NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 The Constitution and Social Change

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 The Constitution and Social Change Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 The Constitution and Social Change and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 The Constitution and Social Change Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Sociology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 The Constitution and Social Change

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Sociology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 9 The Constitution and Social Change Notes, NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 9

PART – II: SOCIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

TEXTUAL QUESTIONS ANSWERS

1. Have you heard of Bal Panchayats and Mazdoor Kissan Sangathan? If not, find out and write a note about them in about 200 words.

Ans: Bal Panchayat: Bal Panchayat is the representative organ of Bal Sabha. Its members are the elected / selected members of the Bal Sabha and are accountable to it. The age of the members is between 10-15 years.. It is an initiative supported by UNICEF to involve children in decision making at village panchayat level.

According to the Constitution, Panchayats should be given powers and authority to function as institutions of self-government. It, thus, requires all state governments to revitalise local representative institutions.

The following powers and responsibility were delegated to the Panchayats:

(i) To prepare plans and schemes for economic development. 

(ii) To promote schemes that will enhance social justice.

(iii) To levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.

(iv) Help in the devolution of governmental responsibilities, especially that of finances to local authorities.

Mazdoor kissan sangathan: Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) is a non-governmental and non-political organisation, which works for ensuring the democratic rights of peasants and labourers. It has been the major force behind the Right to Information legislation all over the country.

India is a country of villages. Even today 75% of Indian population is living in villages and depends on agriculture. Earlier this population was not politically aware with their rights. They were very much traditional and attached to their customs and rituals but due to congress and communists now the kissans of India are politically very mature, are aware with their strength and providing strong base to Indian democracy.

2. The 73rd amendment has been monumental in bringing a voice to the people in the villages. Discuss.

Ans: The 73rd amendment has been monumental in bringing a voice to the people in the villages because this amendment is related to the directive principles of the state policy and Panchayati raj. The amendment is based on the principle of power of the people and provides constitutional guarantee to the Panchayats.

Main features of the Act:

(i) Recognition to Panchayats as institutions of self government. 

(ii) Panchayat’s power and responsibilities to prepare a plan for economic development and social justice. 

(iii) Establishment of uniform 3 tier system of strong Panchayats at village block and district levels for all states having a population of over 20 lakhs. 

(iv) The Act provides guidelines for the structure powers and functions finance and elections and reservation of seats for the weaker sections of the given area.

Importance of the Act: 

(i) It was a revolutionary step towards establishing grassroot democracy. 

(ii) All the states have passed legislation on the basis of guidelines and provision of the amendments. 

(iii) Because of this act Panchayati Raj System at grassroot level became a reality.

3. Write an essay on the ways that the Indian Constitution touches peoples’ everyday life, drawing upon different examples.

Ans: The Indian Constitution, adopted in 1950, is not merely a historical document but a living testament to the aspirations of a nation. It permeates the everyday lives of Indian citizens, guaranteeing fundamental rights, establishing a framework for governance, and fostering a sense of equality and justice.

Firstly, the Constitution guarantees fundamental rights that directly impact individuals’ daily experiences. For instance, Article 21, which ensures the right to life and personal liberty, underpins various aspects of personal freedom. It safeguards citizens against arbitrary arrest or detention, ensuring due process of law. This right forms the basis for judicial decisions protecting individual autonomy and dignity.

Moreover, the Constitution’s directive principles guide state policy towards socio-economic justice and welfare. Article 39, for example, directs the state to secure equal pay for equal work, ensuring fair labour practices. This principle influences workplace dynamics across sectors, advocating for non-discriminatory employment practices and decent working conditions.

In conclusion, the Indian Constitution is not a distant document but a living force shaping the lives of its citizens. From guaranteeing fundamental rights to establishing a framework for governance, it provides the foundation for a just and equitable society. As India continues to evolve, the Constitution will remain a guiding light, ensuring the aspirations of its people are realised in their everyday lives.

4. What is the significance of political parties in a democracy?

Ans: Significance of political parties in a democracy:

(i) In a democratic form of government political parties are key actors.

(ii) A political party may be defined as an organisation oriented towards achieving legitimate control of government through an electoral process.

(iii) Political Party is an organisation established with the aim of achieving governmental power and using that power to pursue a specific programme.

(iv)  Political parties are based on certain understanding of society and how it ought to be.

(v) In a democratic system the interests of different groups are also represented by political parties, who take up their case.

5. How are pressure groups formed?

Ans: Pressure groups are organisations that form when people with shared interests, opinions, or occupations come together to achieve a common goal. They are also known as interest groups. Pressure groups can be spontaneous and unorganised, or they can be more organised and represent interests through institutions like businesses, educational institutions, and non-governmental organisations. A pressure group is an organisation which attempts to influence government policies through protests and demonstrations. Pressure groups are formed when people with similar opinions get together for similar objectives.

6. What is the role of interest groups in a democratic system?

Ans: Interest groups, also known as pressure groups, play a vital role in a democratic system by representing citizens’ needs and influencing public policy. They act as channels for citizen mobilisation and ensure that a wide range of views are considered in the democratic process.

Role of interest groups in a democratic system: 

(i) Organised interest groups are active in every political community, more so in a representative government committed to the realisation of the’ ideal of a social service state. But a degree of difference exists in that they are more varied and active in a rich and prosperous society, as distinguished from a poor and backward country.

(ii) But in spite of this degree of differentiation, it is certain that in the political process of western democracy their significance is enhanced by the factor of modernisation which acts as a lubricant in the machine of functional differentiation. The multiversal character of society in the shape of the division of labour and functional specialisation fragments it into a very large number of interests, thus making possible a social organisation made up of groups.

(iii) When the state is committed to the idea of a welfare state, it assigns to social groups a greater stake in politics and thereby mobilises them to a much greater extent. At the same time, when the state adopts a policy of a positive role in the sphere of planning and social service, it makes itself increasingly dependent upon the aid and advice of such groups.

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