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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 12 Agriculture in India
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Agriculture in India
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS WITH THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.1
Q. 1. Differentiate between intensive farming and extensive farming by giving two points of difference of each.
Ans: The basic difference between two types of farming is the amount of production from per unit of land. U.S.A., Canada, former U.S.S.R. are the major centers where extensive farming is practiced. Whereas Japan is the leading example of intensive farming.
Q. 2. Based on the salient features studied above identify the an applicable in your area.
(Example: The farming is largely mechanized in Haryana and well irrigated. So that there is less dependence on monsoon.)
Ans: Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.2
Q. 1. Explain any three geographical conditions required for the cultivation of cotton.
Ans: (i) Uniformly high temperature varying between 21°C and 30°C.
(ii) It grows mostly in the areas having at least 210 frost free days in a year.
(iii) It requires modest amount of rainfall 50 to 100 cm. However cotton is successfully grown by the help of irrigation in the areas where rainfall is less than 50 cm.
(iv) High amount of rainfall in the beginning and sunny and dry weather at the time of ripening are very useful for a good crop.
(v) Cotton cultivation is very closely related to black soil. However, it grows well in alluvial soils of the Satluj-Ganga plain and red and laterite soils of peninsular region.
(vi) As picking of cotton has not been made mechanical till now therefore a lot of cheap and efficient labour is required at the time of picking.
Q. 2. How will India cloth its billion population if cotton fails for successive number of years?
Ans: It may be possible that cotton cloth may be costlier or synthetic cloth can take place of cotton.
Q. 3. Why are commercial crops known as cash crops?
Ans: The commercial crops are known as cash crops because most of the produce is sold in the market for earning money.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 12.3
Q. 1. How would climate change would affect agriculture in India ? Explain any two situations.
Ans: Due to climate change temperature would increase in sea level, more intense cyclone, unpredictable rainfall etc. These changes would adversely affect the production of rice and wheat. Specially rise in temperature in winter would affect production of wheat in north India. Production of rice would be affected in coastal areas of India due to increase of saline water and increase in frequency of cyclones.
Q. 1. Explain any four salient features of Indian agriculture.
Ans: The salient features of Indian agriculture are as under:
1. Subsistence agriculture: This type of agriculture is practised in India for several hundreds of years.
2. Pressure of population on agriculture: About 70% of population is still depend on agriculture.
3. Mechanizing farming: After green revolution and evolution in equipment mechanization is still a distant dream.
4. Dependence upon monsoon: There has been rapid expansion of irrigation infrastructure still two-third of area of crops is depend upon monsoon.
5. Variety of crops: In India there are variety of crops as India has diversity of topography, climate and soil.
6. Predominance of food crop: Production of food crops is the first priority of the farming in the country.
7. Seasonal patterns: India has three cropping seasons-Kharif, Rabi and Zaid.
Q. 2. Compare the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice and The growth of wheat cultivation.
Ans: Geographical conditions of wheat and rice.
|Temperature: It requires 10°C to 15°C at sowing and 21°C to 26°C at the times of harvesting.||Temperature: It requires 24°C mean monthly temperature.|
|Rainfall is required about 75 cm to 100 cm.||Rainfall: required about 150 to 200 cm.|
|Soil: Fertile alluvial soil and clayey loamy is best suited for wheat.||Soil: Clayey soil is ideal for rice cultivation.|
Q. 3. Identify and write any four similar geographical conditions required for both tea and coffee.
Ans: Similar geographical conditions for tea and coffee are:
1. Both the crops require hot and humid climate, temperature is required between 20°C to 30° C.
2. Rainfall about 150 cm to 300 cm is essential for production of both crops.
3. Both crops tea and coffee are shaded loving plants.
4. Soil should be well drained loamy soil.
Q. 4. Analyse any four major challenges confronted by Indian agriculture.
Ans: The major challenges are as under:
1. Stagnation in production of major crops: The production of some of the major staple food crops like rice and wheat has been stagnating for quite some time. This situation is worrying agricultural scientists, planners and policy makers.
2. High cost of farm inputs: The rates of farm imputs have increased manifold. Such an increase puts low and medium land holding farmers let a disadvantage.
3. Soil exhaustion: Green revolution has led to negative consequences. One of which is soil exhaustion. It means loss of nutrients in the soil from farming the same crop over and over again.
4. Depletion of fresh ground water: The other major negative consequence of green revolution is depletion of fresh groundwater. It is due to the excessive use of groundwater for irrigation.
Q. 5. Explain the concept of food security. How is it different from self sufficient in food?
Ans: We had to face periodic droughts and famines and India had to import food from other countries. India which known for its independent foreign policy could not afford to approach the world with a bowl in its hand. Thus food security became one of the important concerns in India. India today has sizeable buffer stock of food grains particularly rice, wheat and millets. The real problem is to preserve and store the stock. We have not yet developed economically viable technology to store our food grains. India is now self sufficient and in the capacity of food exports.
Q. 6. On the outline map of India locate the production areas of:
(i) Two labour intensive crops.
(ii) Two crops that are grown in varied terrains.
Ans: (i) Two labor intensive crops are rice and cotton. For distribution of crop see the map fig. No. 12.1 and 12.4.
(ii) Two crops that grown in varied terrains are tea and coffee. See the map 12.5.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Choose the Correct Options:
Q. 1. ______ agriculture is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoi, dao and digging sticks and family/ community labour.
(d) Primitive subsistence
Ans: (d) Primitive subsistence.
Q. 2. Slash and burn agriculture is known as _________ in north Eastern states.
Ans: (a) Jhumming.
Q. 3. Which one of the following crops is sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June?
(d) None of the above
Ans: (a) Rabi
Q. 4. Which of one the following crops is grown with the onset of monsoon and are harvested in September-October?
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b) Kharif.
Q. 5. Which is the main food crop, in north and north-western parts of the country?
Ans: (a) Wheat.
Q. 6. Which of the following states is the largest producer of wheat in India?
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Madhya Pradesh
Ans: (a) Uttar Pradesh
Q. 7. India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of ______ in the world?
Ans: (d) Pulses.
Q. 8. Which is the main food crop of the eastern and southern parts of the country?
Ans: (a) Rice.
Q. 9. The third most important food crop of our country is:
Ans: (c) Jowar.
Q. 10. Which of the following is known as golden fiber?
Ans: (b) Jute.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. Which method of cultivation involves the system of constantly moving to new field as the old ones lose their fertility?
Ans: Shifting cultivation.
Q. 2. Name the rubber producing state of India.
Q. 3. Which are the two staple food crops of India?
Ans: Rice and wheat.
Q. 4. What is intensive cultivation of vegetables, fruits and flowers called?
Q. 5. What type of agriculture is a large scale one crop farming resembling factory production and based on capital investment and application for modern science and technology?
Ans: Plantation agriculture.
Q. 6. What position does India occupy in the world in the production of tea?
Ans: First position.
Q. 7. What is dry farming?
Ans: A method of farming adopted in the areas which have inadequate rainfall and lack irrigational facilities. Drought enduring crops are cultivated through dry farming.
Q. 8. Kerala leads in the production of rubber. Give two reasons. (Imp.)
Ans: Kerala leads in production of rubber because:
1. Rubber grows well in hot and wet climate.
2. It requires a rainfall of above 200 cm.
3. It requires cheap labor to collect latex.
Q. 9. What temperature and rainfall require for growing rice? Also name the production areas.
Ans: Temperature and rainfall conditions for growing rice:
Temperature – 25°C Rainfall 100 cm and above.
Main areas – Western coastal trip, Assam plains, West Bengal, Bihar, U.P., Chhattisgarh, northern Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. What helped Indian farmers to increase agriculture productivity?
Ans: Factors that helped Indian farmers to increase agriculture production:
1. Chemically treated improved and high yielding varieties of seeds made available through various government agencies.
2. Agricultural scientists made marathon efforts for experimentations and development of these seeds.
3. Fertilizers, insecticides, weedicides, pesticides helped to retain fertility of the soil and save crops from damage by pests.
4. Nearly half of the total area under food crops has been brought under irrigation. In case of crops of wheat and sugarcane cover 80% land was irrigated.
Q. 2. Give example to show the impact of globalization on Indian agriculture.
Ans: Globalization means integrating the economy of a country with the world economy. The impact of globalisation is apparent. It has thrown open Indian markets to the world. It has reduced govt. control over international trade and adoption of liberal policy in respect of imports and exports. If the production costs of a commodity is high, traders can import it from other countries at low price. Prices of most farm products in the international market are declining where as in the Indian market these are increasing.
In order to stand in global competition India has to use its vast potential of agriculture in a planned manner. This step calls for the development of a well knit infrastructure like roads, electricity, irrigation and other facilities to farmers.
Q. 3. Why is a breakthrough in dry farming most essential in Indian agriculture?
Ans: Dry farming is an agricultural method practiced in areas where rainfall is scanty. In such regions irrigation facilities are also not available. In this method deep plowing is done after every rain to preserve most of the rainwater. In such areas one crop is grown in a year. Generally drought-resisting crops like wheat, cotton, gram and pulses are grown.
In India, dry farming is done in arid areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana. 50% of our areas is under cultivation. We cannot increase it due to some limitations. Therefore, it is essential to get a breakthrough in dry farming by using bunding and contour ploughing to retain the maximum amount of moisture and to avoid soil erosion.
Q. 4. Why is cotton best grown on Deccan Lava region?
Ans: Cotton is mostly grown in Maharashtra, Gujarat and M.P. due to the following factors:
1. The high temperature of these southern states is favour in the growth of cotton.
2. These regions have moderate rainfall of 50 to 100 cm.
3. These regions are marked with a bright clear weather at the time of picking of cotton.
4. Black cotton soil and red soil are best suited to cultivation of cotton.
5. These regions have well equipped textile centers.
6. These regions have long frost free season.
Q. 5. Why is Uttar Pradesh largest producer of sugarcane in India?
Ans: In India Uttar Pradesh is largest producer of sugarcane because:
1. Sugarcane requires temperature between 25°C to 30°C and abundant rainfall. All the favourable conditions to grow sugarcane are available in U.P.
2. There is fertile soils for cultivation of sugarcane is also found. Lomy and alluvial soil is most suited.
Q. 6. Differentiate between subsistence farming and commercial farming.
Ans: Subsistence farming:
1. In this pattern of land use size of land holding is small.
2. Production is oriented for use of the family.
3. Usually associated with poverty.
1. Size of landholding is fairly large.
2. Production is oriented towards market
is fairly large.
3. Associated with market economy with fairly good standard of living.
Q. 7. Distinguish between mixed cropping and mixed farming.
|Mixed cropping||Mixed farming|
|Mixed cropping refers to raising a number of crops from the some field during one agriculture year. For example cultivation of oil seeds with wheat, flax with cotton or sugarcane etc.||Mixed farming involves crop production, livestock rearing and poultry farming etc. all together.|