NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Shoot System

NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Shoot System Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Shoot System Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Shoot System Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Biology Notes Paper 314.

NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Shoot System

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Shoot System Solutions, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Biology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Shoot System

Chapter: 7




1. Name the part of plant which bears nodes, leaves and flowers. 

Ans. Stem.

2. Lateral branch develops from which bud?

Ans. Axillary buds.

3. Why is it difficult to break lateral roots and not lateral branches on stem?

Ans. Because lateral roots originate from inner layers (endogenous origin).

4. Roots are negatively phototropic and positively geotropic, what pattern of growth does the stem show?

Ans. The stem in positively phototrophic and negatively geotropic.


1. Name the meristematic zone in which cells divide in all planes.

Ans. Corpus.

2. From which meristematic layer does the vascular tissue develops?

Ans. Procambium.

3. Which structure give rise to a lateral branch? Name the type of its origin. bud, exogenous.

Ans. Axillary.

4. What is the structure known as which covers the apical meristem of root but is absent in stem.

Ans. Root cap.


1. What are plants with weak stem trailing on the ground known as?

Ans. Creeper plants.

2. Name the modification to which Runner, Stolon, Offset and Sucker belong. 

Ans. Sub-aerial stem.

3. What is a phylloclade with one or two internodes called?

Ans. Cladode.

4. ‘Haldi’ and onion belong to which category of stem modification respectively?

Ans. (i) Rhizome.

(ii) Bulb.

5. Match the items of column A with those of column B:

Column AColumn B
(a) Tendril(i) Protection
(b) Sucker(ii) Perennation
(c) Thorns(iii) Reproduction
(d) Bulb(iv) Photosynthesis
(e) Phylloclade(v) Climbing


Column AColumn B
(a) Tendril(v) Climbing
(b) Sucker(iii) Reproduction
(c) Thorns(i) Protection
(d) Bulb(ii) Perennation
(e) Phylloclade(iv) Photosynthesis


1. Give one primary function of stem. 

Ans. Conduction of water and minerals from root to leaf.

2. How does sugarcane plant multiply?

Ans. By stem cuttings.

3. Match the following in column A with column B:

Column AColumn B
(a) Opuntia(i) Conduction
(b) Duranta(ii) Storage of food
(c) Ginger(iii) Photosynthesis
(d) Potato(iv) Perennation
(e) Stem(v) Protection fair


Column AColumn B
(a) Opuntia(iii) Photosynthesis
(b) Duranta(v) Protection fair
(c) Ginger(iv) Perennation
(d) Potato(ii) Storage of food
(e) Stem(i) Conduction


1. Differentiate between conjoint and collateral vascular bundle.

Ans. Conjoint: When xylem and phloem are together in one bundle.

Collateral: When xylem and phloem are on same radius.

2. What is the region between two vascular bundles in a dicot stem known as?

Ans. Medullary ray.

3. Where will you find radially arranged vascular bundles with exarch xylem?

Ans. In root.

4. If you want to study the internal structure of a monocot and a dicot stem, name the plants you would select for the study.

Ans. (i) Monocot stem-Maize.

(ii) Dicot stem-Sunflower.


1. Name the two lateral meristems which are responsible for increase in girth of stem.

Ans. Cork cambium phellogen and vascular cambium.

2. From which region does the interfascicular cambium develop?

Ans. Medullary ray parenchyma.

3. Define bark.

Ans. The tissue outside functional cork cambium is known as the bark.

4. Why are lenticels, non-suberized?

Ans. For gaseous exchange in branches of a plant.

5. The stems of grasses, rice, remain weak and thin, why?

Ans. As they need support.

6. Which layers constitute the periderm? What is it’s function?

Ans. (i) Phellem, Phellogen, Phelloderm.

(ii) Its function is protection.


1. Which type of wood is formed when the cambium is less active?

And. Late of summer wood.

2. How can you determine the age of a tree?

Ans. By counting the annual rings.

3. Why is heart wood commercially more valuable?

Ans. Durable, resistant to attack of pathogen. 

4. Why does a tall tree stand erect even in strong wind and lashing rain?

Ans. Presence of abundant mechanical tissue such as sclerenchyma and secondary xylem. 

5. Define wood.

Ans. The wood is “secondary xylem produced by activity of vascular cambium in dicot stem”.


1. Define venation.

Ans. It is defined as “arrangement of veins and veinlets in lamina of the leaf”.

2. Differentiate between unicostate and multicostate venation.

Ans. The unicostate has one strong midrib but while the multicostate has several strong veins.

3. What is the type of venation found in peepal and palm leaves?

Ans. Reticulate venation in peepal; parallel in palm leaves. 

Fig. 7.39. Palmately compound leaf and its Types.

Fig. 7.40. Pinnately compound leaves and its Types.

4. Name the structure which arises in the axil of leaf.

Ans. Axillary bud.

5. What is the prominent vein called which is present in the middle of lamina and runs from base to apex?

Ans. Midrib.


1. Name the structure to which the leaflets are attached in a compound leaf. 

Ans. Rachis.

2. What is the structure which helps you differentiate a leaf from a leaflet?

Ans. The presence of axillary bud in leaf but not in leaflet.

3. What are the two types of compound leaves known as?

Ans. Pinnately and palmately compound leaf.


1. What is the type of phyllotaxy found in mango, ‘tulsi’ and guava plants?

Ans. (i) Alternate.

(ii) opposite-decussate.

(iii) opposite-superposed.

2. Match the following of column A with that of column B:

Column AColumn B
(a) Pitcher(i) Photosynthesis. 
(b) Spines(ii) Climbing.
(c) Phyllode(iii) Trapping insects.
(d) Tendril(iv) Protection.


Column AColumn B
(a) Pitcher(iii) Trapping insects.
(b) Spines(iv) Protection.
(c) Phyllode(i) Photosynthesis.
(d) Tendril(ii) Climbing.

3. Give two examples of insectivorous plants.

Ans. (i) Pitcher plant.

(ii) Bladderwort.

4. Water chestnut shows two different types of leaves on the same plant, what is such a condition known as?

Ans. Heterophylly.


1. How is the mesophyll tissue of dicot leaf different from that of monocot leaf? What is its function?

Ans. The mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy tissue in dicot leaf but whereas only of spongy tissue in monocot leaf; photosynthesis is the function of mesophyll tissue.

2. Where are stomata located in a grass leaf?

Ans. In both surfaces of grass leaf.

3. Name the structure through which plants growing in humid areas get rid of excess of water in liquid form.

Ans. Hydathodes.

4. Match the following of column A with that of column B:

Column AColumn B
(a) Bulliform cells(i) Protection
(b) Transport of water and mineral salts(ii) Guttation
(c) Stomata only on lower surface(iii) Monocot leaf
(d) Hydathode(iv) Dicot leaf
(e) Hair(v) Stomata
(f) Exchange of gases(vi) Xylem


Column AColumn B
(a) Bulliform cells(iii) Monocot leaf
(b) Transport of water and mineral salts(vi) Xylem
(c) Stomata only on lower surface(iv) Dicot leaf
(d) Hydathode(ii) Guttation
(e) Hair(i) Protect tion
(f) Exchange of gases(v) Stomata


1. What is the collection of sepals and petals respectively known as?

Ans. (i) Collection of sepals Calyx.

(ii) Collection of petals = Corolla.

2. Match the following of column A with that of column B:

Column AColumn B
(a) Flower(i) China rose
(b) Polycarpellary(ii) Pollination
(c) Petals(iii) Reproductive organ
(d) Monodelphous(iv) Many carpels
(e) Carpel(v) Modified shoot


Column AColumn B
(a) Flower(v) Modified shoot
(b) Polycarpellary(iv) Many carpels
(c) Petals(ii) Pollination
(d) Monodelphous(i) China rose
(e) Carpel(iii) Reproductive organ

3. Define placentation.

Ans. It is defined as “the manner in which placentae are distributed in the ovary”.

4. Name the type of placentation where ovary is many chambered and ovules are arranged on the central axis. 

Ans. Axile placentation.


1. What is a cymose inflorescence? 

Ans. When the main axis ends in a flower and the growth is limited.

2. Give one difference between Raceme and Spike.

Ans. The flowers are stalked in raceme but flowers are sessile in spike in the inflorescence.

3. Define inflorescence.

Ans. It refers to “the arrangement of flowers on floral axis.”

4. Name the type of inflorescence found in sunflower and Fig.

Ans. Sunflower = Capitulum.

Fig. = Hypanthodium.


1. Define fruit.

Ans. The fruit is defined as “a ripened ovary that develops after fertilisation.”

2. Give two examples of false fruits.

Ans. (i) Pear.

(ii) Apple.

3. What is the fruit wall known as which is formed by the ovary wall?

Ans. Pericarp.

4. Give the names of three layers of pericarp of a fleshy fruit.

Ans. (i) Epicarp.

(ii) mesocarp. and 

(iii) endo carp.

5. Match the following of column A with that of column B

Column AColumn B
(a) Apple(i) Berry
(b) Hesperidium(ii) Mesocarp
(c) Mango-edible part(iii) Endosperm
(d) Coconut-edible part(iv) Orange
(e) Tomato(v) False fruit


Column AColumn B
(a) Apple(v) False fruit
(b) Hesperidium(iv) Orange
(c) Mango-edible part(ii) Mesocarp
(d) Coconut-edible part(iii) Endosperm
(e) Tomato(i) Berry


1. Differentiate between:

(i) Dicot stem and monocot stem. 

Ans. Differences between Dicot and Monocot Stem:

Dicot StemMonocot Stem
1. Multicellular hairs may be present on the epidermis.Multicellular hairs are absent on the epider-mis.
2. Collenchymatous hypodermis.Sclerenchymatous hypo- dermis.
3. There are three parts of ground tissue-cortex, endodermis and pericycle.There is no differentia-tion of ground tissue into cortex, endodermis and ground tissue.
4. There are few vascular bundles.Vascular bundles are many. They are scattered.
5. Lysigenous cavity absent.Lysigenous cavity present.

(ii) Root and stem.

Ans. Difference Between Root and Stem:

1. Exogenous in origin.Endogenous in origin.
2. Nodes and internodes absent.Nodes and internodes present.
3. Bears leaves.Bears lateral root branches.
4. Stem hairs are multi- cellular.Root hairs are uni-cellular.
5. Cuticle present.Cuticle absent.
6. Vascular bundles are conjoint and collateralVascular bundles are radial.
7. Xylem endarch.Exarch xylem.
8. Pith occurs regularlyPith may be absent.

(iii) Racemose and cymose inflorescence.

Ans. Differences Between Racemose Inflorescence and Cymose Inflorescence:

Racemose InflorescenceCymose Inflorescence
1. Peduncle has unlimited growth.Peduncle has limited growth.
2. Main axis does not end in a flower. Main axis ends in flower.

(iv) Stomata and hydathode.

Ans. Distinction Between Stomata and Hydathodes:

1. Pores found in the epi-dermis of leaves.Specialised pores called water. Vesicles at the leaf tip or margins in some leaves.
2. Loss of water as vapours.Loss of water as drop.

(v) True fruit and false fruit.

Ans. Differences Between True Fruit False Fruit: 

True FruitFalse Fruit
1. It develops from the ovary.It develops from other parts of flower but ovary takes part also.
2. Example: pea.Example: Apple.

(vi) Dicot and monocot leaf.

Ans. Difference between the Internal Structure of Dicot and Monocot Leaves:

Dicot LeavesMonocot Leaver
1. Stomata are present in lower epidermis and scattered.Stomata are present in both lower and upper epi-dermis and arranged in rows.
2. Bulliform cells absent. Bulliform cells present. 
3. Mesophyll is differen-tiated into spongy and palisade parenchyma.Mesophyll is not differen-tiated into spongy and palisade parenchyma.
4. Vascular system in the form of a network.Vascular bundles are in rows and form parallelveins.

2. Explain the different types of underground modified stem.

Ans. Underground Stems: They are of four main types: 

(i) Rhizome.

(ii) Corm.

(iii) Bulb.

(iv) Tuber.

(i) Rhizome: It grows horizontally. It is flattened and fleshy stem. It bears nodes, scale leaves and the roots. Example: Ginger (adrak).

(ii) Corm: It grows vertically. It is thick, stout, fleshy and spherical at its base. It stands erect in the ground. Example: Colocasia.

(iii) Tuber: It is the tip of an underground stem. It has nodes. Adventitious roots are absent. Example: potato.

(iv) Bulb: The stem is reduced. It is diec like (discord). It has terminal bud. Its fleshy leaves are eaten, e.g. Onion, garlic.

3. Explain the process of secondary growth in dicot stem.

Ans. The process of Secondary growth in a Dicot Stem: In a dicot plant stem cambium is located between phloem and xylem (open V.B.). This cambium is known as fascicular cambium or intrafascicular cambium. This cambium is interconnected by the formation of meristem from the parenchyma cells between the vascular bundles. This meristem is known as interfascicular cambium. The intrafascicular cambium and interfascicular cambium differentiate into phloem towards the outside of the axis and xylem towards the inside. Thus patches of secondary phloem and secondary xylem are formed each year, which results the secondary growth or increase is girth of the stem.

Fig. 7.41. T.S. of old stem (a Portion enlarged).

4. Draw and label the vertical section of dicot leaf.

Ans. See Fig. 7.42.

Fig. 7.42. V.S. of Dicot Leaf.

5. Define the following:

(a) Flower.

Ans. Flower: It is known as a modified shoot. It is meant for reproduction. It has thala-mus which bears four whorls of floral leaves.

(b) Actinomorphic.

Ans. Actinomorphic: When a flower can be cut into two identical halves by any plane of radii.

(c) Heterophylly.

Ans. Heterophylly: It refers to “to the pheno-menon of occurrence of two kinds of leaves in plants, e.g. Ranunculus.”

(d) Phyllotaxy.

Ans. Phyllotaxy: It is “the arrangement of leaves on the stem or a branch. It may be alter-nate/opposite or whorled.”

(e) Hypogynous.

Ans. Hypogynous: Example: Gulmohar. The ovary is superior. Ovary is located above the other three whorls of the flower. The thalamus is convex and ovary lies at the top of flower.

(f) Parthenocarpic fruit.

Ans. Parthenocarpic fruit: It is developed without fertilisation that is parthenogenetically e.g. banana is a seedless fruit.

(g) Venation.

Ans. Venation: It refers “to the arrangement of veins in a leaf”. 

6. What is cork cambium? State its functions.

Ans. Cork cambium. It is also called as Phellogen. It arises later as lateral meristem in dicot stem and root from the cells or cortex or periderm.

Functions of Cork Cambium. Cork cambium cuts of cells or both the outer and inner side. On inner side it gives rise to secondary cortex or phelloderm while on outer side it produces cork or phellem. Phellem, phelloderm and phellogen together constitute the periderm which is a protective layer.

7. Draw labelled diagrams of the following:

(a) Raceme and corymb inflorescence.

Ans. See Fig:

(b) Axile and parietal placentation.

Ans. See Fig:

8. What is a fruit? Enlist the various types of simple-fleshy fruits giving one example of each type. 

Ans. Fruit: The ripened ovary after the fertilisation is called fruit.

Simple Fleshy Fruits:

The succulent of fleshy fruits, which are eatable in general term are called edible fruits.

Types of Edible fruits: Following are th types of edible fruits:

1. Drupe: In this fruit, the pericarp (fruit wall) is differentiated into an epicarp (outer), a mesocarp (middle fleshy or fibrous) and an inner endocarp (stony, hard). Mesocarp is edible in these fruits. Example: mango, peach, coconut (fibrous also).

Fig. 7.46. A. Drupe (Mango), B. Berry (Tomato). C. Pepo (Cucumber), D. Hesperidium (Orange).

2. Berry or Beca: The pericarp is juicy and fleshy in these fruits. The epicarp is distinct. The mesocarp and endocarp make the pulp of the fruits. The seeds are scattered in the pulp. Example: Tomato, banana, brinjal.

3. Pepo: This fruit resembles the berry but it develops from polycarpellary, syncarpous ovary having parietal placentation. Bulky mass is edible in these fruits. Example: water melon, cucumber.

4. Hesperidium: This fruit also resembles the berry but it is developed from a polycarpellary syncarpous ovary having axil placentation. The epicarp remains in the form of outer skin, mesocarp in white threads, endocarp makes the membranous partitions of each labeurele. The edible parts are juicy placental having originating from endocarp. Example: Orange lemon.

5. Pome: It is false fruit, developed from thalamus or the receptacle, it is developed from multicarpellary syncarpous and inferior ovary. The edible parts is the juicy thalamus. Example: Apple, pear.

Q. 9. What are the edible parts of the following fruits

(a) Mango

(c) Apple

(e) Coconut

(b) Orange

(d) Banana

(f) Cashewnut?

Ans. Fruits and their Edible Parts:

Name of fruitEdible part
(a) MangoMesocarp.
(b) OrangeJuicy hairs from endocarp.
(c) AppleFleshy thalamus.
(d) BananaMesocarp and endocarp.
(e) CoconutEndosperm.
(f) CashewnutPeduncle and cotyledons.

10. Match the following of column A with that of column B.

Column AColumn B
(a) Tendril(i) Protection
(b) Stolon(ii) Food, storage
(c) Thorn(iii) Reproduction
(d) Tuber(iv) Photosynthesis
(e) Capitulum(v) Climbing
(f) Phylloclade(vi) Sunflower


Column AColumn B
(a) Tendril(v) Climbing
(b) Stolon(iii) Reproduction
(c) Thorn(i) Protection
(d) Tuber(ii) Food, storage
(e) Capitulum(vi) Sunflower
(f) Phylloclade(iv) Photosynthesis

11. Name the type of modification of an underground, non-green structure bear-ing nodes and internodes and ‘eyes’.

Ans. It is tuber of potato.

12. If a section of stem shows scatte-red vascular bundles which are closed, have ‘Y’ shaped xylem and are surrounded by bundle sheath; what group of plant is it?

Ans. It is a monocot stem.

13. What is the region outside the phellogen known as?

Ans. Cork or phellem.

14. When the cambium is less active which type of wood does it produce?

Ans. Cambium is less active in summer and the wood formed is called late wood. It is dark in colour.

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