NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 16 Social and Educational Problems

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 16 Social and Educational Problems Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 16 Social and Educational Problems Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 16 Social and Educational Problems Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Psychology Notes Paper 222.

NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 16 Social and Educational Problems

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Psychology Chapter 16 Social and Educational Problems Solutions, NIOS Secondary Course Psychology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 16



Q.1. Complete the following statements:

(a) Poverty is defined in terms of __________ and ___________ poverty.

Ans: Objective and subjective.

(b) Objective poverty is the lack of __________ ___________.

Ans: Material and belongings.

(c) Subjective poverty refers to the _________ and _________ felt by the person.

Ans: Perception and experience.

(d) __________ refers to loss of opportunities and privileges that are normally available to the general population.

Ans: Deprivation.

(e) Deprived person must be trained in terms of __________, __________ and ___________ skills.

Ans: Cognitive, motivational and behavioural.

(f) Psychological interventions for poverty must operate at the ___________, __________ and ___________ levels.

Ans:  Individual, community and societal.

Q.2. Explain the causes and consequences of poverty.

Ans: Deprivation, malnutrition, socialisation patterns, personality motivation and mental health. 


Fill in the blanks:

Q.1. The sex ratio of male and female is unfavourable towards.

Ans: Women.

Q.2. Two women leaders who have emerged as leaders at national level are __________ and __________.

Ans: Sarojini Naidu and Indira Gandhi.

Q.3. Drug addiction is a chronic problem that involves ___________ and by the individual.

Ans: Dropout.

Q.4. __________ refers to the proportion of children who discontinue school after enrolling in the schooling system.

Ans: Wastage.

Q.5. Students initially join and after a few years leave school, leading to ___________ of the resources employed to educate the child.

Ans: Compulsive drug seeking, dependence.


Q.1. Define poverty. Explain the causes and consequences of poverty.

Ans: The terms of poverty, which is lack of material belongings, that is, lack of economic resources such as it is difficult to achieve an adequate level of living. Hence we can say that poverty divides the population between those who have an adequate level of living and those who do not. Subjective poverty refers to the perception and experience of poverty as felt by a person. Deprivation on the other hand refers to loss of opportunities and privileges that are normally available to the general population. It means lack of basic necessities for the survival of an individual. This can take the form of inadequate environmental conditions, impoverished experiences and characteristics of the socially disadvantaged sections.

The causes and consequences of poverty are mentioned:

Poverty needs to be understood as a cause as well as consequence. It is caused by several  factors and in turn causes several other problems. An important aspect of poverty is deprivation. Deprivation, a lack of opportunity, reduces access to availability of resources and is due to poor economic conditions. For example, education and employment have a two way relationship with reduced opportunity to be gainfully employed. There are many consequences of poverty. They interact with each other to bring about physical and psychological effects on the persons. Let us examine some of the key consequences of Poverty. 

(i) Malnutrition and Development: Malnutrition influences both physical growth and affects psychological development. A good diet helps a child to be active and happy. Malnutrition and social impoverishment are major factors that bring about mental retardation. Children of poor families start life with a handicap of limited food supply, widespread infections, poor health, inadequate stimulation, and lack of education and awareness among parents.

(ii) Socialisation Patterns: Socialisation patterns under poverty conditions are characterised by inadequate stimulation, poor or no schooling, lack of role models, and lack of social and emotional support from the peer group. Lack of such aspects has a detrimental influence on the cognitive and emotional development of the growing child.

(iii) Personality Development: Different personality patterns are suggested for the deprived and non-deprived groups. Highly deprived children are likely to be high on neuroticism and introversion, and low on extraversion than non-deprived children. Deprivation is also related to social maladjustment, immaturity, and withdrawal. It also predisposes children to delinquency, and proneness to more external and chance orientation than non-deprived young adults.

(iv) Motivational Consequences:The experiences of rewards and punishments helps in the formation of one’s motivational orientation, poverty condition leads to low need for achievement, low extension need, and a high need for dependence. 

(v) Mental health: There is increasing evidence of a strong association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and derivation. The type and extent of mental health problems range from health problems, adjustment is higher if the individual is a migrant and comes from a low socio-economic status. Although mental illness occurs in all ages, gender and backgrounds, the risk is higher among the poor and homeless, unemployed, and with low education. 

(vi) Psychological Interventions: There are many causes and consequences of poverty. It affects the individual, group and society. Psychologists work with the idea that human development is shaped by the experiences faced by the individual. The aim towards helping the person then is to train the individual by building up and increasing support to the deprived person in terms of cognitive, motivational and behavioural skills. Such guidance will increase the competency levels for effective functioning in society.

Q.2. Write short notes on:

(i) Drug addiction.

Ans: Drug addiction is a chronic problem that involves compulsive drug seeking and dependence on it despite the fact that it has harmful effects on the individual.It is often difficult to understand as to why some people become addicted to drugs. It could be due to a combination of risk factors such as individual biology, socioeconomic status, peer pressure, stress, quality of parenting, role models, and age are some important aspects. Genetic and environmental factors interact with developmental and maturity stages in a person’s life. The earlier a person takes to consuming drugs the more serious the addiction. It is a common problem and a challenge during adolescence, when peer pressure to experiment with new things is present. Drug addiction is closely related to crime and HIV/AIDS. The effects on physical and mental health are also well documented.

Treatment is available to help people counter their addiction; however prevention of drug addiction is a better approach. Involving families, schools, colleges, community and media are effective ways of countering addiction. Public figures and youth icons can participate in anti-drug campaigns.

(ii) Dowry.

Ans: Dowry refers to the cash, gifts, property and material goods the man receives from the wife’s family at the time of marriage. Dowry was earlier a way of helping with the marriage expenses but now it has become a way of paying the groom’s family for taking on the burden of a woman. Due to this aspect the birth of a girl in a family is considered as an expense, and if the family is poor it puts more strain on the family. There are many reasons for dowry giving and taking. The concern by the girl’s parents to provide a good and happy life to their daughter forces them to pay large amounts as dowry much beyond their means. Borrowing money at high interest rates to pay dowry often puts the family in perennial debt. Dowry is a social custom, practised for generations. Changing such customs is very difficult. This custom puts the young woman at very high risk. The woman who brings in little dowry is at the mercy of the husband’s family, as they may ill treat her, harass her and indulge in violence and torture. It is sad to note that even in the presence of the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, dowry deaths are becoming more prevalent, indicating that mere laws do not help in the eradication of this social evil. Effective implementation, active involvement and cooperation of society in removing this evil must be sought. Boys and girls must be educated, taught to respect each other, and refusals of dowry are some ways of eradicating this social evil.

Q.3. Explain the terms ‘stagnation’ and ‘Wastage’ in the educational setting. What efforts are being made to reduce school dropouts.

Ans: The right to education is a fundamental right. Yet we note that children who join school often drop out of schooling. Dropout rate is defined as the proportion of children who discontinue school after enrolling in the schooling system. Thirty percent of children leave school before completing five years of schooling and 50 percent leave before completing 8 years of schooling. 

Two additional concepts of stagnation and wastage are important in the educational setting. Education is necessary for the development of the person and effective contribution of the person towards society. When the education received is of little or no help to the person then it is termed as wastage of education. It is important for the growing child to use the knowledge he or she has gained from education, in its absence there is wastage of the resources. In addition the educational system needs to keep pace with demands and needs of the context and bring about changes in the curriculum and knowledge content of different educational fields. If it cannot do so then educational stagnation takes place. Thus at the primary school level students initially join and after a few years leave school, leading to wastage of the resources employed to educate the child. It becomes essential to retain the child back in school to complete his/her education. Often children are retained in the same class due to unsatisfactory progress. This further demotivates the child to continue studying in school. 

There are various reasons for school dropout, stagnation and wastage. These reasons fall into three categories, namely, socio-economic, psychological and educational. The absence of schooling activities in the vicinity, lack of awareness of necessary education among parents, poverty, lack of interest in education, absence of educational environment, examination failure and, the need for children to work for economic reasons are major reasons for leaving school. In addition, poor systemic support in terms of rules and procedures of the schooling system, curriculum that is alien to the needs of the students, poor quality of education, and poor equipment also play a role in increasing school dropouts.Efforts to decrease the school dropout rate are government programs such as National Literacy Mission, Sarv Shiksha Abhïyan (Total Literacy Campaign) and Mid Day Meal Scheme. Kerala has the highest literacy rate in the country, and other states are also doing their best to decrease school dropouts.

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