Class 10 English Chapter 4 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

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Class 10 English Chapter 4 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 English Chapter 4 Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom

Chapter – 4



Multiple Choice Questions & Answers

1.____is called an autumn day in South-Africa?

(i) 10th July 

(ii) 10th May 

(iii) 10th March 

(iv) 10th October 

Ans. (ii) 10th May.

2. How many national anthem were sung in South- Africa? 

(i) Two 

(ii) Three

(iii) Four 

(iv) None of these

Ans. (i) Two.

3. South Africa is rich in –

(i) Coffee

(ii) Tourism

(iii) Gems and minerals

(iv) All of above 

Ans. (iii) Gems and minerals.

4. Nelson Mandela was –

(i) First black President of South Africa.

(ii) Second black President of South Africa.

(iii) Third black President of South Africa.

(iv) None of above

Ans. (i) First black President of SouthAfrica.

5. South-Africa became independent in the year-

(i) 1947 

(ii) 1964

(iii) 1994

(iv) 1995

Ans. (iii) 1994.

6. ANC stands for –

(i) Afghanistan National Congress 

(ii) Azerbaijan National Congress 

(iii) American National Congress 

(iv) African National Congress 

Ans. (iv) African National Congress.

7. ANC won ______seats out of_______

(i) 140,220 

(ii) 252,400 

(iii) 220,420 

(iv) 100,200

Ans. (ii) 252,400.

8. Zenani was______of Nelson Mandela.

(i) Wife 

(ii) Caretaker

(iii) Daughter

 (iv) None of these

Ans. (iii) Daughter.

9. A Non-racial government means-

(i) Which is based on skin-colour. 

(ii) Which is not based on skin colour.

(iii) Which is based on corruption. 

(iv) Which is not based on corruption. 

Ans. (ii) Which is not based on skin colour.

Oral comprehension check -1

1. Where did the ceremonies take place?  Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstone? 

Ans: The ceremonies took place in the sandstone amphitheatre Union Buildings in pretoria.

In India the Red Fort Supreme court and Parliament House are made of sandstone. 

2. Can you say how 10 may be an “autumn day” in South Africa? 

Ans: 10 May is an “autumn day ” in South Africa because of its weather and on this day freedom dawned in South Africa after 300 years of white rule. 

3. At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentioned “an extraordinary human disaster”. What does he mean by this?  What is the “glorious human achievement” he speaks of at the end? 

Ans: By “an extraordinary human disaster” Mandela means the white rule over the blacks in South Africa. “The glorious human achievement ” is the freedom of a black person. A black person became the president of a country where the blacks are not considered as human beings and are treated badly.

4. Why does Mandela thank the international leaders for? 

Ans: Mandela thanks the international leaders for having come to take possession native people of South Africa. It is a common victory for peace and human dignity.

5. What ideals he set out for the future of South Africa? 

Ans: He aims to liberate his people from various bondages, like poverty, deprivation, suffering. He also dreams of a society where there would be no discrimination based on gender or racial origins.

Oral comprehension check -2

1. What do the military generals do? How has their attitude changed, and why? 

Ans: The military generals saluted Mandela and pledged their loyalty. Their attitudes had changed because earlier they were under the rule of white supremacy. Now Mandela was their president . 

2. Why were two National Anthems Sung? 

Ans: Because of  the major races – the whites and the blacks. White sang ‘Nkosi- Sikelel- iAfrika’ and the black sang ‘Die Stem’ the old anthem of the republic. 

3. How does Mandela describe the ‘systems of government in his country 

(1) in the first decade, and 

(2) in the final decade of the twentieth century? 

Ans: Mandela describes the ‘system of government in his country’ 

(i) In the first decade of the 20th century, the whites erected a system of racial discrimination against the blacks.

(ii) In the final decade of the 20th century, the previous system had been overturned and replaced by one which recognised rights and freedom of all people regardless of the colour of their skin.

4. What does courage mean to Mandela? 

Ans: To Mandela courage is not the absence but the triumph over it. 

5. Which does he think is natural, to love or to hate? 

Ans: He thinks love is natural. 

Oral comprehension check -3

1. What “twin obligations” does Mandela mention? 

Ans: Nelson Mandela mentioned that everyone has two obligations :- 

(i) First one is man’s obligations to his family, his parents, his wife and his children.

(ii) And the second is to his people, his community and his country. 

2. What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student?  How does he contrast these ‘transitory freedoms’ with “The basic and honourable freedoms”?

Ans:. By being free as a boy Mandela meant to be free to wander, swim, run and roast meanies and also to ride bulls. But as a student he meant to be free to stay out at night and to study whatever he liked. In other words, live his life on his own terms. These he calls “transitory freedoms” because as a young man he realised that these are self-centred and meaningless. It was as a youth that he realised that he actually hungered for “the basic honourable freedoms”- the freedom of achieving his potential, the freedom of earning his livelihood, the freedom of marrying according to his wishes and having a family of his own. In short, the freedom to lead a lawful life without any obstructions.

3. Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? Why/why not? 

Ans: No, Mandela does not think that the oppressor is free. Because an oppressor is the prisoner of hatred. He feels that both the oppressor and the oppressed are robbed of their humanity.

Thinking about the text: 

1. Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration? What did it signify the triumph of? 

Ans: A large number of international leaders attended the inauguration to pay their respect to the new government. It signified the triumph of human dignity. 

2. What does Mandela mean when he says he is “simply the sum of all those African Parrots” who had gone before him? 

Ans: Mandela wants to pay his tribute to all the people who had sacrificed their lives for the sake of freedom. Mandela says so because he only followed the ideals of those African patriots who fought for the rights of his people. Mandela got the support of his people to be able to come to power to bring equality for his own people.

3. Would you agree that the “depths of oppression ” create “heights of character “? How does Mandela illustrate this? Can you add your own example to this argument? 

Ans: Yes, the depths of oppression creates “heights of character “. Mandela says that the decades of racial oppression made leaders like Oliver Tambo, Chief Luthuli, Yusuf Dadoo, Bram Fischer and Robert Sobukwe etc. 

The same thing was seen in India. Leaders like Gandhi ji, jawaharlal nehru, sardar Patel, Netaji, Lokmanya Tilak etc. Came out against oppression. 

4. How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience? 

Ans: Nelson Mandela realised that he had a lot of responsibilities to his people, his community and his country. As a boy, Mandela did not have a hunger for freedom because he thought that he was born free. He believed that as long as he obeyed his father and abided by the customs of his tribe, he was free in every possible manner.

5. How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life? 

Ans: Mandela’s hunger for freedom changed his life as it made him fight against racial injustice and become an advocate for civil rights. A law-abiding attorney because a criminal and a family loving man had to live like a monk. It also made him a great statesman. 

Thinking about Language: 

1. There are nouns in the text (formation, government) which are formed from the corresponding Verbs (from, govern) by suffixing = (at)ion or ment. There may be a change in the spelling of some verb – noun pairs: Such as rebel, rebellion; constitute; constitution. 

1. Make a list of such pairs of nouns and verbs in the text. 



liberation liberate

2. Read the paragraph below. Fill in the blanks with noun forms of the verbs in brackets. 

Martin Luther King’s —– (contribute)  to our history as an outstanding leader began when he came to the ——- (assist)  of Rosa parks, a seamstress who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger. In those days American blacks were confined to position of second class citizenship by restrictive laws and customs. To break these laws would mean ———- (subjugate) and ———- (humiliate) by the police and the legal system. Beatings, ———- (imprison) and sometimes death awaited those who defied the system. Martin Luther Kong’s tractors of protest involved non-violent ——– (resist) to racial injustice. 

Ans: Contribution; assistance; subjugation; imprisonment; resistance. 

2. Using the definite article with nouns. 

You know that the definite article ‘the’ is not normally used before proper nouns. Nor do proper nouns usually occur in the plural. (We do not say : The Nelson Mandela, or Nelson Mandelas) But now look at this sentence from the text:

——– the decades of oppression and brutality ——– produced the olive tambos, the Walter sisulus ——– of our time. 

Used in this way with the and/or in the plural, a proper noun carries a special meaning. For example, What do you think the names above mean? 

Choose the right answer

(a) for example Oliver Tambo, Walter sisulu ——-

(b)  many other men like Oliver Tambo, Walter sisulu ———/ many men of their type or kind, whose names may not be as well known. 

Did you choose option (b)? Then you have the right answer! 

Here are some more examples of ‘the’ used with proper names. Try to say what these sentences mean. (you may consult a dictionary if you wish. Look at the entry for ‘the’.)

1. Mr Singh regularly invites the Amitabh Bacchans and the Shah Rukh Khan’s to his parties. 

2. Many people think that Madhuri Dixit is the madhubala of our times. 

3. History is not only the story of the Alexander’s, the Napoleons and the Hitler’s but of ordinary people as well. 

Ans: To give special emphasis ‘the’ is used before proper names. 

1. Mr Singh invites important people like Amitabh Bacchan and Shah Rukh Khan. 

2. Madhuri Dixit is compared with madhubala. 

3. History is not only the story of great warriors like Alexander, Napoleon and Hitler but also the story of ordinary people. 

3. Idiomatic Expression 

Match the italicised phrases in column A with the phrases nearest in meaning in column B. (Hint : First look for the sentence in the text in which the phrase in Column A  occurs.) 

1. I was not unmindful of the fact.(i) had not forgotten; was aware of the fact.
(ii) Was not careful about the fact.
(iii) Forgot or was aware of the fact.
2. When my comrades and I were pushed to our limits(i) Pushed by the guards to the wall.
(ii) Took more than our share of beatings.
(iii) Felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer.
3. To reassure me and keep me going(i) Make me go on walking.
(ii) Help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation.
(iii) Make me remain without complaining.
4. The basic and honourable freedoms of…….. earning my keep(i) Earning enough money to live on.
(ii) Keeping what I earned.
(iii) Getting a good salary.

Ans: 1- (i) I was not unmindful of the fact.

2- (iii) Felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer. 

3- (ii) Help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation. 

4- (i) Earning enough money to live on


In groups, discuss the issues suggested in the box below. Then prepare a speech of about two minutes on the following topic. (First make notes for your speech in writing.) 

True liberty is freedom from poverty, deprivation and all forms of discrimination. 

*    Causes of poverty and means of overcoming it

*    Discrimination based on gender, religion, class, etc.. 

*    Constitutionally guaranteed Human Rights. 

Ans:   Notes

Causes : Poverty : No employment, illiteracy, superstitions, indifference of rules. 

Means of overcoming it : Create employment, literate people and get rid of inefficiency and superstitions. 


Respected principal, teachers and my dear friends, 

Today I am going to speak on the ’causes of poverty and means for overcoming it’. Poverty is a curse caused mainly by no-employment. Due to illiteracy and not acquiring skill of employment this occurs. It is also because of the agriculture based economy. To overcome poverty employment opportunities should be created through industrialization. The rate of literacy should be feared. Vocation education should come up. Liberation will help us to get rid of our superstitious beliefs. 

Do yourself the remaining two topics


1. Looking at contrast Nelson Mandela ‘s writing is marked by balance : many sentences have two parts in balance. 

Use the following phrases to complete the sentences given below. 

(i) They can be taught to love. 

(ii) I was born free. 

(iii) But triumph over it. 

(iv) But he who conquers that fear. 

(v) To create such heights of character. 

1. It requires such depth of oppression —_———

2. Courage was not the absence of fear———

3. ‘The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid ——–

4. If people can learn to hate——

5. I was not born with a hunger to be free——–

Ans: 1. – to create such heights of character. 

2. – But triumph over it. 

3. – But he who conquers that fear. 

4. – They can be taught to love. 

5. – I was born free. 

2.  This text repeatedly contrasts the past with the present or the future. We can use coordinated clauses to contrast two views, for emphasis or effect. Given below are sentences carrying one part of the contrast. Find in the text the second part of the contrast, and Complete each item. Identify the words which signal the contrast. This has been done for you in the first item.

1. For decades the union buildings had been the seat of white supremacy, and now _

2. Only moments before, the highest generals of the South African defence force and police _   saluted me and pledged their loyalty _. Not so many years before they would not salute _

3. Although that day neither group knew the lyrics of the anthem _ they would soon_

4. My country is rich in the minerals and gems that lie beneath its soil, _

5. The air show was not only a display of pinpoint precision and military force, but_

6. It was this desire for the freedom of my people _  that transformed _into a bold one, that drove _ to become a criminal, that turned _ into a man without a home.

Ans: 1. _ it was the site of a rainbow gathering of diff colours and nations for the installation of South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government.

2. _ but arrested me.

3. _ know the words by heart.

4. _ but I have always known that its greatest wealth is its people, finer and truer than the  purest diamonds.

5. _ a demonstration of the military’s loyalty to democracy, to a new government that had been freely and fairly elected.

6. _ a frightened young man __ a law – abiding attorney _a family – loving husband __

3. Expressing your opinion Do you think there is colour prejudice in our own country? Discuss this with your friend and write a paragraph of about 100 to 150 words about this. You have the option of making your paragraphs a humorous one. (Read the short verse given below.)

When you were born you were pink

When you grew up you became white

When you are in the sun you are red

When you are sick you are yellow

When you are angry you are purple

When you are shocked you are grey

And you have the cheek to call me ‘coloured’.

Ans:                          Colour Prejudice

Everyone knows well that there is no colour prejudice in our country. Racism exists in some western countries. The white-skinned people believe that they are superior to the black skinned people. The colour of skin is natural. One cannot change it. But the blood is red. In hospitals blood from  blacks is infused to the body of a white-skinned patient and vice-versa. A doctor never differentiates between whites and blacks.

Obviously man’s colour changes with the change of his mood.

Additional Questions & Answers

1. What did Mandela say about the wealth of his country?

Ans:- Mandela says that the greatest wealth of his country is its people. According to him, they are truer and finer than the purest diamonds. He also goes on to compare the wealth of gems and minerals, but then he feels the people of his nation are the greatest wealth compared to any other form of wealth.

2. Freedom is invisible, how does Mandela explain this observation of his.

Ans:- Mandela expressed that he could not enjoy the poor and limited freedoms that he was allowed when he knew that his people were not free. According to him, the chains on any one of his people i.e. the coloured people were chains on all of them and chains on all of his people were chains on him. He could not enjoy freedom when his own brothers and sisters were kept suppressed by the whites. This is how Mandela explained his observation “freedom is invisible.”

3. When did Mandela begin to hunger for freedom?

Ans:- Mandela began to hunger for independence in 1893. As he grew older, freedom to raise a family and freedom to earn livelihood started dominating his thoughts. Gradually, he realised that he was selfish during his boyhood. He slowly understood that it was not just his freedom that was being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks.

4. Write the name of two patriots before Mandela.

Ans:- The names of two patriots before Mandela are Oliver Tambo and Bram Fischer.

5. What does Mandela say about the inauguration gathering?

And:- The inauguration took place on the tenth of May, 1994 in the lovely sandstone  amphitheatre formed by the union Buildings in Pretoria. Mandela said that the inauguration gathering was the largest gathering ever of international leaders on South African Soil.

6. The oppressed and the oppressor like are robbed of their humanity? What makes Mandela say this?

Ans:- Mandela always thought that both oppressors and oppressed are deprived of their humanity. The oppressor is a prisoner of anger, while the oppressed have no confidence in humanity. Therefore, both of them need to be liberated. He always wanted people to live with dignity and respect.

7. What do you mean by apartheid? What is the full name of Nelson Mandela?

Ans:- Apartheid is a political system that separates people according to their race.

The full name of Nelson Mandela is Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela.

8. How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?

Ans:- As a boy Mandela enjoyed freedom to do activities of boyhood days. But as he grew up he felt that freedom was invisible.

9. When did Nelson Mandela become the president of South Africa?

Ans:- Nelson Mandela became the president of South Africa on 10th May, 1994.

10. What was the colour of the new South Africa flag?

Ans:- The colours of the new South African flag were – black, red, green, blue and gold.

11. How and when did freedom mean change to Nelson Mandela?

Ans:-  According to Nelson Mandela when he was born he was free, free in every way that he could know. Free to run in fields near his mother’s hut. Free to swim in the clear stream that ran through his village. Free to roast mealies under the stars and ride the board backs of slow – moving bulls. 

 Mandela began to learn that his boyhood freedom was an illusion. He understood that freedom had already been taken from him. He began hunger for freedom. He saw that not only his freedom was curtailed but the freedom of everyone looked alike. Freedom to his people to live their lives with dignity and self respect that animated Mandela’s life. 

A. Choose the correct options for the following:-

1. According to Mandela, the greatest wealth of south Africa is ____

(i) Diamonds

(ii) Trees

(iii) Golds

(iv) It’s people

Ans:- (iv) It’s people.

2. All of us will spend many years, if not generations, recovering from that Profound hurt.

(i) light and vain

(ii) Abnormal

(iii) Normal

(iv) deep and strong

Ans :- (iv) deep and strong

3. According to Mandela, freedom is.

(i) Divisible

(ii) Reversible

(iii) Indivisible

(iv) irreversible

Ans:- (iii) Indivisible.

4. I began to learn that my boyhood freedom was an…….

(i) Illusion

(ii) Intuition

(iii) Inspiration

(iv) All of the above

Ans:- (i) Illusion.

5. Depths of oppression create:

(i) Heights of character

(ii)Heights of success

(iii) Heights of ignorance

(iv) None of the above.

Ans:- (i) Heights of character.

6. ____ dawned bright and clear.

(i) Tenth July 

(ii) Tenth may

(iii) Fourth July

(iv) Fourth may

Ans:- (ii) Tenth may.

7. Who was sworn in as the second deputy president ?

(i) Nelson Mandela

(ii) Thabo Mbeki

(iii) Oliver Tambo

(iv) Mr de Klerk

Ans:- (iv) Mr de Klerk.

8. Which is the old national anthem of the republic of South Africa?

(i) Die stem

(ii) Nkosi sikelel-I Afrika

(iii) God save the king

(iv) la Marseilaise

Ans:- (i) Die stem.

9. According to Mandela, what comes more naturally to heart?

(i) Love

(ii) Hate

(iii) Freedom

(iv) Patriotism

Ans:- (i) Love.

 10. … Not just my freedom that was curtailed 

(i) increased

(ii) reduced

(iii) success 

(iv) ignorance 

Ans:-(ii) reduced.

11. The ceremonies took place___

(i) at Mandela’s house

(ii) in johannesburg

(iii) at the sandstone amphitheatre formed by the union building

(iv) in a village

Ans:- (iii) at the sandstone amphitheatre formed by the union building.

12. How many national anthems were sung in South- Africa? 

(i) Two 

(ii) Three

(iii) Four 

(iv) None of these

Ans. (i) Two.

13. South Africa is rich in –

(i) Coffee

(ii) Tourism

(iii) Gems and minerals

(iv) All of above 

Ans. (iii) Gems and minerals.

14. Nelson Mandela was –

(i) First black President of South Africa.

(ii) Second black President of South Africa.

(iii) Third black President of South Africa.

(iv) None of above

Ans. (i) First black President of SouthAfrica.

15.  South-Africa became independent in the year-

(i) 1947 

(ii) 1964

(iii) 1994

(iv) 1995

Ans. (iii) 1994.

16. ANC stands for –

(i) Afghanistan National Congress 

(ii) Azerbaijan National Congress 

(iii) American National Congress 

(iv) African National Congress 

Ans. (iv) African National Congress.

17. ANC won ___seats out of__

(i) 140,220 

(ii) 252,400 

(iii) 220,420 

(iv) 100,200

Ans. (ii) 252,400

18. How does Nelson Mandela define the meaning of courage?

(i) Triumph over selfish

(ii) Triumph over fear

(iii) Triumph over hate

(iv) Triumph over love

Ans:- (ii) Triumph over fear

19. Which is not true about the Apartheid

(i) Economic based

(ii) Means equality

(iii) Made laws

(iv) None of the above

Ans:- (ii) Means equality

20. What does “depths of oppression” create?

(i) Heights of character

(ii) lack of freedom

(iii) love

(iv) oppressed

Ans:- (i) Heights of character.

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