Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Environment and Environmental Problems

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Environment and Environmental Problems The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Environment and Environmental Problems and select needs one.

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Environment and Environmental Problems

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Environment and Environmental Problems Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Environment and Environmental Problems

Chapter: 2



Q 1. Write in your own words the meaning of environment.

Ans: Environment can be defined as a sum total of all the living and non-living elements and their effects that influence human life. While all living or biotic elements are animals, plants, forests, fisheries, and birds, non-living or abiotic elements include water, land, sunlight, rocks, and air.

Q 2. Mention some of the biotic and elements of environment.

Ans: Biotic elements: Plants, animals, insects, birds, ranging from to large animal.

Abiotic elements: Soil, water, air including all liveless elements.

Q 3. Write the meaning of lithosphere.

Ans: A lithosphere is the rigid, outermost rocky shell of a terrestrial planet or natural satellite. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the lithospheric mantle, the topmost portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of up to thousands of years or more. The crust and upper mantle are distinguished on the basis of chemistry and mineralogy.

Q 4. What are the features included in the hydrosphere?

Ans: The earth’s hydrosphere was formed by the seas and oceans. The hydrosphere covers roughly 71% of the earth’s surface. The hydrosphere includes rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water found throughout the continents. The hydrosphere’s status and change are determined by the lithosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.

Q 5. Write about the composition of the atmosphere.

Ans: We all know that earth is a unique planet due to the presence of life. The air is one among the necessary conditions for the existence of life on this planet.

(i) The atmosphere is made up of different gases, water vapour and dust particles.

(ii) The composition of the atmosphere is not static and it changes according to the time and place.

Q 6. Given an outline of the extent of the biosphere.

Ans: The biosphere is made up of the parts of Earth where life exists. The biosphere extends from the deepest root systems of trees, to the dark environment of ocean trenches, to lush rainforests and high mountaintops. Biosphere covers those parts of the earth’s environment where life from exits, i.e lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere.

Q 7. Discuss briefly the relation among the four major components of environment.

Ans: The four major components of environment are: (i) Lithosphere, (ii) Hydrosphere, (iii) Atmosphere and (iv) Biosphere.

These four major spheres of the earth’s environment are interdependent.

The interactions among them have given rise to what we call environment. The innumerable elements of these spheres through a complicate network of relationship have determined the earth’s present environment.

Q 8. Mention the major cause of environmental change. 

Ans: (i) Pollution: Pollution is the process of contaminating the environment with harmful substances. Many man-made substances, if widely dispersed in the environment, may endanger the biotic world. Pollutants are the general term for such substances. Environmental pollutants include zinc, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and others

(ii) Global Warming: Carbon dioxide (CO2) and other air pollutants and greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere and absorb sunlight and solar radiation that has bounced off the earth’s surface, causing global warming. Normally, this radiation would escape into space, but pollutants, which can linger in the atmosphere for years or centuries, trap the heat and cause the planet to heat up. This is referred to as the greenhouse effect.

(iii) Desertification: Desertification is a process that causes the productive areas of the tropical region to resemble a desert. Desertification, on the other hand, refers to the spread of deserts to their outskirts. For example, in the early 1970s, the environment of Africa’s Sahara desert became so dry that many animals died. People were also severely impacted.

Q 9. Explain the meaning of environmental problem.

Ans: The environmental problem refers to a state in which the order and law of the ecosystem are collapsed as the ecological function it originally had is destroyed due to the influence of human activities. These environmental problems arise from conflicts between nature and humans. So far, efforts have been made to identify the causes of these environmental problems and come up with solutions, but most of them have been technology-oriented. However, this technological approach cannot be an exception from the thermodynamic law that “no energy conversion process can expect 100% efficiency,” and the amount of dissipated energy below 100% efficiency is causing a number of environmental problems.

Q 10. Write geographical division of the environmental problems.

Ans: The geographical division of the environmental problems are:

(i) Global problem: The environmental issues that affect the entire world are termed as global problem. 

(ii) Regional problem: Regional problem exists in a large region or more nations.

(iii) Local problem: An environmental problem which affects only a particular place or a small area so far as  their genesis and spread are concerned is called a local environmental problem.

Q 11. Mention the major environmental problems of the world.

Ans: Environmental issues are the harmful effects of human activities on the environment. These include pollution, overpopulation, waste disposal, climate change, global warming, the greenhouse, Desertification, Artificial floods, Increase in sea level effect, etc.

Q 12. Give the meaning of the pollution.

Ans: Pollution is defined as the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that results in negative change. Pollution can be in the form of chemicals or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, or pollutants, are either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. The process of contamination of the environment by harmful substance is called pollution. It is caused by adding or dumping of pollution into the environment.

Q 13. What is water? How does it occur?

Ans: Water is a tiny molecule. It consists of three atoms two of hydrogen and one of oxygen. Water molecules cling to each other because of a force called hydrogen bonding. It’s the reason why water can do amazing things.

It is a complex system that includes many different processes. Liquid water evaporates into water vapor, condenses to form clouds, and precipitates back to earth in the form of rain and snow. Water in different phases moves through the atmosphere. Liquid water flows across land, into the ground, and through the ground. Groundwater moves into plants and evaporates from plants into the atmosphere. 

Q 14. Write a short note on land pollution.

Ans: The degradation of the earth’s land surfaces, both above and below ground level, is referred to as land pollution.

Land is an important element of nature. It is an indispensable resource for human being. The development of human civilization has been possible mainly based on this resource. But this regrettable that the land is getting polluted due to basically human factors. 

Land loose its natural properties and fertility, when it comes into content with certain chemicals, poisonous metals, industrial wastes, radioactive substances, acid rain and so on.

Generally, modder farming practice, expanding industries and increasing deforestation are held mainly responsible for land pollution.

The modresization of agriculture encouraged the application of chemical liner, imgation, insecticides, etc, in the crop land. The application of chemical fertilisers causes change in the composition and properties.

The insecticides and weedicides applied in the fields destroy the helpful microbes and other life forms in addition to she takegested insects and weeds.

All these pollute the land by changing its natural properties. The industrial wastes and chemical substances also pollute land, if they get mixed with the soils.

The remains of cat and petroleum also pollute land when these are extracted from below the surface without proper case.

Thus land pollution has become a widespread problem in most parts of the world.

Q 15. Write how air is polluted.

Ans: Environmental changes are caused by the natural or artificial content of harmful pollutants and can cause instability, disturbance, or adverse effects on the ecosystem. Earth and its environment pose a more serious threat due to the increasing pollution of air, water, and soil. Environmental damage is caused by improper resource management or careless human activities. Therefore, any activity that violates the original nature of the environment and leads to degradation is called pollution. We need to understand the origin of these pollutants and find ways to control pollution. This can also be done by raising awareness of the effects of pollutants.

Air pollution is any physical, chemical, or biological change in the air. A certain percentage of the gas is present in the atmosphere. Increasing or decreasing the composition of these gasses is detrimental to survival. This imbalance in gas composition causes an increase in global temperature which is called global warming.

Environmental changes are caused by the natural or artificial content of harmful pollutants and can cause instability, disturbance, or adverse effects on the ecosystem. Earth and its environment pose a more serious threat due to the increasing pollution of air, water, and soil.

Q 16. What is a desert? Give the definition of desertification.

Ans: A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the Earth is arid or semi-arid.

Desertification is the degradation process by which a fertile land changes itself into a desert by losing its flora and fauna, this can be caused by drought, deforestation, climate change, human activities or improper agriculture. Desertification is a process of degradation of the land. It occurs because of man-made activities and climate change. Desertification takes place when a particular type of biome converts into a desert biome.

Q 17. Mention the cause of desertification.

Ans: The causes of desertification are:

Natural desertification causes are:

(i) Climate change.

(ii) Drought.

(iii) Natural disaster.

The human activities that cause desertification are:

(i) Deforestation, causes of which go beyond tree felling, which increases the risk of fires, among others.

(ii) Poor agricultural practices, from not rotating crops to unprotected soils or chemical fertiliser and pesticide use, etc.

(iii) Overexploitation of natural resources as a consequence, for example, of irresponsible management of vegetation or water.

(iv) Bad livestock practices, such as overgrazing, which severely erode the land and prevent the regeneration of vegetation.

Q 18. Is it possible to control desertification? 

Ans: Some Important steps to control desertification:

(i) Integrating land and water management to protect soils from erosion, salinization, and other forms of degradation irrigation of land and water management should be done frequently. 

(ii) Use of land should be integrated for grazing and farming where conditions are favorable, allowing for a more efficient cycling of nutrients of the agricultural systems.

(iii) Applying a combination of traditional practices with locally acceptable and locally adapted land use technologies.

(iv) Managing dryland resources effectively and giving local communities the capacity to prevent desertification. livelihoods should not be dependent on traditional land uses, there should be some alternative methods such as dryland aquaculture, greenhouse agriculture and tourism-related activities.

Q 19. What is global warming? Mention its causes.

Ans: Global warming is a gradual, long-term increase in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect where gasses from various human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels, trap heat from solar radiation.

Natural Causes of Global Warming:

Forest Blazes: Forest blazes or forest fires emit a large amount of carbon-containing smoke. These gases are released into the atmosphere and increase the earth’s temperature resulting in global warming.

Volcanoes: Volcanoes are one of the largest natural contributors to global warming. The ash and smoke emitted during volcanic eruptions goes out into the atmosphere and affects the climate.

Melting Permafrost: Permafrost is frozen soil that has environmental gases trapped in it for several years and is present below Earth’s surface. It is present in glaciers. As the permafrost melts, it releases the gases back into the atmosphere, increasing Earth’s temperature.

Water Vapour: Water vapour is a kind of greenhouse gas. Due to the increase in the earth’s temperature, more water gets evaporated from the water bodies and stays in the atmosphere adding to global warming.

Q 20. What are probable consequences of global warming?

Ans: The probable consequence of global warming are: (i) Melting of show in the polar wears, (ii) Rise of sea level, (iii) Change in the growth and distribution of plants and animals, (iv) Fall of crop output, (v) Desertification etc.

Q 21. Write how to control global warming. 

Ans: Following measures should be taken to control global warming:

(i) Adjust your thermostat: Moving your thermostat down just 2 degrees in winter and up 2 degrees in summer could save about 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year.

(ii) Plant a tree: A single tree will absorb one ton of carbon dioxide over its lifetime.

(iii) Change a light: Replacing one regular light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb will save 150 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. 

(iv) Drive less: Walk, bike, carpool or take mass transit more often. You’ll save one pound of carbon dioxide for every mile you don’t drive!

(v) Recycle more: You can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide per year by recycling just half of your household waste.

(vi) Check your tires: Keeping your tires inflated properly can improve your gas mileage by more than 3 percent. Every gallon of gasoline saved keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere.

(vii) Avoid products with a lot of packaging: You can save 1,200 pounds of carbon dioxide if you reduce your garbage by 10 percent.

(viii) Use less hot water: It takes a lot of energy to heat water. Use less hot water by taking shorter and cooler showers and washing your clothes in cold or warm instead of hot water (more than 500 pounds of carbon dioxide saved per year).

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