Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 Partition of Bengal and Swadeshi Movement

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Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 Partition of Bengal and Swadeshi Movement

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 Partition of Bengal and Swadeshi Movement Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Partition of Bengal (1905-1911A.D.) and Swadeshi Movement

Chapter: 1


Very Short Answers Questions:

Q1. In which viceroy’s time did the partition of Bengal take place?

Ans: Lord Curzon. 

Q2. On which date in 1905 the partition of Bengal came into force?

Ans: 16 October 1905.

Q3. In which meeting the proposal of giving up foreign commodities accepted?

Ans: In the second protest meeting held at Dinajpur on 20th July 1905, the proposal of giving up foreign commodities was accepted.

Q4. Who was the editor of the journal Jugantar published in the time of Swadeshi Movement?

Ans: Bhupendra Dutta. 

Q5. When was the institution named National Education Council (Jatiya Shiksha Parishad) established in Bengal?

Ans: 11 March 1906.

Q6. Who was the main introducer of the industry named Bengal Chemicals?

Ans: Acharya Prafulla Ray. 

Q7. Under whose presidentship did the conference of Indian National Congress accept the proposal of ‘Swaraj for Indians’?

Ans: Under the presidentship of Dadabhai Naoroji in its annual session at Calcutta in 1906.

Q8. When did the unification of Bengal take place?

Ans: On 12th December 1911.


Q1. Mention three main geographical regions of Bengal which were annexed to the province of East Bengal and Assam created after the partition of Bengal. 

Ans: The three main geographical regions of Bengal which were annexed to the province West Bengal and Assam created after the partition of Bengal were Dhaka, Chattagram and Rajshahi.

Q2. Write briefly about what were the intentions of the partition of Bengal. 

Ans: The main intentions or objectives of the partition plan of Bengal led by the British Government were:

(i) To stop the increasing tide of Nationalism which was fast emerging in the province of Bengal.

(ii) To break the Hindu-Muslim unity which would uproot the stability of the British Empire.

(iii) To please Muslim leaders and to weaken the Hindu-Muslim who were in the forefront of the national movement. 

(iv) To dominate and control the growing anti-British extremists within the Congress Party. 

(v) To break the province of Bengal in such a way that the Muslims could become minority in the retained province while Muslim could become minority in the retained province while the Hindus would become minority as well, in the newly created province.

Q3. Why was the anti-partition of Bengal movement named a Swadeshi Movement? Discuss briefly. 

Ans: The anti-partition of the Bengal movement was named as Swadeshi movement because it was publicly recommended that the Indians would unitedly boycott foreign goods and would start using homemade goods made by the Indians. Irrespective of caste, creed and religion people plunged into this movement.

The anti-partition of Bengal movement was named as the Swadeshi movement because it was not just about opposing the partition of Bengal, but also about promoting Indian self-reliance and self-sufficiency. The movement aimed to unite Indians against British rule and to weaken the British hold on the Indian economy by boycotting their goods and promoting Indian-made products.

The proposal of the partition of Bengal was raised by the British authorities on 6th December 1903. Soon there emerged a strong anti-partition movement in Bengal by leaders like Surendra Nath Banerjee, Bipin Chandra Paul, Arabinda Ghose, Rabindranath Tagore, Rasbihari Bose, Ramendra Sundar Trivedi, etc. They felt that the move was an attempt to break the Hindu-Muslim unity that existed in the province. 

They started a signature collecting campaign to create strong public opinion and awareness among the people. They submitted 70, 000 protest papers to the Secretary General, but the British government remained adamant. The people then rose up unitedly against this plan of the British by launching massive public protests and agitations.

The anti-partition of Bengal movement was named as the Swadeshi movement because it encompassed both the opposition to the partition of Bengal and the promotion of Indian self-reliance and self-sufficiency as a means to counter British economic exploitation and strengthen the nationalist movement.

Q4. Discuss the contributions of Swadeshi Movement towards national education?

Ans: The Swadeshi movement began in 1906 in opposition to the partition of Bengal. This was one of the most triumphant movements against the British. Mahatma Gandhi focused on the Swadeshi movement because he believed it to be the heart and soul of the Swaraj The decision to partition Bengal as stated by the British Government was that the region was too large to be administered by the British with over 78 million population. Hence the need to partition. However, the real reason lay in the fact that Bengal was a hotbed for agitation and protests against the British. Hence they were not able to control.

During the Swadeshi movement, there was a great upsurge in the literary and cultural sphere. Songs, poetry and theatre were composed in order to express the tensions of the Swadeshi period as well as to promote the indigenous nationalistic feelings. 

Rabindranath Tagore wrote Amar Sonar Bangla which later became the National Anthem of Bangladesh. Tagore’s novel Ghare Baire also reflected this time period. Bengali folk traditions were also revived. Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumder compiled the Thakumar Jhuli’s fairy tales. Abanindranath Tagore took inspiration from Mughal and Rajput paintings.

Under the leadership of Rasbihari Bose the National Education Council (Jatiya Shiksha Parishad) was formed on 11th March 1906 at town hall Calcutta. Bengal National College was established on 15th August 1906. Arabinda Ghose was the first principal and in the same year on 12th December, Bengal National College was promoted to National University. 

During the Swadeshi movement, all together 62 secondary schools and 3000 national primary schools were established Bengal Technical Institute was established with the financial help from reputed barrister Taraknath Palit (a close friend of Ananda Ram Boruah, the first ICS of Assam). Later on, this institution was changed into Jadavpur University, Bihar Vidyapeeth, Patna, Samarth Vidyalaya, Maharashtra and Gujrat Vidyalay, Gujrat were established in the style of National University.

Q5. How did the national industries develop during Swadeshi Movement? Explain in short. 

Ans: The Swadeshi Movement led the spirit of self development of Indian industries. As foreign goods were rejected , people now turned into large number of indigenous industries of locally made goods, which came up in different parts of the country. Spinning machines, handloom industries, industries for producing soap, sugar, etc. were established. Along with industries, national banks and national insurance companies came into existence. The Banga Lakshmi Mill and Mohini Mill, the two textile mill of the Swadeshi era met the demands of Swadeshi cloths in Bengal.

The Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical company was set up under the initiative of Acharya Prafulla Ch. Roy. Nilratan Sarkar established Banga Lakhi Cotton Mill. Jamshedji Tata established the iron factory. Bihari sen jointly established Indian Stores at Bou Bazar Calcutta for the sale of swadeshi goods, many swadeshi stores were set up in villages and town.

As the demand for swadeshi articles increased the Dawn society and the Anti circular society undertook responsibility to supply these articles door to door at cost price. Sarala Devi set up ‘Lakshmi Bhandar’ at Cornwallis Street in Calcutta taking inspiration from these event the first Indian Industrial Summit was held at Varanasi under the Chairmanship of R.C.Dutta.

One of the establishments set up during this period was ‘The Swadeshi Bhandar’ which became a reputed textile firm. It was started by Rabindranath Tagore, Yogesh Ch. Choudhury and Krishna Bihari Sen jointly established ‘Indian Stores’ at Bou Bazaar, Calcutta. Sarala Devi Choudhurini started ‘Lakshi Bhandar’ at Cornwallis Street in Calcutta. ‘The United Bengal Stores’ was also established during this period. 

Q6. What were the anti-movement measures taken by the British to dominate Swadeshi Movement?

Ans: The British took away the Muslim from the course of the Swadesh; movement through the vile tricks of religious communalism. Lord Curzon repeatedly answered the Muslims that in the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam they would get a homeland of their own. Therefore they should not join the anti-partition movement.

Secondly the Lord Minto, went a step further by helping them in formation of their political organization, the All India Muslim League in 1906.

Thirdly, the British transformed the Muslims into a separate and loyal political force through the introduction of separate electorate for the Muslim in the India Act of 1909.

Fourthly, Raising the slogan of Bande Mataram was made illegal in Bengal. They issued punitive regulation forcing the student away from participating in the political movement. Even many student were subjected to physical torture and punishment. Holding of public meeting were declared illegal. 

Q7. Mention three results of Swadeshi Movement. 

Ans: The three result of Swadeshi Movement were:

(i) The Swadeshi movement had a big influence on the prevalent educational system of Bengal. The number of students leaving government schools increased and consequently many national schools were established at many places of Bengal.

(ii) In the Swadeshi movement, women were encouraged to break the social barriers and participate in the movement. Sarala Devi Choudhurini, a prominent female leader organised festivals like, ‘Binastami Brat, Pratapaditya. She trained the youth in wrestling, stick play, etc. and edited a magazine named ‘Bharati’, thus preparing the young to take active part in the national movement.

(iii) Keeping equal pace with the man, the middle-class urban women also took an active part in the swadeshi movement by crossing all the social barriers. This participation against the partition of Bengal led the Indian freedom struggle to a well-organized level.

Q8. Mention three contributions of Swadeshi movement.

Ans: The major contributions of Swadeshi movement are:

(i) The Swadeshi movement was able to give the Indians political knowledge regarding mass movement. Indian people learned that if the majority of the people come forward for a common cause, then a mass movement would certainly become successful.

(ii) Swadeshi movement empowered the Indian women towards the mass movement. Each person in the Bengal province kept a fast on the day when Prafulla Chaki was executed. Moreover, Bhubanesari Devi called thousands of women for mass movement to protest police torture of her son, Bhupendra Nath Dutta. 

(iii) The Swadeshi movement also gave birth to armed movement. The tendency to resort to violent methods occurred in some sections of activists.


Q1. Kabiguru Rabindranath Tagore.

Ans: Kabiguru Rabindranath Tagore was a great Indian writer and freedom fighter who through his writings, speeches, ideas, and active involvement shaped the Swadeshi movement. On the day of implementation of the partition of Bengal i.e. 16th October 1905, at the call of Rabindranath Tagore, the Bengali people of Calcutta observed Rakhibandhan. Under his leadership, thousands of people gathered at Maszids at Kalutola and Chitpur and tied rakhis to the Moulabi’s and other Muslims. In the background of the swadeshi movement, The Swadeshi Bhandar, established by Rabindranath Tagore became a reputed textile firm. He also had received Nobel Prize for literature in 1913.

In 1878, Tagore went to London. Because wanted to become a barrister. Later he studied at University College London. But in 1880, after Tagore did not do well in school, his father called him back from London. His father arranged a marriage for him with Mrinalini Devi, a girl of ten years. Child marriage was common during that time. They got married on December 9, 1883. Together they had five children.

Q2. Margaret Elizabeth Noble.

Ans: Noble, Margaret Elizabeth (Sister Nivedita) (1867-1911), educator, writer, and political activist in India, was born at 23 Scotch Street, Dungannon, on 28 October 1867, the eldest daughter and first child of Samuel Richmond Noble and Mary Isabel Hamilton. Both male grandparents are said to have been active home-rulers.

Nivedita had close associations with the newly established Ramakrishna Mission. Because of her active contribution in the field of Indian Nationalism, she had to publicly dissociate herself from the activities of the Ramakrishna Mission under the then president, Swami Brahmananda.

Q3. Nawab Salimullah. 

Ans: Nawab Khwaja Salimullah Bahadur (7 June 1871 – 16 January 1915) was the fourth Nawab of Dhaka and one of the leading Muslim politicians during the British rule in India.

On 30 December 1906, the All-India Muslim League was officially founded at the educational conference held in Dhaka.

The convention was held at Ahsan Manzil, the official residence of the Dhaka Nawab Family. Sir Salimullah was a key patron of education for the Eastern Bengal. He was one of the founders of the University of Dhaka and the prestigious Ahsanullah School of Engineering (now the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology).

Nawab Salimullah was a staunch supporter of the Partition of Bengal and was a member of East Bengal and Assam Legislative Council from 1906 to 1907.

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