Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Economic Geography: Matter and Resources

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Economic Geography: Matter and Resources The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Economic Geography: Matter and Resources and select needs one.

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Economic Geography: Matter and Resources

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Economic Geography: Matter and Resources Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Economic geography: Matter and Resources

Chapter: 1


Textual Questions And Answers Exercise

Q1. What is economic geography? What is its main subject matter? Mention the important branches of economic geography.

Ans: The branch of Geography in which the study of human activities relating to the production, consumption and exchange of resources is done with respect to space and time is called Economic Geography.

The subject matter of the Economic Geography is the story of human relationship between man’s productive activities and environmental conditions. The economic activities of man are not same in everywhere. Actually, due to the prevalence of variation in the elements of natural and man-made environments, human’s way if life and its economic activities also do not remain the same everywhere. In view of such differency if one place is agriculturally developed, another place may be developed in trade and commerce, or even rich in industrial or fish production activities. That is why all the places on the earth having dependent on one another continue to maintain a kind of interrelationship. In fact, resources and all the phenomena relating to various activities of man are discussed in Economic Geography. 

The important branches of Economic Geography are- (a) Agricultural Geography, (b) Industrial Geography, (c) Resources Geography, (d) Transport Geography, (e) Marketing Geography, (f) Tourism Geography etc.

Q 2. Write in brief about the scope of economic  geography.

Ans: According to Dudley Stamp, Economic Geography “involves consideration of the geographical and other factors which influence man’s productivity, but only in limited depths, so far as they are connected with production and trade.” Professor E. W. Zimmermann pointed out that, Economic Geography deals with the economic life of man with relation to environment.

R. S. Thoman in his book ‘The Geography of Economic Activity’ has remarked, “Economic Geography may be defined as an enquiry into the production, exchange and consumption of goods by people in different areas of the world. Particular emphasis is placed on the location of economic activity upon asking just why economic functions are situated where they are in this world.

The scope of the Economic Geography mainly based on the following questions:

(i) Where is the economic activity located?

(ii) What are the characteristics of the Economic Geography? 

(iii) To what other phenomena is the economic activity related?

(iv) Why is the economic activity located where it is? 

(v) Would it not be better located elsewhere?

Among the above mentioned five questions, the traditional economic geography is associated with the first three. But the latter two questions have laid the foundation of modern Economic Geography.

Q 3. What do you mean by economic activities of man? What are such economic activities? 

Ans: An economic activity is an activity of providing, making, buying, or selling of commodities or services by people to satisfy their day-to-day needs of life. Economic activities include any activity that deals with the manufacturing, distributing, or utilising of products or services.

There are four types of economic activities/occupations of man are: (a) Primary Occupation, (b) Secondary Occupation, (c) Tertiary Occupation, (d) Quaternary Occupation.

(a) Primary Occupation: The human activity through which man collects resources from the nature is called Primary Occupation. For example, agricultural activity, fishing activity, forest resource collection, mineral resource collection, etc.

(b) Secondary Occupation: The human activity through which man transforms the commodities collected from the nature into a usable form by using various technologies is called secondary occupation. For example, manufacturing process, various types of construction and repairing works, etc. 

(c) Tertiary Occupation: The human activity through which the commodities produced by means of primary and secondary activities reach the consumers is called tertiary occupation. For example, transport, communication, marketing, wholesale of retail selling, tourism activity etc. 

(d) Quaternary Occupation: The human activity through which the secondary and tertiary activities can be made more easy and productive is called quaternary occupation. For example, bank or other financial institutions. publicity media, administration, education and research, etc.

Q 4. Write briefly about the subject matter of the important branches of economic geography.

Ans: Economic geography is the branch of geography which studies human activities related to production, distribution, consumption and exchange of resources with respect to spatial and temporal aspects.

The subject matter of the important branches of economic geography are:

(a) Agricultural Geography: An important branch of Economic Geography Here, factors associated with agricultural activity, types of agriculture distribution and methods of agricultural activity, crop production and associated theory, marketing and export-import of agricultural produces, etc are studied.

(b) Industrial Geography: Here, economic and other factors associated with establishment of industry, types of industry and geographical distribution production of industrial goods, theories associated with location of industry, marketing and export-import of industrial produces, etc. are studied.

(c) Geography of Resources: Here, types of resource, regional distribution of resources, the factors associated with exploration and production of resources, relationship between resource and development, conservation and management of resources etc. are studied. 

(d) Transport Geography: Here, types of transport system and factors associated with it, role of transport on resource distribution, role of transport in movement and economic activities of man, role of transport system towards economic development, viz. industrial development, agricultural development, etc. are studied. 

(e) Geography of Marketing: Here, the need of establishing markets and the associated factors, types and distribution of markets and associated theories, etc. are studied.

(f) Geography of planning and Development: Here, factors associated with economic development, planning strategies, sustainable development, regional and resource-based development process, etc are studied.

(g) Geography of Tourism: Here, tourism and factors associated with its growth, types of tourism development and planning process of tourism system etc are studied.

Q 5. Why is ‘resources geography’ know as an  important branch of economic geography?

Ans: Economic geography and its various subdivisions are inextricably linked to resource geography. It is because a country’s economic development is heavily reliant on the quality and availability of its resources. Because every economic activity or development process is inextricably linked to the environment, a greater emphasis is placed on sustainable development.

Q 6. What is meant by ‘resource’? Mention it’s characteristics.

Ans: all the materials available in our environment which are technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally sustainable and help us to satisfy our needs and wants. 

Main Characteristics of a resource are: 

(a) utility. 

(b) functionality. 

(c) dynamism.

Q 7. ‘Resource is dynamic’. Explain.

Ans: Resources are dynamic because their quantity keeps on increasing with the passage of time. More and more resources remain unexplored and once they are being explored then their quantity rises. So we cannot say that resources are static or stagnant. The only thing is their proper exploitation and utilisation is necessary.

Resource is dynamic. Even though a commodity is not used by man today or it is harmful to man today, the same may be used for human welfare in future. In fact, of these materials found on the earth, which are in no way useful or harmful to man are known as Natural Stuff. For instance, until man did not learn about the use of coal or mineral oil in generation of power, they were simply Neutral Stuffs.

On the other hand, the materials or phenomena harmful to man are called Resistance. For example, infertile soil, severely flood-affected region etc. are resistances. It may be mentioned here that until construction of dam on the river Damodar for generation of hydropower and creation of irrigation facility, the Damodar river that used to create flood havoc in West Bengal was considered as a resistance.

Thus, with the expansion of human knowledge and development of science and technology many such neutral stuffs and resistances found on the earth are getting transformed into resource through human efforts. It is due to such a dynamic attribute of resource, a material of phenomenon which is found to be useful today may get transformed in the course of time into a resistance or neutral stuff. It means with change in society simultaneous change occurs in the concept of resource, and consequent change in resource collection and use.

Q 8. Briefly discuss about the necessity of  resources with example?

Ans: The usage of resources and their availability are inextricably linked to the advancement of human civilization. Human welfare and socioeconomic growth have resulted from resource exploitation. The resources received from nature are exploited by man, who employs his or her own energy, knowledge, wisdom, and talent. Apart from meeting man’s basic necessities of food, housing, and clothes, as well as many other requirements, the availability of these resources has allowed for an improvement in man’s living conditions.

Following are some of the  necessities of resources: 

(i) Resources when used as a raw material satisfy the needs and comforts of human beings.

(ii) They also provide employment opportunities.

(iii) Natural resources are a source of agricultural activities which adds to the economic importance.

Q 9. Write in brief about the relationship between resource and man.

Ans: There is a close relationship between man and the environment. Man gets his livelihood by using various mean and natural resources found in the environment. With the increase in the number of population, the use of means and resources also increases.

There is a big relationship between resource and man. Man is associated resources in two different ways. Such as:

(a) as producer of resources, (b) as consumer of resources. Many of the resources useful to man are made available from the nature, most of them are transformed as per requirement into more consumable form by man. For example technology, house, roads, schools, vehicles, agro- farm equipment etc. are produced by man. That is why are called man-made resources. Moreover as a producer or a creator of resource man is also a kind of resources. It is known as Human Resources. It is notable that the variation in the use of natural and man-made resources is dependent on the change in human demand and development of new technology.

Q 10. Briefly discuss about the relationship between resource and science-technology.

Ans: There is a good relationship between resource and science and technology. All the natural resources useful to man, can not be used directly from the nature. With the help of science and technology man can transform various neutral stuff to resource. Generally all the resources are found as a result of the interaction among the nature, man and culture including science and technology. The variation in the use of natural and man-made resources is dependent on the change in human demand and development of new technology.

With the expansion of human knowledge and development of science and technology many such neutral stuff and resistances found on the earth are getting transformed into resource through human efforts. Science and Technology also help us to give appropriate shape of resource as the requirement of man.

Q 11. Write about classification of resources with examples.

Ans: The classification of resources can be explained on the basis of:

Abiotic resources:

(i) Abiotic refers to non-living things that exist apart from living things.

(ii) Land, water, air, and minerals such as gold, iron, silver, and copper are examples of abiotic resources.

Biotic resources:

(i) Biotic resources are those resources that are obtained from the biosphere.

(ii) Forests, wildlife, humans, fisheries, and livestock, among other things, provide these resources.

(iii) These resources can only be accessed by living things.

Renewable resources:

(i) A natural resource that can be replenished to replace the portion used up by usage and consumption is known as a renewable resource, also known as a flow resource.

(ii) This replenishment can occur naturally through reproduction or through other recurring processes in a limited amount of time on a human time scale.

These are referred to be permanent resources when the rate of resource recovery is unlikely to ever exceed a human time scale.

Non-renewable resources:

(i) A natural resource that cannot be easily replaced by natural means quickly enough to keep up with us is referred to as a non-renewable resource (also known as a finite resource).

(ii) Fossil fuels made of carbon are one instance.

(iii) With the use of heat and pressure, the original biological substance transforms into fuel like gas or oil.

(iii) Non-renewable resources include earth minerals and metal ores, fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and natural gas), and groundwater in specific aquifers.

Q 12. What is meant by natural resources? Write briefly with examples.

Ans: Natural resources are materials from the Earth that are used to support life and meet people’s needs. Any natural substance that humans use can be considered a natural resource. The resource, for example: sunshine, air, water, soil, plants, animals. minerals, river, etc. which after natural formation remain distributed on the earth, are known as Natural Resources. The natural resources are found in solid, liquid or gaseous states, and in metallic or non-metallic form. Many of such natural resources are use as raw materials in different industries. Besides, Coal, mineral oil, natural gas etc are also natural resources which are used by us as sources of energy.

Q 13. What are man-made resources? Write in briefly about its use with examples.

Ans: The resource which are produced through human efforts are known as man-made resource. For example: Technology, house, roads, industries. schools, offices, agro-farms equipments, vehicles etc. 

We know that many materials having collected from the nature are converted into more usable forms as per requirement by applying different technologies. Mention may be made in this respect, for example, paper from bamboo; cloth from cotton; different types of dyes, paints, naphtha, synthetic cloth, chemical fertilizer, insecticides, soap, plastic, synthetic rubber, wax, etc. different types of food items, medicine, wood, house construction materials, etc. from plants. Such materials as produced through human efforts are known as man-made resources. It is necessary to have adequate skill. education, technology and desire among men so as to make the natural resources useful to man.

It is because of these attributes, population is known as human resource. Actually man is the creator of resources. It is due to human resource development despite scarcity of many natural resources and raw materials for industries, the countries like Japan, Switzerland, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea etc have been able to occupy a high position in respect of development in the world.

Q 14. What are the differences between renewable and non-renewable resources? Discuss briefly with examples.

Asn: The difference between renewable and non-renewable are:

Renewable resources:

(i) Renewable resources cannot be depleted over time.

(ii) Renewable resources include sunlight, water, wind and also geothermal sources such as hot springs and fumaroles.

(iii) These emit low carbon and thus have a low carbon footprint.

Non-renewable resources:

(i) Non-renewable resources deplete over time.

(ii) Non-renewable resources includes fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum.

(iii) These emit comparatively higher carbon and thus have a higher carbon footprint.

Q 15. What is meant by ‘conservation of resources’? What it’s necessary?

Ans: Resources conservation are important aspects of the environment as not all would present in abundant quantities. Overuse of resources will deplete its amount, which will lead to many issues, hampering our natural life. Conversation of resources is the process of preservation and judicious use of resources to achieve maximum utility, abovid wasteful consumption and misuse.

Conservation of Resources is very essential for men:

Although resource conservation is more associated with non-renewable resources, actually the concepts of conservation are applicable to all the resources. It may be mentioned that destruction of forests (renewable resource) results in decline of animal habitat including its bio-diversity and disturbance in the environmental balance in such areas. In view of such a situation many plans and projects for conservation of some rare and important biotic resources, such as tiger, elephant, rhino, dolphin etc. have been taken up throughout the world.

Besides, many of the valuable plant-species of Assam, such as Sarpagandha, Chalmugra, Kalmegh, Arjun, Agaru, Chirata, Jaifal, Satmul, Suklati etc are getting extinct. Among the animals getting extinct, Golden Langur, Hoolock Gibbon, wild Buffalo, Pigmy Hog, River’s Dolphin, White Wood Duck, Hornbill, Greater Adjutant Stork etc. are worth mentioning.

Moreover, the rapid increase in the use of mineral oil, coal etc. as the sources of energy and chemical fertilizer, chemical insecticides and pesticides, etc in agriculture has caused serious environmental problems due to pollution of air, water and soil.

Thus, we have to take up necessary steps for resource conservation including economical use of resources so that our development process lasts long.

For instance, in respect of soil conservation, we have to make use of a plot of land for agriculture in such a way so that we continue to get good harvest of crops without depletion of soil fertility. Even though fish is a kind of renewable natural resource, its rapid increase of production has given rise to shortage of fish including its variety in many fishing grounds in the world. Besides, due to rapid increase of motor vehicles and industries and expansion of man’s luxurious modern life style the non-renewable energy resources like coal, petroleum, natural gas etc. are getting gradually vanished. In view of such a situation, conservation and rational use of resources have become very important globally. Otherwise, it would become difficult for substance of human and its civilization on the earth.

Q 16. Write in brief about the methods of resources conversation.

Ans: Mainly these methods are important for conservation of resources:

(i) Effective control on population growth: When populations increases more than the availability of resources then the speed of resources exploitation increases. In such situation, due to excessive exploitation, the non-renewable resources quickly get exhausted. So, for resource conservation in a country, effective control on population growth is necessary.

(ii) Holistic view in planning: Proper use and conservation of different environmental factors is called holistic view in planning. The different environment factors are interrelated. The shortage of a single factor of environment causes imbalance. Thus, in making development plans, it is necessary to keep in mind the holistic view. In doing so, help is obtained in maintaining environmental balance, and on the other hand, there is a contribution in conservation of resources. 

(iii) Enforcement of conversation related acts: For the proper Conversation of resources there should be proper laws to ban their misuse. The government must make sure that the acts are strictly implemented and stringent actions are taken against those who break such laws.

(iv) Maintaining biotic balance: For the existence of man, water, air, vegetation and animals are considered the biotic basis. Thus for sustained development and for resource conservation, it is necessary to keep in mind the biotic balance at the time of execution of economic planning. Biotic imbalance creates problems of environmental pollution and ecological imbalance, and as a result, in place of economic development, the possibility of disasters increase. 

(v) Maximum use of non-conventional resources of energy: For the conservation of resources, the use of solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy and thermal energy is necessary. This helps in conservation of petroleum, coal, atomic minerals, and along with it the problem of environmental pollution can also be reduced. 

(vi) Search of alternative energy resources: There are limited reserves of non-renewable resources in the world, so it is necessary to discover and utilises such alternative resources so that non-renewable energy resources remain available to the coming generations. For example, by developing alternative energy resources like solar/wind energy, petroleum resources can be conserved. 

Q 17. Write in brief about the organisation associated with resources conservation and their role.

Ans: The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN’s mission is to “influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable”.

Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation. It tries to influence the actions of governments, business and other stakeholders by providing information and advice and through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.

IUCN has a membership of over 1,400 governmental and non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis. It employs over 900 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy.

IUCN was established in 1948. It was initially called the International Union for the Protection of Nature (1948-1956) and has also been formerly known as the World Conservation Union (1990-2008).

Write short notes: 

(a) Human resources.

Ans: It is necessary to have adequate skill, education, technology and desire among men so as to make the natural resources useful to man. It is because of these attributes, population is known as human resource. For example: The population of our country is known as Human Resource.

On the other hand man is the creator of resources. It is due to human resource development despite scarcity of many natural resources and raw materials for industries, the countries like Japan, Switzerland, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea etc. have been able to occupy a high position in respect of development in the world.

(b) Wealth.

Ans: Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial assets or physical possessions which can be converted into a form that can be used for transactions. This includes the core meaning as held in the originating Old English word weal, which is from an Indo-European word stem. The modern concept of wealth is of significance in all areas of economics, and clearly so for growth economics and development economics, yet the meaning of wealth is context-dependent. A person possessing a substantial net worth is known as wealthy.

Some of the features of wealth are: 

(i) Wealth  possesses the features of utility as it has the power to satisfy human wants. 

(ii) The supply of Wealth is limited.

(iii) Wealth can be transferred from one individual to another through money or value.

(c) Resources conversation.

Ans: Resource conservation means that those resources on which sustainability depends are conserved and even enhanced by agronomic management. Soil organic matter is a good example of an ecosystem resource that is easily reduced without effective management. Soil organic matter declines rapidly in almost all cropping systems following initial cultivation typically to 40-60% of original values within a few decades. However, soil organic matter is a valuable resource, providing habitat and energy for soil organisms, a soil structure favorable for plant growth and water retention, and a chemical structure favorable for nutrient retention.

Resources mainly refer to God given assets like water, air, mountains, land and so on. All of these resources are getting polluted these days.

Q 18. Write the difference between:

(a) Resource and wealth.

Ans: The difference between resource and wealth:


Resources are things that are valuable to people or a nation for its development. Energy is the basis of all development, and this is why governments all over the world are looking for resources of energy that is renewable or reusable. Fossil fuels, of which petroleum is the most important, is found deep inside the earth and is one valuable resource of energy that we have been extracting at a fast pace that is not sustainable.

People are another resource for development, and the population of a country is regarded as its natural resource that needs to be harnessed for development. Any organization works on the basis of its resources like men and machinery.


The materials which have value in exchange are called wealth. It is Limited. It may be useful or harmful to humans.

Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial assets or physical possessions which can be converted into a form that can be used for transactions. This includes the core meaning as held in the originating Old English word weal, which is from an Indo-European word stem

(b) Economic geography and resources geography.

Ans: The difference between economic geography and resources geography:

Economic geography:

The branch of human geography in which the study of human activities related to production, distribution, consumption and exchange of resources is done with respect to space and time.

It has a wider scope than resource geography as it includes agricultural geography, industrial geography, transport geography, marketing geography, resource geography and geography of tourism.

Resources geography: 

The study which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of resources.

It is relatively narrower than economic geography as it is only a part of economic geography.

(c) Resources and natural stuff.

Ans: The difference between resource and natural stuff:

All materials required for human survival are referred to as “resources.” For example, the earth’s air, water, sun rays, soil, plants, fruits, minerals, and so on are all essential to man. Materials discovered on Earth that are neither useful nor detrimental to man are referred to as “neutral stuff.” For example, until man discovered the use of coal or mineral oil in the generation of power, they were simply neutral stuff.

(d) Biotic and abiotic resource.

Ans: The differences between biotic and abiotic resource are:

Biotic and abiotic factors are what make up ecosystems. Biotic factors are living things within an ecosystem; such as plants, animals, and bacteria, while abiotic are non-living components; such as water, soil and atmosphere. The way these components interact is critical in an ecosystem.

(e) Personal resource and no national resource.

Ans: Individual resources are own by an individual and used for his own profile like car, house, table and chair . whereas national resources are those resources which are owned by a nation and used for its profits such as wildlife and minerals.

(g) Man-made resource and human resource.

Ans: The differences between man-made resource and human resource are:

Man-made resources:

Natural resources are modified or processed by technology.

All structures built by man.

Human Resources:

Groups of individuals use nature to create more resources

Education, Health, Knowledge, and Skill have made this.

Q 19. Choose the correct answer:

(a) Which of the following is man-made resource?

(i) Rivers

(ii) Irrigation canal

(iii) mineral oil

(iv) Forest

Ans: (ii) Irrigation canal.

(b) Which one of the following is abiotic resource?

(i) Air

(ii) Fungus

(iii) plants

(iv) Animals

Ans: (i) Air.

(c) Which one the following is non-renewable resource?

(i) water

(ii) Air        

(iii) crops

(iv) coal

Ans: (iv) coal.

Q (d) which one of the following Animals is about to be extinct?

(i) pigmy hog

(ii) One- horned rhino

(iii) Giraffe

(iv) Gayla (Mithun)

Ans: (i) pigmy hog.

(e) The organisation IUCN is under which of the following organisations?

(i) UNEP

(ii) UNESCO 

(ii) UNDP

(iv) WWF                

Ans: (ii) UNESCO.

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