NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Political Parties and Pressure Groups

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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Political Parties and Pressure Groups

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 21 Political Parties and Pressure Groups, NIOS Secondary Course Social Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Chapter: 21




Q. 1. Answer the following questions by selecting the right option out of the four stated below:

(a) Which of the following is the characteristics of a political party?

(i) Group of people gathered in a hall

(ii) Group of people sharing similar religious views.

(iii) Group of people having common principles and views on public matters

(iv) Group of people witnessing ‘ministers’ taking oath of offices.

Ans: (iii) Group of people having common principles and views on public matter.

(b) Why do we need political parties in a democracy?

(i) To help legislature make laws.

(ii) To help executives in administering the country. 

(iii) To help judiciary deliver judgements. 

(iv) To help people choose their representatives to run the government. 

Ans: (iv) To help people chose their representative to run the government. 

(c) Which of the following countries is a democracy?

(i) Libya 

(ii) Qatar

(iii) India

(iv) Saudi Arabia

Ans: (iii) India.

Q. 2. Comment on the following situation focusing on, whether the government should be treated as a democratic government?

“A political party wins absolute majority in the legislature by highlighting its policies and promised programmes during elections. But the government formed by it not only fails to fulfill its promises but also acts against its own pronounced policies. Instead, it take every action, constitutional or unconstitutional, just to keep itself in power.” 

Ans: No, this type of government is not treated as a democratic government. When the government takes action just to keep itself in power without taking the interest of common people, then it becomes an autocratic government. In this type of situation the state of common people becomes very bad.


Q. Answer the following questions by selecting the right option out of the four stated below each items:

(a) Identify the one role of political parties out of the following that may be considered as an evil?

(i) Political parties educate people 

(ii) They indulge in false propaganda 

(iii) They create opportunities for people to participate

(iv) They deal with discussions within their own followers

Ans: (ii) They indulge in false propaganda

(b) One of the following is not the function of political parties in a democratic system: 

(i) Political parties distribute favors among its members 

(ii) They help formulate public opinion

(iii) They form government if not in majority in the legislature 

(iv) They form opposition if in majority in the legislature

Ans: (i) Political parties distribute favors among its members

(c) Which of the following party systems is essential for the democratic government?

(i) Single party system 

(ii) Competitive party system

(iii) Non-competitive party system 

(iv) Non-party system

Ans: (ii) Competitive party system. 

(d) From when have the coalitional governments in India come to stay at the national level?

(i) 1952

(ii) 1967

(iii) 1977

(iv) 1999

Ans: (iv) 1999


Q. 1. State any two features of India’s party system. party

Ans: The two features of India’s system are as follow: 

(i) India’s party system is very competitive.

(ii) It has coalitional.

Q. 2. Write three major principles of any two of the following political parties:

(i) Indian National Congress

(ii) The Bharatiya Janata Party

(iii) The Communist Party of India, Marxist and

(iv) The Bahujan Samaj Party 

Ans: (i) Indian National Congress:

(a) Democracy

(b) Secularism and Socialism.

(ii) The Bharatiya Janata Party: 

(a) Nationalism and National Integration

(b) Positive Secularism and Gandhian Socialism.

(iii) The Communist Party of India, Marxist

(a) Socialism

(b) Socialist ownership of Industries

(iv) The Bahujan Samaj Party 

(a) Upliftment of poor and Dalits

(b) Welfare and Happiness for all. 

Q. 3. Which of the following is a regional political party in Jammu and Kashmir?

(i) Indian National Lok Dal

(it) National Conference

(iii) Forward Bloc

(iv) Rashtriya Janata Dal 

Ans: (ii) National Conference.

Q. 4. The Shiv Sena is a political party in

(i) Maharashtra

(ii) Tamil Nadu 

(iii) Bihar

(iv) Uttarakhand

Ans: (i) Maharashtra


Q. 1. What are Pressure groups? How do they differ from interest groups?

Ans: A pressure group is an interest group which exerts pressure on the government or the decision-makers for the fulfillment of their interests. Pressure groups are different from an interest group as interest groups may exist without even exerting influence on the government or the decision-makers. But unless a group exerts such pressure to influence or pressurize the authorities in order to achieve the desired objects, it may not be a pressure group. 

Q. 2. Write two differences between pressure groups and political parties. 

Ans: (a) Pressure groups are not primarily political in nature. For example, although Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh supports the Bharatiya Janata Party, it is, by and large a cultural organization. The political parties are basically political.

(b) Pressure groups do not contest elections; they only support the political parties of their choice. Political parties nominate candidates, contest elections and participate in elections campaigns.

Q. 3. Discuss at least three ways in which pressure groups try to influence the policies of the government. Give suitable examples.

Ans: Pressure groups play a vital role in the democratic functioning of a polity. They help promote, discuss, debate and mobilize public opinion on major public issues. Three ways used by pressure groups are appeals, petitions and demonstrations. For instance the Self-Employed Women’s Association has influenced the government to improve its policies on the rights of women workers. Mazdoor Kisam Shakti Sangathan led the people’s movement which got the government to bring about the law on Right to Information”.


Q. 1. Why do we need Political Parties? 

Ans: Need of Political Parties: Democracy is a form of government in which the country is run by the representatives who are elected by the people. Unless the representatives of the people are organized on the basis of political parties, the legislatures will consists of unorganized and unattached individuals who will not be able to form the government and run the administration of the country. Elections are held on party basis and party which gets an absolute majority in the legislature form the government. Political parties help in formation of public opinion. So that political parties play an important role in every democratic Government.

Q. 2. What do you mean by Political Party? 

Ans: Political party is an organized group of persons who have common views on political and economic problems of the country. and who try to capture the power of government by peaceful and constitutional means.

According to Gilchrist, “A political party is an organized group of citizens who profess to share the same political views and who by acting as a political unit, try to control the government.”

Q. 3. List any four characteristics of Political Parties.

Ans: Characteristics of Political Parties are: 

(1) A political party is an organized and fairly large groups of people.

(2) The organized group of people shares common principles and cherish certain common goals.

(3) Its members hold similar view on matters of public concern. 

(4) Its task revolves around seeking political powers through collective efforts of its members.

Q. 4. Describe any four functions of political parties.

Ans: Functions of Political Parties: 

(1) They educate the masses, through their meetings and propaganda about the various problems facing the country at a particular time. This helps in the formation of public opinion.

(2) They fight elections and try to get the maximum number of their candidates elected. 

(3) The party who gets an absolute majority in the legislature, forms the government and runs the administration of the country.

(4) Other parties form the opposition. They criticize the wrong policies of the government and check it from becoming despotic.

Q. 5. Explain briefly the policies of Indian National Congress.

Ans: The policies of Indian National Congress are:

(1) The Congress party committed to democracy, secularism and socialism.

(2) In order to increase agricultural growth, the Congress lays emphasis on the expansion of the irrigational potential.

(3) All possible efforts shall be made to alleviate poverty. Emphasis shall be laid on the expansion of rural employment. Small land holders shall be helped and efforts shall be made to provide employment to at least one person in a family.

(4) In the foreign sphere, the Congress wants to establish friendly relations with all the countries. The difference, if any, with other countries shall be sorted out by peaceful means.

Q. 6. Describe three features of the nature of party system in India. 

Ans: The three features of the nature of party system in India are:

(1) The party system has a multiplicity of political parties competing to attain power at the center as well as in the state.

(2) Coalitional politics has been a feature of our party system. We have reached a situation where there is no single party government, expect in some of the states.

(3) The regional political parties have come to play a vital role in the formation of governments at the center. These regional political parties support one national political party or the others in return for their having power in the concerned states.

Q. 7. What is a Pressure Group? 

Ans: When any interest groups starts seeking government help for the promotion of its interests and tries to influence the members of legislature in such a way as to keep the interest of the group in mind while passing any law or making any amendment in the constitution, its turn itself into a pressure group.

In the words of C.H. Dhillon has written, “In the simplest terms an interest group is an association of people having a mutual concern. They become, in turn a pressure group when they seek government aid in accomplishment of what is advantageous to them.”

Q. 8. Distinguish between political parties and the pressure groups highlighting two points.

Ans: The political parties and the pressure groups are differ in following ways:

(1) Pressure groups do not contest elections. They only support the political t parties of their choice. The political parties nominate candidates, contest elections and participate in election campaigns.

(2) Pressure groups do not seek direct power; they only influence those who are in power for taking decisions in favor of their concerns. The Political parties seek power of the government.

Q. 9. Give a brief account of pressure groups in India.

Ans: Pressure groups existed in India even before independence, yet they became more effective and important only after independence. Indian National Congress originated as a pressure group. When its turned into a mass organization during national movement, many other local organizations were formed which, besides participating in the national movement, were also working for promotion of their interests. 

The following pressure groups are influencing Indian politics:

(1) Class-interest Groups: Under this category are included trade unions like All India Trade Union Congress, Hind Mazdoor Sabha, Centre of Indian Trade

Union (CITU) etc. The Business Groups like FICCI, Groups of Educated classes like –All India Railway Men Association, All India Postal and Telegraph Employee Union, Medical Council, Teachers Union etc. Students organizations like – Student Federation of India Development, Vidyarthi Parishad etc. Women organization like –All India Women conference, the Peasants Organizations like All India Kisan Sabha, United Kisan Sabha, Shitkari Organisation and Tamil Nadu Kisan Sangh etc.

(2) Pressure Groups based on Community, Religion, Caste and Language: Under this category are those. groups, which have been organized to look after the interests of particular religion or caste. These include Jat Maha Sabha, Vaish Maha Sabha, Marwari Association, Harijan Sevak Sangh, Anglo-Indian Association, All India Conference of Christians and Gaur Maha Sabha etc.

(3) Groups based on Gandhian Philosophy Groups based on Gandhian Philosophy include-Sarvodaya Samaj, Sarva Seva Sangh, Hindustani Prachar Sabha, Bhoodan Movement of Vinoba Bhave etc.



1. Election campaigning stops _________ hours before polling.

(a) 50

(b) 48

(c) 36

(d) None of them

Ans: (b) 48.

2. Elephant is the symbol of _________.

(a) Bahujan Samaj Party

(b) Indian National Congress 

(c) Communist Party of India

(d) None of them 

Ans: (a) Bahujan Samaj Party.

3. No discrimination on the basis of religion is called

(a) Campaigning

(b) Franchise

(c) Secularism

(d) Democracy

Ans: (c) Secularism.

4. The Lotus flower is the symbol of _________.

(a) Congress (I)

(b) BSP

(c) BJP

(d) None of them

Ans: (c) BJP.

5. How many sets of political parties exist in India?

(a) Three

(b) four

(c) One

(d) Two

Ans: (d) Two.

6. The major function of political parties is _________.

(a) Prepare Voter List

(b) Conducts the general elections

(c) Elects the President

(d) Contest elections to gain power.

Ans: (d) Contest elections to gain power.

7. Different political parties issue their own _________.

(a) programmes and policies

(b) manifesto

(c) (a) and (b) both

(d) none of them 

Ans: (c) (a) and (b) both.

8. Which of the following regional political party in Punjab?

(a) DMK

(b) Akali Dal

(c) National Conference

(d) Telugu Desam

Ans: (b) Akali Dal.

9. The BJP was founded in _________.

(a) 1980 

(b) 1974

(c) 1967

(d) 1984

Ans: (a) 1980.

10. There are _________ types of party system in different countries in the world.

(a) three

(b) two

(c) one

(d) four

Ans: (a) three.


Q. 1. What are main types of party systems? Name them.

Ans: There are three types of party system in different countries of the world. 

(a) One-Party System. 

(b) Two Party System, or Bi-Party System. and 

(c) Multiple-Party System.

Q. 2. Write any three characteristics of a political party.

Ans: The characteristics of a political party are:

(1) An organized group of persons. 

(2) Their aim is to promote national interest and not any sectional interest.

(3) Aim to control the government by constitutional and peaceful means. 

Q. 3. How do political parties give political education to the people? 

Ans: At election time political parties organize public meetings, give speeches and issue their election manifestoes and propagates their views about national problems before the people. This gives political education to the people.

Q. 4. What do you mean by National Party? 

Ans: National parties are those parties which have influence all over the country. A political party is to be called a national party when it should have secured not less then 4 percent of the total valid votes in the previous general elections, at least in 4 states.

Q. 5. Name any three national parties of India.

Ans: The three national parties of India are: 

(1) Congress I. 

(2) Bharatiya Janata Party. 

(3) Bahujan Samaj Party.

Q. 6. Name any three regional parties along with the states in which they have influence.

Ans: The three regional parties with states are:

(1) National Conference in Jammu and Kashmir. 

(2) Telugu Desam of Andhra Pradesh. 

(3) Shiromani Akali Dal in Punjab.

Q. 7. What do you mean by one party system?

Ans: One party system means that only one party is allowed to participate in the elections and affairs of the state. No other political party is allowed to participate in elections or even function. This system exists in communist countries like China, Hungry, and Yugoslavia.

Q. 8. Define Interest Groups.

Ans: Interest groups are those groups who have common interests and who try to safeguard these interests. When people belonging to a common interest organize themselves, they form an ‘Interest Group’.

Q. 9. Name any two functions of pressure groups.

Ans: The two functions of Pressure Groups are:

(1) Pressure groups help in the formation of public opinion by educating the people regarding various issues. For this they distribute pamphlets, get articles published in newspapers and propagate their views through radio and television.

(2) Representative of pressure groups maintain their contacts with high government officials and by influencing them with money or other favour try to get the policy framed in their favor.

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