NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Tissues and Other Levels of Organization

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NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Tissues and Other Levels of Organization

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Tissues and Other Levels of Organization Solutions, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Biology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Tissues and Other Levels of Organization

Chapter: 5

MODULE – I: DIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE

NIOS TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS ANSWERS

INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.1

1. Define a tissue.

Ans. The tissue is a group of cells similar in origin, structure and function.

2. Give one word equivalent for the following:

(i) A plant tissue that consists of cells which continue to divide to produce more cells.

Ans. Meristematic.

(ii) The meristematic tissue responsible for the increase in thickness of the stem of a tree.

Ans. Lateral meristem.

(iii) The kind of plant tissues which consists of all similar cells.

Ans. Simple Tissue.

(iv) The category of plant tissues in which the cells do not divide.

Ans. Permanent Tissue.

3. What do you mean by “cells of a tissue have similar origin”?

Ans. Arising from the same embryonic layer of cells.

4. Name that branch of Biology in which tissues are studied?

Ans. Histology.

5. What is a complex tissue?

Ans. The complex tissue is composed of more than one type of cells one cooperating in performing command function.

6. Mention any two special features of meristematic cells.

Ans. (a) They are thin walled.

(b) They possess a prominent nucleus and a lew vacuoles.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.2

1. Give two characteristics and one example of the location of the given tissues in plants in the following table:

S.No.TissueCharacteristicsExample of location
(i)Parenchyma………………………………
(ii)Collenchyma………………………………
(iii)Sclerenchyma………………………………

Ans. 

S. No.TissueCharacteristicsExample of location
(i)ParenchymaThin walled, rounded cells and are living. Root, stem and leaves.
(ii)CollenchymaPolygonal cells, thick at the corners and are living.Stem as well as the midrib of the leaf.
(iii)SclerenchymaThey are thick walled and dead cells. Irregular/ elongated in shape.Stem and fruits.

2. Name plant tissues which

(i) conduct water __________.

Ans. Xylem tissue.

(ii) conduct food __________.

Ans. Phloem tissues.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.3

1. List the different types of animal tissues.

Ans. Different kinds of animal tissues are: 

(I) epithelial.

(ii) connective.

(iii) muscle. and 

(iv) nervous tissue.

2. Match the items in column I with those in column II by writing the corresponding serial number within brackets.

Column IColumn II
(a) Compound Epithelium(i) Epithelial tiasure
(b) Basement membrane(ii) For increasing the surface area
(c) Brush bordered epithelium(iii) Lining of trachea
(d) Salivary gland (iv) Skin
(e) Ciliated Epithelium(v) Cuboidal on helium

Ans. 

Column IColumn II
(a) Compound Epithelium(iv) Skin
(b) Basement membrane(i) Epithelial tiasure
(c) Brush bordered epithelium(ii) For increasing the surface area
(d) Salivary gland (v) Cuboidal on helium
(e) Ciliated Epithelium(iii) Lining of trachea

INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.4

1. Name the different types of cells forming the different types of connective tissues.

Ans. Cells of Connective Tissue:

S.No.Type of CellsConnective Tissues 
1Blood cells; RBC.WBC, etc.Blood-fluid tissue.
2Cartilage cells and Bone cells (chondro- cytes and osteo-cytes).Bone and cartilage- skeletal tissue.
3Fibroblast, macro- phages and mast cells.Areolar tissue.
4Neuron/nerve cells.Nervous tissue.
5Muscle cells.Muscular tissue.

 2. Match the item in column I with those in column II, by writing the corresponding serial number within brackets:

Column IColumn II
(a) Unstriped muscles.(i) Multinucleate.
(b) Myofibrils.(ii) Run parallel to each other in a striped muscle.
(c) Sarcolemma.(iii) Cardiac muscles.
(d) Striped muscle(iv) Outer tough membrane of a striped muscle fibre. 
(e) Branched myofibril.(v) Involuntary.

Ans. 

Column IColumn II
(a) Unstriped muscles.(v) Involuntary.
(b) Myofibrils.(ii) Run parallel to each other in a striped muscle.
(c) Sarcolemma.(iv) Outer tough membrane of a striped muscle fibre.
(d) Striped muscle(i) Multinucleate. 
(e) Branched myofibril.(iii) Cardiac muscles.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.5

1. What is the function of the nervous tissue?

Ans. This is sensory and it transmits the nerve impulse.

2. What is the direction of the “flow of impulse” within a nerve cell from its dendrites to its axon end or from its axon end towards its dendrites? 

Ans. Direction of Flow of Impulse: From dendrites to the Axon.

3. What are the following parts in a nerve cell?

(i) Cyton ____________.

Ans. Cyton: It is known as cell body

(ii) Dendrites ____________.

Ans. Dendrite: It is a thin process of cyton or prokaryon.

(iii) Axon ____________.

Ans. Axon: It is called neuraxis or sensory fibre.

(iv) Medullary sheath ____________.

Ans. Medullary sheath: It is made up of myelin (lipid).

(v) Node of Ranvier ___________.

Ans. Nodes of Ranvier: They are interruptions in medullary sheath of the axon.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.6

1. Rearrange the following levels of organisations in their correct sequences:

(i) Tissue.

(ii) Cell.

(iii) Organ.

(iv) Organism.

(v) Organ system.

Ans. Cell → tissue → organ → organ system → organism.

2. Complete the following table by giving one example of each of the following in an animal and plant.

Level of OrganisationExamples
AnimalPlant
1. Cell………………..………………..
2. Tissue………………..……………….
3. Organ………………..………………..
4. Organ-system………………..………………..
5. Organism………………..………………..

Ans. See the following:

Level of OrganisationExamples
AnimalPlant
1. CellLeucocyteParenchyma cell.
2. TissueEpithelial tissueStem tip of a plant
3. OrganHeartRoot
4. Organ-systemBlood vascular systemRoot system
5. OrganismManMustard plant

TERMINAL EXERCISES

1. What is a tissue?

Ans. Tissue: A tissue is defined “as a group of cells which are essentially of the same kind and of same origin and performing similar function.”

2. State one main structural characteristic and the special activity of the following tissue: meristem, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem, epithelium, muscle, nervous tissue.

Ans. Structural Characteristics and Special Activity:

S.No.Name of TissueStructure CharacteristicsSpecial Activity
1MeristemDividingRemain dividing continuously.
2SclerenchymaDead, thick- walled tissue.Mechanical support.
3XylemComplex tissue.Conduction of water minerals.
4PhloemComplex tissue.Conduction of food.
5EpitheliumNo intercellular space, closely packed.Secretion and absorption, etc.
6MuscleLong fibre cells.Locomotion and movement.
Nervous tissueIt consists of cyton and axon.Sensation and conduction of nerve impulse.

3. In what way do the following tissues differ from the one stated:

(i) Connective tissue from epithelial tissue.

Ans. Difference between connective Tissue

and Epithelial Tissue:

SL.No.Connective TissueEpithelial Tissue
1The cells lie in the gelatinous matrix.Cells are closely packed.
2Absent.Basement membrane present.
3It helps in attach- ment and support.It helps in secretion as well as absorption.

(ii) Bone from blood.

Ans. Difference between Bone and Blood:

Sl.No.BoneBlood
1It consists of osteo- cytes.It consists of plasma, RBC, WBC, and blood platelets.
2It is a hard tissue.It is a liquid tissue.
3It helps in support protection and move- ment.It helps in the trans-port of substances.

(iii) Phloem from xylem.

Ans. Differences between Phloem and Xylem:

S. No.PhloemXylem
1Conduction of foodConduction of water and minerals.
2Phloem fibres are dead. Sieve tube, companion cells and phloem.Tracheids, vessels and sclerenchyma are dead. s Xylem parenchyma are living.
3It occurs in small quantity.It occurs in large quantity.

(iv) Squamous epithelium from columnar epithelium.

Ans. Differences between Squamous Epi- thelium and Columnar Epithelium:

Sl. No.Squamous EpitheliumColumnar Epithelium
1Cells flat with nucleus located in the centre of cell.Elongated cells with nucleus at the basal part.
2Found in air sacs and blood vessels.Found in stomach as well as intestine.
3Function-help in absorption and exchange of mate- rial.Function-help in absorption and secre-tion also.

(v) Tracheids from wood fibres?

Ans. Differences between Tracheids and Wood Fibres:

S. No.TracheidsWood Fibres
1They provide hard-ness and rigidity.They provide flexibility to the organs.
2Conduction of water.They do not conduct water.
3Walls are thicke-ned in many ways.Uniform thickening of walls.

4. Name the different levels of organisations in animals (such as humans) giving one example of each.

Ans. In animals like humans, the different levels of organisation are given below with their examples:

(a) Cellular grade of organisation: Red blood cells in man.

(b) Tissue level: Epithelium tissue in skin of man.

(c) Organ level: Heart of man.

(d) Organ system level: Digestive system of man.

(e) Organismic level: Human beings.

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