Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 6 Regional Geography of India

Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 6 Regional Geography of India Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 6 Regional Geography of India and select needs one.

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Class 10 Geography Elective Chapter 6 Regional Geography of India

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given SEBA Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 6 Question Answer Regional Geography of India, Elective Geography Class 10 SEBA Question Answer for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Regional Geography of India

Chapter : 6

Textual Questions And Answers

Q1. Give a brief introduction to India.

Ans: India is one of the leading countries of Asia. It lies in the northern hemisphere of the world. It is one of the largest democratic nations. The most noticeable characteristic of India is its diversity which is seen in its physical features, race, culture, language, religion, social customs, dress, food habits, etc. India has snow-capped mountain ranges of the Himalayas as well as the sandy deserts of Rajasthan. Floods occur frequently in many parts of the country while some other parts suffer great hardship due to drought.

The northern part of India lies in the temperate region while the southern part lies in the tropical region. India has lofty mountains and peaks and at the same time it has extensive plains and plateaus. In other words, Indian landmass is characterised by varied landforms such as mountains, hills, plateaus, plains, floodplains, etc. Similarly, one can notice great diversity in race, language and religion. Indians belong to a variety of racial groups such as Austro-Asiatic, Mongoloids, Aryan and Dravidian groups of people. Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, etc. flourish in this country. Despite these diversities, one can see a spirit of national unity in the country. This unity is brought about by common physical landforms, monsoon climate, modern transport and communication system, trade and commerce, national freedom struggle movement, and a unified administration growth in recent years.

Q2. Discuss the characteristics relating to India’s location and size.

Ans: India is situated in the southern part of the continent of Asia India is surrounded by the Himalayas and China in the north, the Indian Ocean and Sri Lanka in the south, the Bay of Bengal and Myanmar in the east and the Arabian Sea and Pakistan in the west. It extends from Kashmir in the north to Kanniyakumari in the south and from Arunachal Pradesh in the east to Saurashtra in the west. India lies between 8°4 28 N 37°17 53 N lines of latitudes and 68°7 33 E and 97°24 47 lines of longitudes. The Tropic of Cancer divides the country into northern and southern halves. 

The northern part lies in the temperate climatic zone while the southern part falls under tropical zone. The north to south length of India is 3,214 km while the east-west length is about 2,933 km. It has a total coastline of 6,100 km while its landline boundary length is over 15,200 km. It shares a common boundary with Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and Bangladesh. The total geographical area of India is 32,87,263 million sq.km. which makes it the 7th largest country in the world. India’s share in the total land area of the world is only 2.2%. Today, India consists of 28 states and 7 union territories.

Q3. Into how many physiographic divisions India can be divided? Discuss with diagrams.

Ans: India is marked by several physiographic diversities. The main physiography of India consists of mountains, hills, river, valleys, plains, plateaus, etc. About 10.7% of India’s total land area is covered by mountains, 18.6% by hills and hillocks, 27.7% by plateaus and 4.3% by plains. On the basis of physiographic characteristics, India can be divided into four divisions :

Q4. Describe the physiographic divisions of India. 

Ans: India can be divided into the following four physiographic divisions on the basis of its physiographic characteristics :

(i) The Northern Himalayas : The Himalayan region of India lies in the northern part of India and it extends from Nanga Parbat in Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh in the east covering a distance of 2,500 km. It has an average widht of 240 km to 500 km. The total geographical area of the Himalayas were formed during the Tertiary period and are a result of nearly 7 million years of mountains building process. The Himalayas consists of three parallel ranges running from east to west, namely the higher Himalayas, the lesser Himalayas and the outer Himalayas. Among these three ranges, the higher Himalayas have an average height is 4,000 m. Its widht varies from 60 to 80 km. The adjacent ranges of lesser Himalayas are the outer Himalayas. The average height of this range is 1,000 m.

(ii) The Northern Plains : The northern plain lies between the Himalayas in the north and the Deccan plateau in the south. It extends from Assam in the east to the Indo-Pakistan border in the west with a length of 2,400 km and width ranging from 240 km to 320 km. This vast plain is known as Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra plain. The northern plain can be divided into five parts :

(a) Western plain;

(b) Punjab-Haryana plain;

(c) North Bengal plain;

(d) North Bengal plain.

(e) Brahmaputra.

The three main rivers, namely the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra with their innumerable tributaries together created this vast plain. Among these rivers, the most important river is Ganges which originates from the Gangotri glacier of the higher Himalayas while the Brahmaputra originates from a glacier called Chema-yu-Dung located in the Tibetan plateau of China. The most important tributaries of the Ganges are Alakananda, (Yamuna), Ram Ganga, Gomti, Ghagra, Gandak, Son, Kishi, etc. while the main tributaries of the Brahmaputra are Subansuri, Jia Bharali, Dhansiri (north), Dhansiri (south), Puthimari, Manas, Burhi Dihing, Disang, Dikhow, Kapili, Krishnai, etc. The important tributaries of Indus are Sutlej, Beas and Ravi rivers. Towards the west of the central plain, there is a small desert named the Thar desert. The entire plain is very fertile and highly suitable for agriculture. Hence, this region is thickly populated.

(iii) The Deccan plateau : is situated to the south of the north Indian plain. This plateau mostly consists of the old hard rocks. The Vindhya. Satpura, Mahadev and Mahakal mountains divide the whole region into northern and southern parts. The northern part is less extensive and extends from the Vindhya-Satpura ranges to Cape Comorin. The Deccan plateau on the whole slopes towards the east and so most of the rivers of this region such as Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Pennar and Kaveri flow eastwards into the Bay of Bengal while Narmada and Tapti flow towards west and empty themselves in the Gulf of Combay (Khambhat).

(iv) The coastal region : There is a strip of coast of India. The narrow strip of area lying between the western coast of India. The narrow strip of area lying between the Western Coastal plain. Its northern part is called Konkan Coast while the southern part is known as Malabar Coast. The area lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal is known as the Eastern Coastal plain. The southern part of this coast is called Coromandal Coast while the northern part is known as Northern Circars. The eastern coastal region is watered by rivers such as Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna and (Kaveri). It is not as fertile as the western coastal plain. The rivers of this area have deltas. 

Q5. Describe briefly the climatic characteristics of India.

Ans: The climate of a place is greatly influenced by various factors such as the size of the country, distance from the equator, nearness to the sea, differences in elevation, natural vegetation, winds, etc. The climate of India is also much influenced by these elements of nature. On the whole, the climate conditions of India are characterised by the following features :

(i) Varied climate : India is a very vast country with varied physiographic features such as mountains, hills, river valleys, plains, plateaus, coastal regions, etc. India has snow-capped mountainous regions, regions with desert conditions, places that receive very high amount of rain, etc. Thus, India is marked by various types of climate.

(ii) Different climatic situation between north and south : The Tropic of Cancer which runs across the middle of India, divides the country into northern and southern parts. The northern part falls in the temperate climate zone while the southern part has tropical climate. Hence, the southern part of India is relatively warmer than the northern part.

(iii) Difference in attitude : Different places in India are situated at different levels from the sea level. One of the factors that greatly influence the climate of a place is the height from the sea level. That is why, Agra and Darjeeling enjoy different types of climate although both are located on the same latitude.

(iv) Effect of monsoon : One of the chief features of the climate of India is the influence of monsoon on the climate of the whole country. India gets most of its rains due to the south-west monsoon winds which blow from the Arabian Sea during summer. These are moisture laden winds and so they bring a great deal of rain to most parts of India. In winter, north-east monsoon winds bring rain to some parts of India.

(v) Effect of Himalayas : The climate of India is also greatly influenced by the presence of the Himalayas on the northern side. The Himalayas block the cold winds from Central Asia and this has insulated India from the extreme cold weather that most central Asian countries experience. Secondly, the Himalayan ranges in the north and north-east block the moisture laden winds coming from the Bay of Bengal and thereby bring about a great deal of rain to the country.

Q6. Explain how the monsoons affect the climate of India.

Ans: One of the unique features of the climate of India is the influence of the monsoons on India. In fact, it is considered to be the most significant factor that determines the climatic conditions of India. The monsoon winds named south-west monsoon winds bring rain to India during summer. These winds from the Arabian Sea move towards the Indian subcontinent during summer. Since they blow over the oceans, they carry enormous amount of moisture. As their flow is blocked by the Western Ghats situated on the western side of the country, these winds rise up, condense and then fall down as rain in the areas facing the western Ghats, these winds flow over the Bay of Bengal moving towards Assam and the North-east. 

Since there are no mountain ranges here, these winds come directly to the Meghalaya plateau which force them to rise up and condense. As a result, this region gets heavy rainfall during summer. The Cherrapunji region of Meghalaya gets the highest rainfall in the world (1250 cm of rainfall annually). Thereafter, the winds cross the Meghalaya plateau and enter Assam and its neighboring states. They then move further north and get obstructed by the foothills of the Himalayas. Therefore, this region too gets abundant rain.

During winter, the north-east monsoon winds coming from Central Asia enter India through the mountain gaps of the Himalayan ranges. Since these winds are dry and cold, they do not bring rain to the north-east states. As these winds move towards south, they fly over the Bay of Bengal carrying in the process a bit of moisture which falls down as rain over the Coromandal coast.

Q7. What are the major soil types found in India? Give short description of each type of soil.

Ans: Soil constitutes one of the important elements of physical environment. The development of agriculture, human settlement, mineral content, etc. of a place are greatly influenced by the type of soil. Different types of soil are found in different parts of India. On the basis of the nature of the soil are found in different parts of India. On the basis of the nature of the soil, we can find six categories of soil in India :

(i) Mountain soils : Mountain soils are normally found on hills and mountain ranges. The glaciers deposit a lot of sediments and these form glacial soils at the foothills of the mountains. Coniferous forests tend to grow in such soil. As a result of the decomposition of leaves and mixed with soil, the soil becomes acidic. This type of soil is called podzol. The mountain soils are not very fertile. In the foothills of the mountains only rocky soils are found and little vegetation grows over this type of soil.

(ii) Soils of the Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra plain : The Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra region has alluvial soil. The alluvial soil is formed by the deposition of silt by the rivers.

Two types of alluvial soils, namely new alluvial soil and old alluvial soil can be seen. New alluvial soil is found in the flood plains as well as on the river banks. These soils are free from salts and are extremely fertile due to humus content. The river valleys of Punjab, Haryana, Utter Pradesh, Bihar, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal and Assam have this type of soil. On the other hand, the old alluvial soil is relatively hard. As a result of chemical transformation and solidification process, these soils lose their fertility. Therefore, the use of fertilizers is necessary to regain their fertility. This type of soil is found in the plains of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Assam.

(iii) Desert soils: The desert soils are found in the Thar desert region of Rajasthan, Saurastra and Rann of Kutch. Desert soils are formed due to various processes of weathering. These soils are composed of a mixture of sand and rock materials and have a high content of nitrogen and less amount of organic matters. Hence, this type of soil is not fertile. In some places, desert soil is free from salt and in those regions cultivation is possible with the help of irrigation. Wheat, barley, etc. are cultivated in such soil.

(iv) Lava soil : The soils formed out of the lava deposits are known as lava soils. Lava soils are also called black soils. This type of soil is found in Maharashtra, western part of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and neighboring areas of Andhra Pradesh. One of the qualities of this soil is that they are able to retain moisture and hence suitable for agriculture. This type of soil is ideal for the cultivation of cotton, hence it is also known as cotton soil.

(v) Soils of Deccan plateau : The soils of Deccan plateau were formed as a result of weathering of the old Archaean and Cambrian rocks of the Deccan plateau. These soils are unable to retain water and so are not very good for agriculture by adding fertilizers. Laterite soil is also found in the Deccan. This is a hard and reddish type of soil. Such soils have high content of iron and aluminum. It is found in the Malabar coast and in the eastern parts of Chotanagpur plateau. The laterite type of soil is also found in the Nilgiri hills and Western Ghats. Laterite soils are best suited for the cultivation of tea and coffee.

(vi) Coastal soils : Riverine soils are found in the delta regions of the east coast of India. The sea waves normally deposit sand clay materials along the coastal regions forming coastal soils. Coastal soils being sandy soils are not very good for agriculture. Some alluvial soils and red laterite soils are also found in the coastal regions of Kerala and Karnataka.

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