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Class 10 History Elective Chapter 6 Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period
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Essay Type Questions:
Q 1. Meantion the factors responsible for the rise and growth of liberation movements in the colonies of Asia?
Ans The liberation movement in the colonies of colonies of Asia started in the beginning of the 20th century. Several developments and factors were responsible for the emergence of national upsurge in these colonies.
Following are the main factors responsible for the rise and growth of liberation movement in n the colonies of Asia.
(i) political unity : Almost all he imperialist and colonial powers, soon after conquering the various parts of the colonial brought political unity for the sake of the easy unity was administration and quick movement of troops.political unity was the first step to freedom movement. Political unity brought national consciousness, a sense of unity and a feeling of one nation among the people of the colonies.
(ii) Education : The education system introduced by the colonial and imperial powers, inculcated lessons on democracy, Democratic principles and ideals, individual freedom and liberty, civil and political rights, liberalism, etc. The noble ideals propagate by the French Revolution, the American Revolution and the Russian Revolution came to be accepted by the educated class.within a short period time education middle class became the torch bearers of freedom movement in their colonies.
( iii) The Second World war : One of the inevitable results of the second World war was that most of the imperial powers such as England, Germany, Italy, Holland, France, portugal, etc. Lost their former economic power as a result of the heavy destruction caused by the war. They became economically week and military subdued. They were not in a position to resist the rising national upsurge in the colonies.
(iv) Influence of the Russian Revolution : There is no denying the fact that many of the Asian countries were much influence by the October revolution of 1917 in Russia. The ideals of Marxism as shown by the success of the Russian Revolution were a great example to the colonies. The principles outline by the Revolution became the guiding principles for the freedom fighters in these colonies.
(v) Influence of freedom movement : The Indian freedom movement exerted a great influence on the freedom struggle movement in many colonies of Asia and Africa. The peaceful freedom struggle movement undee the leadership of mahatma gandhi became a role model for many of the colonies. The various methods of protest and agitation adopted by the Indian National Congress in India were copied by the leaders in their respective colonies.
(vi) support of the UNO: The support of the UNO in the national movement of the colonies for freedom was a great factor that quickened the granting of independence by imperialist countries. Countries such as Buram, Thailand.vietnam and korea received a lot of support from the UNO and in case of korea and Vietnam, the UNo actively supported the freedom struggle Movement.
Q 2. Give a brief review of the history of liberation movement in the Asian countries.
Ans : The fall the Fascists and japan in 1945 quickened the freedom movement in the Asian countries like India, pakistan, Burman , Vietnam, China, Indonesia, sri Lanka, etc. The war of liberation from the colonial and imperial powers started soon after the frist world war in many of the colonies of Asia and reached a high pitch after the second World war . The liberation movements in some of the Asian countries are ;
(i) india : British conquered the whole of India, soon after their victory at plassey in 1757. The first major residentace against the British was the sepoy mutiny which broke out in 1857and 1858 . Though this revolt did not succeed in throwing out the minds of the indians . In 1885 , Allan octavian Hume started the Indian National Congress to channelize the liberation movement in a proper manner without causing harm to the British government. By 1919, the liberation movements came under mahatma gandhi, Who Organized three mass movement for the liberation of the country. These were :
(a) The Non-cooperation movement of 1920.
(b) The civil Disobedience movement of 1930.
(c) The Quit India movement of 1942.
(ii) Buram : The British attempt to conquer Burama lef to the first Anglo – Burmese war of 1824. This was Second World by two more wars in leater years. During the second World war, Burma was conquered by japan. This forced the people of Burama to Organize a liberation movement against the Japanese. This movement was led by Aung san and U Nu. After the Japanese defeat, Burma was reoccupied by the British. Therefore, the Burmese lenders fought against the British forcing the British to grant freedom to this country on 4 January 1948. Though Aung San was murdered on 19 July 1947, U Nu took up the banner of liberation struggle and got freedom for his country on 4 January 1948 from the British Colonialism.
(iii) Indonesia : Indonesia formerly known as the the East Indies consisted of 13,500 islands of which only 6, 000 are suitable for habitation. The Dutch were the earliest foreigners to colonize Indonesia. The people of Indonesia Organized a liberation movement against Dutch imperialism under the leadership of Hadiningrat and Raden Adjang kartini. Several political organization came up in the 20th century which fought for the freedom of the country. Another important leader was Ahmed the ‘Indonesian national Association in 1927. Under his leadership, the liberation struggle became a mass upheaval forcing the Dutch authorities to grant freedom to Indonesia on 2 December 1949
(iv) sri Lanka: the Portuguese were the first colonize Sri Lanka. Kater, the Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch and finally the country came Under the British in 1796 and in 1802, it became a crown colony of britan. Soon after the first world war, there started a liberation movement in Sri Lanka on the lines of the Indian freedom movement. The liberation movement in Sri Lanka was led by a political party named the ‘ Cylon National Congress’. This party was able to Organize the masses against the British and and as a result the British introduced some reforms such as Constitutional democracy, dominion status, etc. But , the people were not happy with these superficial changes and demanded total freedom. Finally, the British granted independence to Sri Lanka on 4 February 1948.
(v) other countries: The japanese conquered Thailand, philippines and Malaya during the second World war. But, the defeat of Japan in the war resulted in the emergence of several liberation movement in these countries. Eventually, most of These countries became independent.
|Chapter 1||Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism|
|Chapter 2||The First World War|
|Chapter 3||The World War Between the Two World Wars: 1919 – 1939|
|Chapter 4||The Second World War|
|Chapter 5||The United Nations Organization|
|Chapter 6||Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period|
|Chapter 7||The Non-Aligned Movement|
|Chapter 8||Foreign policy of India|
Q 3. Natrrate briefly the course of the Indian freedom movement.
Ans : The course of the Indian freedom movement is discussed here under :
(i) Beginning of the Indian freedom movement : The Indian freedom movement started with the first war of independence which took place in May, 1857. Within a hundered years, the whole of India came under the British Control and dominion. The economic exploitation, political unity brought by the British, spread of western education, development of better transport and communication, etc.led to a national akwaking in the country towards the beginning of the 20th century. This resulted in the channel the political demands of the people of India, Allan channel the political demands of the people of Indiay Allan octavian Hume, a retired British official, started the Indian National Congress in 1885. From 1885 to 1905, this party was able to organize the educated people to fight for better governance in the country. Their chief means were prayer, petition and protests. However, the British attempt to divide the nationalists particularly from Bengal created a political turmoil in the country. Lord Curzon’s attempt to divide bengal into two parts resulted in the Swadeshi and Anti- partition movements. Both the movements, brought a large number of Indians into the national movement for freedom.
(ii) Arrival of Mahatma Gandhi : The arrival of Mahatma Gandhi on the political scene of india in 1919, changed the course of Indian freedom struggle movement. He infused a new sprint into the movement and launched a new method of fighting against the British. His chief method was non- violence or satyagraha. Within a few years, he became the Indian freedom movement passed through three important stages :
(a) The Non-cooperation movement : A movement Organized by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920 to expel the British from the Indian soil by a mass movement wherein the people were asked not to cooperate with the British in any its services to boycott educational institutions,law courts, legislature, not to pay texes , to give up foreign cloths, to surrender all British- given titles and honours, to practice hand spinning and weaving, to offer resignation from government services, etc. The movement was a great success. But, Gandhi called off the Non- cooperation movement in 1922, when the movement turned violent.
(b) The civil Disobedience movement : in 1930, Mahatma Gandhi Organized the second mass movement named the civil disobedience movement. It began with his March from his ashram at Sabarmati to Dani with the object of breaking Salt laws issued by the British. The movement became an all India movement and greatly boosted the National spirit.
(c) The Quit India movement : The third mass movement named the Quit India movement was started in Mumbai in August, 1942. During this movement, the political leaders asked the British to go back or quit India for good and leave India to the Indians. This movement too became a grand success abd the British realized that they would not be able to stay long in India.
(iii) Beginning of the communal policy : when the British realized that the Indian National Congress had become very powerful, they started to follow the’divide and rule’ policy. With this in view, they helped the starting of the ‘ Muslim league: by some prominent Muslim leaders. They introduced communal representation and gave all support to Muslim league as bulwark against the Congress. The result of policy was the division of india into India and Pakistan. India got freedom on 15 August 1947 while pakistan became a free nation on 14 August 1947.
Q 4. Discuss the history of independence movement of Indonesia.
Ans : Indonesia formerly known as East Indies was colonized by the Dutch. The terrible economic hardship caused by the Dutch colonists forced the people of Indonesia to start a war of liberation. The first movement for liberation was started by Hadiningrat and Raden Adjang kartini. This was the first stage of the independence movement in Indonesia. From the second decade of the twentieth century, the nationalist movement in Indonesia took a definite shape. During this time , several political parties came up. The most prominent among them were parties came up. The most prominent among them were sarekat lslam, Muhammadiyah, ‘ Indische Social- Demokratiche Vereeniging.’ etc. These political organizations aroused political consciousness in the country. This was the second stage of the Indonesian freedom movement.
The third stage of the movement started when students of the country started joining the political movement. Under the leadership of the students, small groups or units were formed in different parts of the country. This resulted in the formation of the ‘perserikatan komunist India’ . This communist organizations was able to arouse the national felling and bring thousands of people into thr the fold of agitation. Two of its important leaders were Dekker and Ahmed Sukarno. They Association.’ From 1931 onwards, this party played a key role movement of the country. Under the banner of the ‘association of political Organization of the lndonesian people’, Sukarno tried to bring some kind of unity among the various political parties in the country. Meanwhile, the Dutch rulers let loose a reign of suppression against the political leaders and against the political activities in the country.
During the second World war , Indonesia was conquered by japan . Immediately after the fall of Japan in the war , the freedom fighters of Indonesia declared that independence of their country on 17 August 1945 in Jakarta . But , soon after the war , the Dutch returned to Indonesia and reoccupied the country. as a result , the people of Indonesia were forced to take up the liberation movement once again on a strong note. However, the Dutch countinued their former policy of repression and suppression of the people’s rights and spirit. This time , however, the world opinion went against of the people of Indonesia forcing Holland to grant independence to Indonesia on 2 December 1949Sukano became the first President of free Indonesia.
Q 5. Give a brief review of the political situation in china following the first world war.
Ans : During the first world war , China joined the Allies with the hope that she would get freedom from the Japanese Domination.However , when the war ended in 1919, the Alied Powers gave recognition to japanese right and rights and privileges in china. This led to the starting of the resistance Movement against the Japanese in china as well as. Against the other foreign powers occupying China. But , the government tried to suppress this mass upsurge. They arrested nearly 1150 students. But, the movement carried on a strong spirit all over the country. This movement came to be known as the ‘ New culture Movement.’
Meanwhile, the success of the October revolution of 1917 in Russia exerted a great influence on the Chinese liberation movement making them realize the futility of democratic methods of obtaining freedom. As a result, Communism began to spread al over China particularly among the Chinese students. The Communist party of China held its first conference at Shanghai in July, 1921. One of its founding leaders was Mao – Tse- Tung. Soon after this conference, many branches of the Communist party were opened in different parts of China.
Meanwhile, taking advantage of the weakness of the central government in Peking, the leader of the provincial governments, manily the warlords declared war against the Central government.
Most of the provincial rulers wanted to remain free and independent. Thus, China was on the brink of losing her National unity and integrity. During this time, Dr sun Yat-Sen kept the revolutionary elements in china United and tried to fight against the Chinese warlords in the interest of maintaining national unity of the country. He was able to establish some sort of unity between soviet- guided Communists party of China and the Nationalist party led by him. For some time , the Communists too joined the effort to bring peace in the country. Dr sun Yat-Sen established the Nationalist government at canton on 1 July 1925 and peaking was captured in june 1928by Chiang kai- shek ,a trusted follower of Dr sun Yat-Sen. The United States of America gave recognition to this Nationalist government and soon Many countries followed suit.However, within a short time, a civil war brok out between the Communists and the Kuomintang party or the Nationalist party in china.
Therefore, when japan conquered Manchuria in 1931, the Chinese government could do very little title. In the growing japanese aggression on China, the Nationalist government of Chiang kai-shek followed a policy of appeasement towards japan and tried to liquidate the Communists power rather fight against the Japanese.
Q 6. Give a brief review of the Revolution culmination in the Establishemeant of the people’s Republic of china in October 1949.
Ans : Dr sun Yat-Sen was able to establish a Nationalist government at canton on 1 July 1925. Soon thereafter, There started a civil war between the Nationalist forces and the Communist forces led by Mao- Tse- Tung. In june 1928, the Nationalist under Chiang kai- shek captured peaking and established their control over the central government. The United States of America gave recognition to this government and soon Many other countries followed suit. Japan attacked Manchuria in 1931and established a puppet government over there. The Japanese dud not remain satisfied with Manchuria alone. They started conquereing the areas close to Manchuria including the rich province of jehol and thereafter reached the proximity of the great Wall. In the face of growing japanese aggression, the nationalist government Under Chiang kai- shek followed a policy of appeasement. The central government was more concerned about liquidating the Communists than the Japanese. This caused a political turmoil in the country. The intellectuals, students, youth, the workers and the peasants, all realized the need of the hour was anti- japanese front and started an organization named the ‘ National Salvation Association’ in 1936. People stared a residentace movement against the Japanese and asked both the Communists and the nationalists to fight against the Japanese. But , the Nationalist government refused to do so.
The government in Nanking fell before the Japanese in 1937 and thereafter they occupied the whole Yangtze valley forming a provincial government of their own in peaking. Within a short time, a great part of China came under the Japanese control. Therefore when the second World war broke out , the Communists headed by Mao – Tse-Tung organized a war of liberation from the Japanese and from the nationalist government. After the war ended, the Communists started to fight against the Nationalist government. Being supported by united states of America in nen and materials including arms and ammunition, the nationalist were victorious against the Communists in early stage, but gradually they had to suffer defeats one after the other in the hands of the communist later. By the year 1949 , the Communist liberated the whole of China from the nationalist government. Thereafter, Mao- Tes- Tung declared China as a ‘people’s Republic of china’ on 1 October 1949. The new state of China was immediately recognized by the Soviet Union and other East European Communist countries. In the meantime, Chiang kai- shek along with his followers lefts China for Formosa (Taiwan) and established a national government over there.
Q 7. Briefly the background of the history of liberation movement in Africa.
Ans: The African continent was under colonial rule for a long period of time. This resulted in the emergence of several anti-colonial liberation movement in Africa. The economic exploitation , spread of education , racial discrimination , infulance of Indian freedom struggle movement , infulance of Marxism, support of the UNO, etc. Were some of the factors that prepared the ground for the liberation movement in Africa. The liberation movements in Africa is discussed below:
(i) Ghana : Ghana is a small country of Africa situated on the shore of the Guinea sea in south Atlantic Ocean.
(ii) Congo : Congo was colonized by Belgium and soon it became the personal property of king Leopold ll of liberation started in Congon under the leadership of Patrice Lumumba. He Organized a political organization named the ‘Congoless National movement’. The Belgium the government tride to suppress this movement for freedom with all their might. Patrice Lumumba was able to get mass support.Even the people in the Belgium armed forces rose in rebellion in several places in support of the Congo’s freedom and interational pressure, the Belgium government granted independence to Congon on 30 June 1960. This country came to be known as Zaire from 27 October 1971.
(iii) Algeria : Algeria was colonized by France. During the second World war General Charles de Gaulle organized a residentace movement against the Fascists in Algeria on condition that after the war got over Algeria would become free from France. But , after the vend of the war, the government of France under general de Gaulle refused to grant freedom. This forced the people of Algeria to begin a war of liberation against the French. The Algerian freedom movement was organized by Mohammad Ahmad Ben Bella. He managed to escape to Cairo in 1952 And Algeria in 1954. The National liberation front declared independence in 1958 and formed a provincial ruthless repression against the freedom fighters and pressurized by the international community, General de Gaulle held a referendum in France in 1960 on the France voted overwhelmingly in favour of granting freedom to Algeria. Therefore, Franch granted independence to Algeria on 3 july 1962 and Mohammad Ahmad Ben Bella became the first prime minister of independent Algeria.
(iv) Namibia : Namibia was colonized by Germany . In 1915, Namibia became part of south africa. After the second World war , the Namibians Organized the ‘ South Western African people’s Organisation’ ( SWAPO) for Naibia to fight for the freedom of their country from south africa. The struggle continued for many years. The Namibians were support to their cause. Finally , south granted independence to Namibia on 21 March 1990.
(v) Nigeria : Nigeria is situated on the coastline of Guinea sea in the south Atlantic Ocean. It became a British colony in 1899. Soon the people under the leadership of certain western educated person started a war of liberation from Britain. The main lender of this movement was Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe . As a result of the nation movement for freedom, Nigeria got independence on 1 October 1960 from the British imperialism.
Q 8. Discuss the course of the anti- Apartment movement in south Africa with its results.
Ans : south Africa was British colony. It comprises of four separate colonies.soon after the freedom of movement of the Union of south africa comprising the four white colonies in 1910 , the government initiated a discriminatory policy know as the policy of apartheid in south Africa. The blacks who constitiuted the majority of the population could not enjoy the political rights and other rights like the minority white people men , the British and the Dutch. On 31 may 1910, General Louis Both became the prime minister of south africa. The genesis of the policy of apartheid was marked in Rights he Botha’s administration. The policy by which the south African black people suffered political, economic, social, educational and cultural deprivation and negation of basic human rights and privileges came to be known as the ‘policy of Apartheid.’
The policy of Apartheid was started first by James Barry munnik Hertzog. Je is considered to be the father of the policy of apartheid. He also founded the ‘ Nationalist party’ which advocated the principle of apartheid in every sphere of south africa life . Even after attaining full Independence from Britain in 1961, the black Who constitude nearly 80% to85% of the total population had to suffer all types of discrimination at the hands of the 15% to 20% of the whites. Therefore, the black people of south Africa began to Organize themselves against this ruthless policy of apartheid . The fight against the policy of apartheid was mainly Organized by the African National Congress (ANC) founded by Nelson Mandela screening n 1912.
This party was much influence by the Activities of the the Indian National Congress and the various national movement Organized by Mahatma Gandhi in India to achieve freedom for India from the British. Soon, the white rulers of south Africa started a period of oppression and suppression of the political activities of the blacks and thousands were put behind the bars. Nelson Mandela was arrested ànd put in prison in 1963. For the next 27 years, he was kept in jail to prevent him from organizing and political movement against the white dominanted minority. The world community particularly the UNO, raised voice against this inhuman repression of the blacks by the white people of south africa. Many countries including India condemned such of the international pressure, the south African government. As a result of the international pressure, the south African government finally released all the the political prisoners and allowed them to take part in the general all the political prisoners and allowed them to take part in the general election in the country. As a result, the ANC was able to secure majority of the seats in the election held in April 1994. Consequently, Nelson Mandela became the president of south africa on 10 may 1994, ushering a new chapter in the history of south africa.
Q 9. Discuss the history of the emergence of the Arab nationalism Under Nasser of Egypt.
Ans : For a long time, Egypt had been ruled by kings. The monarchical from of government was abolished by General Neguib who chaptured power in July 1952. Whithin two years, Colonel gamel Abdel Nasser organised a successful military the coup against president Neguib and Captured power becoming the president of Egypt.
Soon after becoming the president, he tried to Organized the Arab nations against Israel Which had been curved out of Palestine on 14 may 1948. The new state of Israel was a threat to their existence and so the Arab nations under the leadership of Nasser started to Organized themselves into a strong Regional group to fight against America – backed Israel. In July 1956, Abdle Nasser nationalized the Suez canal With a view to get some revenue. This was challenged by England and France which had spent considerable amount of money in building The canal. Therefore, they declared war on Egypt. Soon Israel joined this war. The war continued for several years. Egypt was helped by most of the other Arab nations. It ended in what is known as the ‘Six day war ‘ in 1967. But unfortunately , the war ended in the defeat of the Arab nations.
To counter the repeated attacks b Israel, a league of the under the initiative of Abdel Nasser on 1 February 1958.
However, the plan did not work as Syria withdrew from this league soon after its formation nevertheless, Abdel Nasser remained a champion of Arab causes and fought for the independence of the Arab nations. He wanted to liquidate Israel succeed in his mission, he was able to bring about certain level of unity and cohesion among the Arab nations. His death in 1970, created a vacuum in Arab politics. He was indeed one of the great leader of the Arab nationalism.
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