NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia

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NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia Solutions, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Biology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia

Chapter: 3




1. Mention one unique feature of bryophytes.

Ans. They complete their life cycle in water. and on land; hence they are called “amphibians of plant kingdom”.

2. Define alternation of generations.

Ans. There are two phases in life cycle of a plant like fern-sporophytic and gametophytic. Both alternate each other. It is called alternation of generations.

3. Name the male and female sex organs of bryophytes.

Ans. (i) Male sex organ = Antheridia.

(ii) Female sex organ = Archegonia.

4. List the habitat suitable for the growth of bryophytes. 

Ans. The cool, moist but shady places are suitable for the growth of bryophytes like Riccia etc.


1. Name the dominant generation of Pteridophytes.

Ans. Sporophytic.

2. The stage of pteridophytes which produces spores for continuing rest of the life cycle is.

Ans. Sporophyte phase.

3. Why do you classify Pteridophytes under Tracheophyta?

Ans. As they have vascular tissues particularly the tracheids.

4. Name the male and the female reproductive organs in Pteridophytes.

Ans. The male reproductive organ is antheridia while female reproductive organs are archegonia.

5. Write the name of gametophyte of fern.

Ans. Prothallus.


1. What does the term gymnosperm mean?

Ans. Greek: gymnos = naked.

sperma = seed, that is, naked seed plants.

2. Name any two common examples of gymnosperms.

Ans. (i) Cycas. and 

(ii) Pinus.

3. List two commercial products of gymnosperms.

Ans. (i) Resins.

(ii) Turpentine.

(ii) Timber.  [Write any two of these].


1. Name one dicotyledonous and one monocotyledonous family.

Ans. (i) Fabaceae-dicot family.

(ii) Poaceae monocot family.

2. Give the number of stamens in:

(a) Papilionaceae __________.

Ans. Ten (9 + 1).

(b) Malvaceae __________.

Ans. Indefinite. 

3. Give botanical names of

(a) Rice __________.

Ans. Oryza sativa.

(b) Arhar __________.

Ans. Cajanus cajan.

(c) Gharita kumari __________.

Ans. Aloe vera.

4. Where do seeds develop in angiosperms?

Ans. Seeds are developed in the ovary in angiosperms.


1. Members of which phylum possess the cnidoblasts?

Ans. Cnidaria (Coelenterata).

2. What do earthworms possess which help them in locomotion?

Ans. Setae. 

3. Are all the platyhelminthes parasites?

Ans. No. Planaria is free living.

4. How many pairs of legs do the following have (i) insects; (ii) scorpions; (iii) spiders?

Ans. (i) 3 pairs.

(ii) 4 pairs.

(iii) 3 pairs.

5. Name the organs by which the starfish move?

Ans. Tube Feet.

6. Give two examples of the Phylum Arthopoda.

Ans. (i) Prawn (Palaemon).

(ii) Millipede.

(iii) Crab, (write any two of these).

7. Name the phyla which have the following characteristics:

(i) Tube feet __________.

Ans. Tube feet-Echinodermata.

(ii) Cnidoblasts ___________.

Ans. Cnidoblasts-Cnidaria.

(iii) Chitinous exoskeleton __________.

Ans. Chitinous exoskeleton-Arthropoda.

(iv) Jointed legs ___________.

Ans. Jointed legs-Arthropoda.

(v) Nephridia ___________.

Ans. Nephridia-Annelida.

(vi) Flattened body and a gut without anus ____________.

Ans. Flattened body and a gut without anus Platyhelminthes.


1. Name the following:

(i) The category of animals possessing backbone.

Ans. Vertebrata.

(ii) The group of backboned animals but having no jaws.

Ans. Agnatha.

(iii) Any one cartilaginous fish.

Ans. Scoliodon (dogfish).

2. State one difference between cartilaginous and bony fishes.

Ans. Difference between Cartilaginous and Bony fish:

Cartilaginous fishBony fish
1. Endoskeleton is cartilaginous.Endoskeleton is bony.
2. e.g. Dog fish. e.g. Labeo.

3. Name one bony fish.

Ans. (i) Catla.

(ii) Labeo (Write any one of these).

4. List the three main characters of the phylum chordata.

Ans. Three main characters of phylum Chordata:

(i) Notochord present.

(ii) Dorsal tubular nerve cord present.

(iii) Pharyngeal gill slits present at some stage of their life.


1. How many chambers are there in an amphibian heart?

Ans. Three.

2. Name a tailless amphibian.

Ans. Ichthyophis.

3. What is the literal meaning of the term “amphibia”?

Ans. They can live in water as well as upon land.


1. Name an aquatic reptile. [Write any one of these].

Ans. (i) Turtle.

(ii) Sea Snakes.

 2. How many chambers are there in heart of a: 

(i) lizard.

Ans. Three. 

(ii) crocodile.

Ans. four.

3. What is the voice box in birds called?

Ans. Syrinx.


1. Match the items in Column I with these in Column II.

Column IColumn II
(i) Humans(i) Carnivore
(ii) Platypus(ii) Ungulata 
(iii) Tiger(iii) Primates
(iv) Whale(iv) Prototheria
(v) Horse(v) Metatheria
(vi) Kangaroo(vi) Cetacea


Column IColumn II
(i) Humans(iii) Primates
(ii) Platypus(iv) Prototheria
(iii) Tiger(i) Carnivore
(iv) Whale(vi) Cetacea
(v) Horse(ii) Ungulata
(vi) Kangaroo(v) Metatheria

2. Name the Group of mammals which includes:

(i) Egg-laying mammals.

Ans. Prototheria – Egg laying mammals. 

(ii) Pouched mammals.

Ans. Metatheria — Pouched mammals. 

(iii) Flesh-eating mammals.

Ans. Carnivora — Flesh eating mammals.

(iv) Aquatic mammals.

Ans. Cetacea — Aquatic mammals.

(v) Flying mammals.

Ans. Chiroptera — Flying mammals.

3. For which characteristic feature are certain animals placed in class mammalia?

Ans. They have hairs and mammary glands. 

4. Name a mammal which has marsupium.

Ans. Kangaroo (Macropus).

5. Which group of chordates possesses hair?

Ans. Mammalia group.


1. List the main groups of Kingdom Plantae.

Ans. Main groups of kingdom plantae are bryophytes, pteridophyta and spermatophyta.

2. Give the two main types of bryophytes.

Ans. (i) Liverworts. and 

(ii) Mosses.

3. Differentiate between gametophyte and sporophyte.

Ans. Difference between Gametophyte and Sporophyte:

1. Gamete producing plant.Spore producing plant.
2. Haploid phase.Diploid phase.
3. It has sex organs.It has spore producing body.
4. Dominant phase in life cycle.Reduced phase in life cycle.
5. Gametes formed by mitosis division.Gametes formed by meiosis division.

4. Define alternation of generations.

Ans. The regulation of two phases of life alternately with each other is called alternation of generations. These phases are gametophytic and sporophytic generations.

5. Why are Pteridophytes grouped under Tracheophyta?

Ans. Pteridophytes have tracheids in their vascular elements. So they are grouped under tracheophytes.

6. Differentiate between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms.

Ans. Differences between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms:

1. They produce seeds within fruits. Seeds are covered.Seeds are naked No fruits are formed. Seeds remain unprotected.
2. They bear flowers where pollen grains develop in anthers.They bear cones of two types male and female cones. Spores develop in male cones.
3. Xylem vessels and tracheids are present.Xylem vessels are lacking.

7. Give three main differences between dicot and monocot plants.

Ans. Three main difference between Dicot and Monocot plants:

Monocot PlantDicot Plant
1. Floral parts in three.Floral parts in five. 
2. Parallel venation in loaves.Reticulate (Netlike) vonation in the loaves.
3. Vascular bundles are scattered in the stem.Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring. 
4. Monocots have adventitious roots.Dicots possess both tap and adventitious roots.
5. e.g. Sugarcane, wheat, rico, etc.e.g. Pulses hard-wood trees, etc.

8. Name three families of angiosperms giving one character of each family.

Ans. (i) Family Poaceae: Flowers are small, inconspicuous structures having 3 stamens e.g. maize and rice.

(ii) Family Brassicaceae: The corolla are cruciform in shape, e.g. Brassica.

(iii) Family Papilionacae: Stamens are diadelaphous (1 + 9) e.g. Pisum sativum. 

9. Define an animal.

Ans. An animal is defined as “a living organism who ingests food and moves.”

10. With examples name: 

(a) the three kinds of symmetry.

Ans. Three kinds of symmetry:

(i) Asymmetrical ———— Porifera.

(ii) Bilaterally symmetrical ———— All phyla.

(iii) Radially symmetrical ———— Cnidaria.

(b) the three grades of organisation met within the Kingdom Animalia.

Ans. Three grades of organisation met within the kingdom animalia:

(i) Cellular level ———— Sponges.

(ii) Tissue level-Sponges ———— Cnidaria.

(iii) Organ system grade animals ———— All other

11. Explain the term triploblastic.

Ans. Triploblastic animals have “three germ layers:

(i) ectoderm.

(ii) mesoderm. and 

(iii) endoderm.”

12. Name the major non chordate phyla. Give one characteristic feature and one example of each.

Ans. Major Non Chordate Phyla, Characters and Examples:

Sl.NoName of PhylumCharacter(s)Example(s)
1PoriferaBody is porous.Sycon
2CnidariaThey have coelenteron.Hydra
3PlatyhelminthesDorsoventrally flattened.Fasciola
4AschelminthesThey are round worms and parasitic.Ascaris
5AnnelidaMetamerically segmented.Pheretima
6ArthropodsThey have jointed legs.Housefly
7MolluscaSoft bodied animals.Unio
8EchinodermataExclusively marine.Starfish

13. Give one major difference between:

(i) Cyclostomes and other fishes.

Ans. Difference between Cyclostomes and Other fishes:

CyclostomesAll other fishes
1. Jaws absent.Jaws present.
2. Paired fins absent.Paired fins present.
3. e.g. Petromyzon.e.g. Scolidon.

(ii) Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, Cite examples.

Ans. Difference between Chondrichthyes and Ostiechthyes.

1. Cartilaginous skeleton.Bony skeleton.
2. Mouth ventral.Mouth terminal.
3. e.g. Scoliodon.e.g. Labeo.

14. Why are frogs included in class Amphibia?

Ans. Frogs are amphibians in habitat. They live in water as well as on land. Their heart is three chambered.

15. Give two characteristic features of reptiles. Cite examples of five reptiles.

Ans. Two characteristic features of Reptiles:

(i) Skin dry with horny scales. 

(ii) Respiration by lungs. 

Examples: (i) Turtle.

(ii) wall lizard.

(iii) cobra.

(iv) crocodile. and 

(v) Tyrano-saurus.

16. Give three features of birds which adopt them to aerial life and give two examples of flightless birds.

Ans. Three features of Birds:

(i) Pneumatic bones.

(ii) Lungs provided with air sacs.

(iii) Presence of wings.

Two examples of flightless birds: 

(i) Ostrich.

(ii) Kiwi.

17. Give three features of mammals and one difference between Prototheria, Metatheria and Eutheria. 

Ans. (i) They have hairs on body.

(ii) They have mammary glands.

(iii) They have pinnae (external ears). 

Difference between PrototheriaMetatheria and Eutheria:

1. Oviparous. They lay eggs.Ovo-viviparous. They give birth to immature young ones. Viviparous. They give birth to fully mature young ones.

18. Name five orders of Mammalia. Give one characteristic feature and one example of each.

Ans. Five Orders of Mammalia:

Name of orderOne Characteristic featuresExample(s)
1. Chiroptera1. They are flying mammals.Bat 
2. Primates2. Brain highly developed. Man
3. Proboscidea3. Large, terrestrial herbivores.Elephant
4. Carnivora4. They eat flesh.Tiger
5. Cetacea5. They are aquatic.Whale

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