Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam

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Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam

Chapter: 4


Very Short Answers Type Questions:

Q1. When was the Treaty of Yandaboo signed?

Ans: 26 February 1826.

Q2. Which period is known as Company Raj in Assam?

Ans: The period from 1826 to 1858 is known as Company Raj in Assam. 

Q3. When was Bengali language introduced in Assam?

Ans: 1837.

Q4. When was Bengali language replaced by Assamese language?

Ans: 1873.

Q5. What was the preface journal of Assam Chatra Sanmilan?


Q6. What was the main objective of the Ryot Sabha?

Ans: The main objective of the Ryot Sabha was:

(i) demanded for the abolition of Grazing tax.

(ii) reduction of land tax.

(iii) to ban the migration to peasants from east Bengal.

Q7. When was All Assam Ryot Sabha established?

Ans: 8th April 1933.

Q8. Who was the secretary of Ahom Sabha?

Ans: Padmanath Gohain Baruah.

Q9. When and under whose leadership  was Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha constituted?

Ans: jagannath Barua at Jorhat in 1884.

Q10. Who were the first president and secretary of Assam Provincial Congress committee. 

Ans: Kuladhar Chaliha and Chabilal Upadhyay were the first President and Secretary of Assam Provincial Congress Committee..

Q11. Who was the first formally elected president of APCC. 

Ans: Bishnuram Medhi.

Q12. Who was the first Prime Minister of Assam and when was he elected?

Ans: Gopinath Bordoloi; 1946.

Q13. For what crime Kushal Konwar was hanged?

Ans: Kushal Konwar was hanged for his involvement in the derailment of a train at Barpathar.

Q14. When was Gauhati University established ?

Ans: 26th January 1948.

Q15. When the name Assam Medical College was formally introduced?

Ans: 3rd November 1947.

Q16. When was Guwahati Medical College formally started?

Ans: 20th September 1960.


Q1. Write a brief note on Assamese Literary society.

Ans: Probably the earliest text in a language that is incontestably Assamese is the Prahlada Charitra of the late 13th-century poet Hema Saraswati. Written in a heavily Sanskritized style, it tells the story, from the Vishnu-Purana, of how the mythical prince Prahlada’s faith in Vishnu saved him from destruction and restored the moral order. The first great Assamese poet was Madhava Kandali (14th century), who made the earliest translation of the Sanskrit Ramayana and wrote Devajit, a narrative on Krishna. The bhakti movement brought a great literary upsurge. 

The most famous Assamese poet of that period was Shankaradeva (1449-1568), whose many works of poetry and devotion are still read today and who inspired such poets as Madhavadeva (1489–1596) to write lyrics of great beauty. Peculiar to Assamese literature are the buranjis, chronicles written in a prose tradition taken to Assam by the Ahom people originally from what is now Yunnan, China. Assamese buranjis date from the 16th century, though the genre appears much earlier in the original Tai language of the Ahom.

One of the first plays to be written in the Assamese language was playwright and lexicographer Hemchandra Barua’s Kaniyar Kirtan (1861; “The Revels of an Opium Eater”), about opium addiction. His plays chiefly addressed social issues. Barua also wrote Bahire Rongsong Bhitare Kowabhaturi (1861; Fair Outside and Foul Within).

Q2. Give a brief trace of important nationalist rise in Jonaki era.

Ans: The period of 1889 in referred to Jonaki Era.

Jonaki, the mouthpiece of the ABUSS played a significant role in literary and cultural regeneration of Assam. The cultural and literary renaissance started by Orunodoi reached its zenith in the pages of Jonaki. Chandrakumar Agarwala was the first editor of Jonaki.

It successfully brought out new literary talents amongst the Assamese intelligentsia of the period. Chandrakumar Agarwala, the editor of Jonaki, in the inaugural issue, made it clear that the politics of rulers was beyond the purview of Jonaki. Consequently, Jonaki never dabbled in politics, but the articles and poems published in it reflected the nationalistic views of the authors.

One of the recurrent themes of Jonaki was the decline of indigenous commerce and industries of Assam after British annexation and about regenerating economic self-dependence. Kanaklal Barua and Kamalakanta Bhattacharya regularly wrote about the economic backwardness of Assam and made urgent appeal to ensure economic progress of Assam.

Lakshminath Bezbarua’s , Mor Desh’, ‘Assam Sangeet’, ‘Been Boragi’ etc. and the writings of Ambikagiri Raichoudhury used to popularise nationalistic sentiments. Jonaki was successful in regenerating cultural and social consciousness in Assam.

Q3. Write briefly on the political demands of Ahom Sabha.

Ans: In 1893,Ahom sabha was organised at sivsagar. The founder of this sabha was Padmanath gohain baruah. Padmanath gohain baruah and several other educated person had been trying to organize a socio-political organization amongst the community.

The major political demands of Ahom Sabha were: 

(a) to get recognition for the Ahoms as a minority community and reservation of seats in the Assembly and a separate electorate for Ahoms. The Association worked hard towards this goal throughout 1930s and 40s.

(b) in 1941, the Association witnessed internal division amongst its members. A selection of them was inspired by the National Congress and formed a separate organisation, Nationalist Ahoms Association. It became gradually week by 1950.

Q4. What were the issues raised by Assam Association before the British government? 

Ans: Some of the issues raised by this association before the British government were:

(i) It was opposed to the government’s increased taxes and excise policy, and it demanded the complete prohibition of opium.

(ii) Opposed the over presence of government members in the municipal committees and of tea planters in local bodies. 

(iii) Demanded democratisation of the local bodies. 

(iv) Opposed increase in taxes, excise policy, etc.

(v) Demanded absolute prohibition of the use and sale of opium.

(vi) Called for the establishment of technical schools in the state. 

(vii) Demanded Assamese representation  in the Calcutta University Syndicate, appointment of Assamese teachers Cotton College.

(viii) Opposed the combining of Assam with East Bengal in 1905.

(ix) It criticised the dominance of government officials on the Municipal Committee and tea planters on the Local Boards.

Q5. Mention about the Assamese leaders who lead the Non-cooperation Movement in Assam. 

Ans: After much debate, the seventeenth session of the Assam Association, held in Tezpur in December 1920, adopted the resolution of joining the non-cooperation movement. The Non-cooperation Movement in Assam was led by Chandranath Sarma, Hemchandra Barua, Omeo Kumar Das, Muhibuddin Ahmed, etc. Some of the prominent youth leaders were Lakhidhar Sarma, Rohinikanta Hatibarua, Bimalakanta Barua, Kanak Chandra Barua, Benudhar Sarma, Tilak Sarma, etc. Many lawyers like Nabin Chandra Bordoloi, Kuladhar Chaliha, Tarunram Phukon, Kamini Kumar Chanda, Bishunram Medhi, etc. also actively participated in the Non-cooperation Movement in the state. 

The youth of Assam participated in the movement by boycotting government educational institutions under the leadership of Chandranath Sarma, Hemchandra Barua, Omeo Kumar Das, and Muhibuddin Ahmed.

Q6. Write about Cunningham Circular.

Ans: On May 30, 1930, R. J. Cunningham, Director of Public Instruction, issued a circular known as the Cunningham Circular, in which he asked students and their parents to provide a written undertaking guaranteeing that the students would not participate in any kind of political activity. Those found guilty would face fines, loss of scholarships, and expulsion in the case of serious ‘crimes.’ The students reacted angrily to the humiliating diktat, igniting a civil disobedience movement in the region.

Q7. Write briefly about the problems faced by the ministry of Gopinath Bordoloi after independence. 

Ans: Immediately following independence, the North-Eastern region was confronted with the issue of borderland. The partition of India in 1947 hampered communication between the north-eastern region and the rest of India. Only a 12-kilometre-long swath of land connected the rest of India to the north. 

The new ministry had to face the following problems:

(i) The partition disrupted the complex economic ties that exited between Bengal-Assam-Arakan regions.

(ii) Till independence Assam did not have proper educational infrastructure. Therefore, the new government had to establish a strong educational set up to develop the human resources.

(iii) The partition of India in August 1947 disrupted the communication between Assam and the rest of India. Railway line and river transportation between West Bengal and Assam ran through East Bengal which had now become part of Pakistan.

(iv) After independence, the fixation of border became a major issue for Assam and the entire North Eastern range. 

(v) soon after independence the flow of immigrants from East Pakistan started. The government had to deal with them. 

(vi) Before independence, Assam was noted globally for the production of tea, indigo, jute, silk and cotton textiles. All these got affected by the partition. The government had to take steps to rectify these problems.

(vii) The overall economic condition of the state was really low. This resulted in low per capita income and low standard of living.

Q8. Write a brief history of the establishment of Assam Agricultural University. 

Ans: The Assam Agricultural University was established on April 1, 1969 under The Assam Agricultural University Act, 1968’ with the mandate of imparting farm education, conduct research in agriculture and allied sciences and to effectively disseminate technologies so generated. Before establishment of the University, there were altogether 17 research schemes/projects in the state under the Department of Agriculture. By July 1973, all the research projects and 10 experimental farms were transferred by the Government of Assam to the AAU which already inherited the College of Agriculture and its farm at Barbheta, Jorhat and College of Veterinary Sciences at Khanapara, Guwahati.

Q9. Write a brief history of the establishment of Assam Medical College.

Ans: The college was founded as Berry White Medical School in 1900 using a large donation from Sir John Berry White. It was renamed as Assam Medical College and Hospital on 3 November 1947. 3 November is celebrated as foundation day every year by students of the college. The Assam government has preserved the original Berry White Medical School building in Grahambazar, Dibrugarh. In 1910 the college imported two X-ray machines from England, which were the first in India, and opened the country’s first radiology department.

The first medical college in Assam was established at Dibrugarh. It was the first medical college in the north-east region. This college grew form the Berry-White school of medicine which was established in Dibrugarh in 1900 using a donation of 50,000 rupees from Doctor John Berry White, Civil Surgeon of East India Company. In 1910, the college imported two x-ray machines from England.

On 12 February 2016, Union minister of health and family welfare laid the foundation of 192 bed super-special hospital with a 60-bed intensive care unit, a catheterization lab, and specialties in neurology, neurosurgery, cardiothoracic vascular surgery, nephrology and paediatrics


Q1. Discuss about role and activities of Asomiya Bhasa Unnati Sadhini Sabha.

Ans: The Asomiya Bhasha Unnati Sadhini Sabha used to hold regular scholarly discussions on various subjects like Assam’s history, culture, literature and language.

Two aspects characterised Assam during the middle of the 19th century. The first aspect was that the period witnessed the emergence of a new group of educated middle class Assamese intelligentsia. The second was the growth of national consciousness in the state. During this period, there was an attempt by the middle class to organise as well as promote Assamese cultural and language. The result was the establishment of associations such as Gyan Pradayini Sabha in 1857 and Assamese Literary Society in 1872. 

The Sabha had Shivaram Sarma Bardoloi as its first secretary and acted as a precursor to Asom Sahitya Sabha. The primary aims of the Sabha were tending to their mother tongue in each nascent stage; developing the Assamese language to make it at par with other developed languages of the world and; popularising Assamese among the people of Assam. The students closely associated with the organisation, through their writings, kindled patriotic spirit in the heart of the people. Lakshminath Bezbaruah and Padmanath Gohain Baruah produced historical dramas with themes that glorified the history of Assam. Kamalakanta Bhattacharya wrote prose focused on the suffering of people, their superstition and their complacent behaviour.

Q2. Write about the contribution of Assam Chatra Sanmilan. 

Ans: Asom Chatra Sanmilan (Assam Students Conference) was the first student organization of Assam. The first president of student’s organization was Lakshminath Bezbarua. 

The chief contributions of this association were:

(i) Enriched the Assamese language by contributing towards its development and preservation. 

(ii) Undertook the commendable work of promoting the cause of Assamese language among college and school students by encouraging them to love their mother tongue and enrich it with their contribution. Assam Chatra Sanmilan from its inception kept itself away from politics. It was mostly concerned about the development of the Assamese language.

Q3. Give an account on the objectives and role of the Ryot Sabhas.

Ans: Among the first Ryot Sabhas, the most important were the Tezpur Ryot Sabha and the Nowgong Ryot Sabha formed in 1884-85 and 1886-87 respectively. The plan of these Ryot Sabhas were finalised and executed by the leaders of Assam middle class and aimed to fight for the right for the rights of the peasants. Most of these Ryot Sabhas raised their voice against the newly introduced land settlement of Assam by the British. It also demanded for the abolition of grazing tax, reduction of land tax, etc. 

Another demand made by these associations was to ban migration of peasants from East Bengal to Assam. However, it is be noted that Ryot Sabhas did not play an active role in the peasants uprising that had sprung up in 1893-94 period in different parts of Nowgong, Darrang and Kamrup districts.

In order to coordinate the work of Ryot Sabhas in the state and to achieve common objectives, an All Assam Ryot Sabha was formed on 8th April 1933 under the guidance of Congress leader Nabin Chandra Bordoloi. In the years that followed, about 300 Ryot Sabhas were formed in different parts of the state.

Q4. Write about the objectives and activities of Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha. 

Ans: The Jorhat Sarvajanik Sabha was established by Jagannath Barua, a tea planter, in 1875, in Jorhat district in Assam. Its formation was an important event in the post 1857 period. It was a time when peasant uprisings were gaining prominence and multiple political happenings were shaking up the region.

The chief objectives of Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha were:

(a) To represent the aspirations of the people to the government.

(b) To explain government politics to the people. 

(c) To ameliorate the condition of the people.

Although the Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha avoided coming into direct confrontation with the government, but it raised its voice against exploit-ative government policies.

The few activities taken by the Sabha were:

(a) It raised voice against the introduction of the Assam Land and Revenue Regulation Act, 1886. 

(b) In 1892-93, it took up the cause of the ryots who protested against the enhancement of revenue.

(c) In 1893, the Sabha submitted a memorandum to the Royal Commission on Opium asking for gradual abolition of opium in Assam.

The Sabha was strongly against the partition of Bengal in 1905. The Sabha opined that the political future of Assam would be endangered if Assam is annexed with East Bengal. The then Chief Commissioner of Assam Bam Fylde Fuller arrived at

Guwahati (Municipality office) on 1 November, 1905 and explained how the partition of Bengal would benefit Assam. Manik Ch. Baruah the Secretary of Assam Association and Jagannath Baruah the president of Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha were convinced to be benefitted and gave up anti Bengal partition mentality.

Q5. Write on the contribution of Assam Association towards social reform in British ruled Assam. 

Ans: The Assam Association was formed in 1903.It played a significant role in freedom movement of India alongside protecting the interests of the peoples of Assam.

The association served as the mouthpiece of the people of Assam in presenting to the authorities their needs and grievances, hopes and aspirations. It followed peaceful and constitutional methods to bring change.

The first session of the Assam Association was held in Dibrugarh in 1905. During this session, Raja prabhat Chandra Barua was elected as its president and Manik Chandra Baruah as its General Secretary. From 1900 to 1920, this organisation served as a mouthpiece of the people. It brought to the attention of the authorities various needs and aspirations of the people. It did not believe in direct confrontation with the government. It followed peaceful and constitutional methods to bring about change in government attitude.

One of the major issues undertaken by the Association was to oppose the incorporation of Assam into a single province named as Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905. In 1907, the Association submitted a memorandum to the Secretary of State for india to separate Assam from East Bengal.

It demanded the introduction of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1918 in Assam as well. For this purpose the Association sent a team of seven members to Calcutta in 1917. The Association even sent Nabin Chandra Bordoloi and Prasanna Kumar Baruah to London for the same. Due to the pressure built up by the Association, Assam came under the reforms of Montagu-Chelmsford. Another major demand put forward by the Associa- tion in 1920 was the demand for the establishment of a university in Assam.

The Assam Association got actively involved in the Non-Cooperation Movement, 1921. Finally its members felt that Association should identify itself with the aims and ideals of the Congress and change its provincial outlook in order to serve the larger interest of the country’s ultimate goal in the struggle for freedom.

In 1916 India, by the end of the 19th century, voice of dissent against colonial dominance began to stir the people of Assam. Gradually the voice of dissent against the British rule found expression in the writings of several prominent personalities of the time arousing feelings of nationalism in the region. Several socio-cultural organisations were formed to highlight the problems and aspirations of the common people.

Q6. Give a brief description on the creation and main roles of Assam Provincial Congress committee. 

Ans: The Assam Provincial Congress Committee, like the Indian National Congress, arose from nationalist zeal against British rule. The Assam Association decided to merge with the newly formed Assam Provincial Congress Committee in 1921. Gandhi was invited to Assam by the Assam Provincial Congress Committee in 1921 to spread the message of non-cooperation.

The Assam Association had already actively participating in the national politics under the leadership of the Congress. Many of its leaders felt that the Association should identify itself with the aims and ideals of the Congress. At the same time, some other members refused to get amalgamated with the Congress. However, the plans and programmes of the Congress started immensely attracting the middle class.

As a result, a discussion to amalgamate the Association with the Con- gress took place at a meeting of the association held at Jorhat on 18 April, 1921 with Chobilal Upadhyay in the chair. At the initiative of leaders like Chobilal Upadhyay, Nabin Chandra Bordoloi, Krishna Kanta Bhattacharya, Assam Association decided to merge itself in the newly formed Assam Pro- vincial Congress Committee in 1921 which was affiliated to the Indian Na- tional Congress.

Subsequently, an adhoc committee of Assam Provincial Congress Committee was formed in June 1921, with its headquarter at Guwahati Kuladhar Chaliha as its president. and Later Tarun Ram Phookan became the president. Under the initiative of the Assam Provincial Congress Committee, Gandhi was invited to Assam in 1921 to propagate the message of non-co-operation. His visit tremendously encouraged the congress workers to carry out the non-cooperation move- ment and implement the principles of Swadeshi. At Pandu in 1926, the 41 All India Congress Committee session was hosted by the Assam Provincial Congress Committee.

In the following years, leaders like Bishnuram Medhi, Siddhinath Sarmah, Maulana Tayebullah, Ambikagiri Raichoudhury and a host of prominent members took the initiative to implement the plans and programmes of the Congress.

The first officially elected President of the Assam Provincial Congress Committee was Bishnuram Medhi who was elected in 1930 for a period of 9 years.

The Congress party could finally secure a major victory in the general elections held in 1946 and Lokapriya Gopinath Bordoloi became the first Premier of the Assam Province.

Q7. Give brief description on the role of Assam in Swadeshi Movement. 

Ans: The Swadeshi Movement, which began in 1905 as a response to the partition of Bengal, soon spread to other parts of India, including Assam. The people of Assam actively participated in the movement, promoting the use of Indian-made goods and boycotting British products.

Various associations and organizations were formed in Assam to promote the Swadeshi Movement. Some of these included the Assam Association, the Asomiya Bhasar Unnati Sadhini Sabha, and the Utkal Sammilani.

To be successful in this objective, they took up some welfare activities. Some of these are:

(a) to introduce Assamese language and literature in the syllabus of entrance examination of Calcutta (Kolkata) University.

(b) to open bachelor degrees in all departments in Cotton College to revamp the institution as the centre of excellence.

(c) to reintroduce Moujadary system in the Brahmaputra Valley.

(d) to introduce 20 point settlement of land.

These are some indirect benefits from Swadeshi movement. The movement became much more popular in the Surma Valley under the leadership of the Surma Valley Association. National Schools were set up at Sylhet, Habiganj Srimangal, Lakhai, Baniachange, Karimganj, Silchar, and other places.

Q8. Give an account on the role of Assam in non-cooperation movement. 

Ans: The non-cooperation movement, launched under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, was a massive success in the colonial province of Assam. This was made possible by the participation of the people en masse, especially of students from different schools and colleges. Like in other parts of Assam, students of the Sonitpur district (a part of the Darrang district in the 1920s) led by figures like Omeo Kumar Das, Lakshmidhar Sarma, Chandranath Sarma, and others, played an active role in the movement.

Many students from Assam participated in the All India Students’ Conference held in Nagpur in 1920, where the future course of action for the Movement was discussed. Upon their return, the students began the Non-Cooperation Movement in Assam with the boycott of government educational institutions in January 1921. 

One of the most significant effects of the movement in Assam was a decrease in opium consumption. Another important constructive work was popularising khadi and increasing khadi production. Tea garden labourers provided unprecedented support to the movement. The large population of tea garden labourers took advantage of the opportunity to speak out against colonial exploitation of them.

Q9. Give an account of the role of Assam in Civil Disobedience Movement.

Ans: Assam’s role in the movement came to notice when the students started to protest and it motivated the elders to step in and take part in the movement. Especially the women, as they were the backbone of the movement. Even iconic people like Aruna Asif, Sucheta Kriplani joined the movement and played a big role.

Bishnuram Medhi, Muhammad Tayebullah and Ambikagiri Raychoudhury became new office-bears of the Congress and they injected new life into the party. Under their leadership, the Civil Disobedience movement became a mass movement in Assam. Several committees and sub-committees were formed to organise various aspects of the movement. Their main task consisted of  raising funds, taking measures in defiance of repressive laws and ordinances, boycotting British goods and spreading anti-opium and anti-liquor campaigns in the state. 

Initially the response of the students to the movement was lukewarm. However two events encouraged them to Join the national movement. One was the arrest of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi by the British authorities. Hundreds of students protested against their arrest. Thousands boycotted classes as a mark of protest against their unlawful arrest. The second factor that brought students to the movement was the so-called ‘Cunningham circular’ wherein R.J. Cunningham, Director of Public Interaction, asked students and parents to provide a written undertaking that they would not participate in the various political movements going on in the country. Meanwhile, the Assam Chatra Sanmilan decided to picket government institutions as part of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

The Assam Chatra Sanmilan held a special session in Gauhati to discuss its action plan. They decided to picket government offices. Between July and August 1930, approximately 3,117 out of 15,186 students left their institutions. Picketing soon spread to opium and liquor stores. Peasants joined the movement as well, demanding a 50% reduction in land revenue. In some areas, forest laws were also broken. Surma Valley experienced student unrest as well.

Q10. Give an account of the Quit India Movement in Assam. 

Ans: The Quit India Movement was a massive protest against British rule in India. In Assam, it gained support from a variety of groups and led to widespread civil disobedience and arrests.

The Quit India Movement, also known as the August Movement, was a mass civil disobedience movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942 to demand India’s immediate independence from British rule. The movement had a significant impact in Assam, a state in northeastern India.

In Assam, the Quit India Movement gained widespread support among the people, including the Assamese intelligentsia, students, and political leaders. The movement saw the participation of various political parties, including the Indian National Congress, the Communist Party of India, and the Socialist Party.

The movement’s activities in Assam included mass demonstrations, protests, strikes, and the burning of British goods. The people of Assam boycotted British goods, refused to pay taxes, and stopped participating in the administration of the British government. The movement also saw the formation of underground organizations, such as the Assam Pradesh Congress Committee and the Communist Party of India (Assam State Committee), which carried out acts of sabotage against the British.

The Quit India Movement in Assam faced harsh repression from the British authorities, who arrested and imprisoned many of its leaders and supporters. The British also used force to suppress the movement, leading to violent clashes between the police and the protesters.

Despite the repression, the Quit India Movement in Assam had a significant impact on the Indian independence movement. It led to the strengthening of the anti-British sentiment among the people of Assam, and increased their participation in the freedom struggle. The movement also paved the way for the formation of the All Assam Students’ Union (AASU) in 1967, which played a crucial role in the Assam Agitation for autonomy and identity in the 1970s and 1980s.

In conclusion, the Quit India Movement in Assam was a mass civil disobedience movement that had a significant impact on the Indian independence movement. It saw widespread support from the people of Assam, who participated in mass demonstrations and protests, and paved the way for the formation of important organizations that shaped the state’s political landscape.

However, after some time the movement became slightly violent. People attacked government buildings, destroyed railway tracks and sabotaged military lines. Such violent agitation were mostly seen in the districts of Nowgong and Darrang. 

Incidents of sabotage of railway lines were seen at Shahabibazar in Habiganj, Barpathar in Golaghat, Panbari and Rangiya in Kamrup and Kamrupand Suffrage in Sibsagar district. The government tried to put down the rebellion with brute force. Hundreds of people were arrested and imprisoned. Kushal Konwar was hanged in Connection with derailment of a train at Barpathar.

Q11. Give a brief description about the institutions established in Assam under the leadership of Bordoloi Ministry.

Ans: Give a brief description about the institutions established in Assam under the leadership of Bordoloi Ministry.

The institutions established in Assam under the leadership of Bordoloi Ministry are:

(i) Assam Agricultural University: The origin of the Assam Agricultural University can be traced back to 1913 when an agricultural research station was established at Karimganj followed by another at Titabar in 1923. Though the stations continued their research and training, yet it became imperative to have an agricultural and a veterinary college which led to the establishment of the Assam Agricultural College at Jorhat and the Assam Veterinary College at Nagaon in 1948.

In 1969, the Assam Agricultural University was established embracing both these Colleges and shifting the Veterinary College from Nagaon to the present location at Khanapara, Guwahati.

(ii) Gauhati University: The University of Gauhati popularly known as Gauhati University, is the oldest and the first public university of North-East India. It was established on 26 January 1948. 

That a university could easily be established in Assam was opened by Sir Michael Sedlar, Chairman of the Calcutta University Commission in 1917. In the same year, the Assam Association made a public demand for a university at its annual session held at Sibsagar. In 1940 the Government appointed S.K. Bhuyan as Special Officer with the task collecting relevant information on the selection of site and related matters. The university was established under the Gauhati University Act 1947 of the government of Assam in 1948. 

The first court meeting of the university was held on 26 January 1948, which is considered as the foundation day, of the university. It had 17 affiliated colleges and eight post Graduate Departments on its establishment. 

The University which started functioning from the city centre was shifted to the present campus in 1955-56. Now, the university area is known as Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar.

(iii) Assam Medical College: Assam Medical College situated at Dibrugarh is the first medical college in north-eastern India. The history of the college can be traced back to the Berry White School of Medicine which was established at Dibrugarh in 1900 using a donation of Rs. 50,000.00 from Doctor John Berry White, civil surgeon of the East India Company.

In 1910 the college imported two x-ray machines from England. After the Second World War the college was shifted to nearby hospital premises that had been used by the US Army. After independence, on 3 November 1947 the college was formally renamed to become Assam Medical College.

With increasing demands for health care and health education, the need for more medical colleges in Assam was keenly felt. The State Government in 1959 headed by Bimala Prasad Chaliha, the then Chief Minister of Assam, Mr. Fakaruddin Ali Ahmed, the then Finance Minister, and Mr. Rupnath Brahma, the then Health Minister of Assam decided to have a second medical college in Assam.

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