESCO.The main aim of this organisation is to carry out study ans research on conversation of global natural environment and natural resources including  biodiversity and initiate suitable measures.It work under the direction of UNO.IUCN established two international organisation, viz. WWF for Nature (World Wide fund for Nature ) and World Conversation Monitoring centre .

(ii) Minister of Environment, Forest and climate change: In India, Minister of Environment Forest climate change has been established to coordinate the work of Conservation of Natural resources. It is responsible for the laws related to environment protection and conservation of Natural resources. As part of this ministry, an autonomous institution named Indian council of Forestry Research and Education was established in 1986.

(iii) non-governmental agencies: Non-governmental agencies like center for science and Environment (CSE), Greenpeace India, Wildlife Trust of India, ect. Work for protection of environment in India. In Assam, non-governmental agencies like Assam science society, Aaranyal, etc. have taken up the cause of environmental protection, biodiversity conservation, etc.

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