NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Change and Development in Rural Society

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NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Change and Development in Rural Society

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Sociology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Change and Development in Rural Society Notes, NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 10

PART – II: SOCIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

TEXTUAL QUESTIONS ANSWERS

1. Read the passage given and answer the questions: 

The harsh working conditions suffered by labourers in Agha Bigha were an outcome of the combined effect of the economic power of the maliks as a class and their overwhelming power as members of a dominant caste. A significant aspect of the social power of the maliks was their ability to secure the intervention of various arms of the state to advance their interests. Thus, political factors decisively contributed to widening the gulf between the dominant class and the underclass. 

(i) Why do you think the maliks were able to use the power of the state to advance their own interests?

Ans: The Maliks were able to use the power of the state to advance their interests because of their economic and social power, and their position as members of a dominant caste. 

(ii) Why did labourers have harsh working conditions?

Ans: The labour have been working under harsh conditions because being dalits, they were not allowed to own land and compelled to work in the lands of dominant caste people as a labourer. 

2. What measures do you think the government has taken, or should take, to protect the rights of landless agricultural labourers and migrant workers?

Ans: Measures to protect the right of Landless: 

(i) Abolition of bonded labour legally: 1975 with the enactment of Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976. It freed unilaterally all the bonded labourers from bondage with simultaneous liquidation of their debts. It made the practice of bondage a cognizable offence punishable by law.

(ii) Abolition of Zamindari System: The intermediaries between the peasants and the state were Change and Development in RuralSociety the Zamindars. The state very effectively and intensively passed legislation and this system was abolished.

(iii) Abolition and regulation act for Tenancy: These laws discouraged tenancy or ‘Batai’ system. In West Bengal and Kerala where CPI systems government was in power the tenants got the land rights. Imposition of Land Ceiling Act According to this act the upper limit of land for an owner is being fixed. Because of this act to identify surplus land and redistribute among the landless became programme of the state. Binoba Bhave’s Bhoodan yojna instructed this legislation but there are many shortcomings in this act and should be taken care of. To improve the condition of landless people living in villages the state should take appropriate measures and this whole sector should be organised. The economic conditions of villages should be improved by the state. Villages should be well connected to the ties job opportunities should be creaked in the villages. Education and health facilities as well as entertainment facilities should be developed in the villages to discourage migration.

3. There are direct linkages between the situation of agricultural workers and their lack of upward socio-economic mobility. Name some of them.

Ans: The situation of agricultural workers in India is closely intertwined with their lack of upward socio-economic mobility, influenced by several key factors:

(i) Indian rural society is totally dependent on agriculture. It is the only source of their livelihood. Unfortunately it is unevenly distributed not organised and many people of ruralSociety are landless.

(ii) Indian rural society has patrilineal kinship system. According to legal system women are supposed to have an equal right of family property but actually it is simply on papers. Because of male dominance they are deprived of their rights.

(iii) Most of the people in villages are landless and for their livelihood they become agriculture workers. They are paid below the statutory minimum wages. Their job is not regular and employment is insecure. Mostly these agriculture workers work on daily wages.

(iv) The tenants also have lower income because they have to pay a large amount of production to the landowner. 

4. What are the different factors that have enabled certain groups to transform themselves into new wealthy, entrepreneurial, dominant classes? Can you think of an example of this transformation in your state?

Ans: Several factors can enable groups to transform into wealthy, entrepreneurial, and dominant classes, including access to education and skills.

They are:

(i) Land ownership: Owning land has allowed some groups to become wealthy. The cast and classes who became rich purchased big pieces of land and used all the modern means of agriculture so as to increase the agricultural production and became wealthy and thus hold dominant position in the society.

(ii) Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship can be a way for groups to create value and change. Entrepreneurship is the ability and readiness to develop, organise and run a business enterprise, along with any of its uncertainties in order to make a profit.

(iii) Adaptability: The ability to adapt to changing circumstances can help people weather storms and emerge stronger. Adaptability, a coveted soft skill in the job market, encompasses the ability to respond flexibly to evolving factors, conditions, or environments by acquiring new skills. 

(iv) Demographic changes: Changes in demographics can create opportunities. Demographic change describes the changes in population size and structure caused by changes in birth rates, death rates, and by migration.

(v) Changes in perception: Shifts in perception can create new opportunities. Changing perceptions can involve changing how you perceive yourself or others.

(vi) New knowledge: Access to new knowledge can create opportunities. New knowledge means information that is added to or modified from existing scientific theory or facts that is accepted among a group of researchers.

5. Hindi and regional language films were often set in rural areas. Think of a film set in rural India and describe the agrarian society and culture that is shown in it. How realistic do you think the portrayal is? Have you seen any recent film set in rural areas? If not how would you explain it?

Ans: Many Hindi as well as regional language movies try to portray the village life of India now and then. Some famous movies among them are Mother India, Lagaan, Upkaar, etc.

We can’t say that these films portray the hundred percent real picture of the village life but to some extent they try to touch their lives and make us aware about the difficulties and other problems faced by them.

Some facts portrayed by these movies are:

(i) Forced sale of Agricultural products at less than market price.

(ii) Zamindari system and its drawbacks.

(iii) Exploitation of women by zamindars in Olden Times.

(iv) Forced loan from money lenders in villages at high rate of interest.

6. Visit a construction site in your neighbourhood, a brickyard, or other such place where you are likely to find migrant workers. Find out where the workers come from. How are they recruited from their home villages, who is the ‘mukadam’? If they are from rural areas, find out about their lives in their villages and why they have to migrate to find work.

Ans: Visiting a construction site or brickyard to gather firsthand information about migrant workers and their recruitment processes can provide insights into their lives and the factors driving migration from rural areas. 

Here’s an overview based on typical observations and interactions:

(i) Origin of Workers: The majority of the workers at the construction site came from rural areas in neighbouring states. They hailed from villages where employment opportunities were limited.

(ii) Recruitment Process: The ‘mukadam’ or labour contractor plays a pivotal role in recruiting and organising migrant workers. They often visit rural villages and act as intermediaries between the workers and the construction site owners or contractors.

(iii) Living Conditions and Lives in Villages: In their villages, migrant workers typically come from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Agriculture, if available, may not provide sufficient income due to fragmented land holdings, low productivity, or erratic weather conditions.

(iv) Reasons for Migration: In rural areas, due to less employment opportunities, low wages, drought, lack of basic amenities, landlessness, social factors act, people migrate to urban areas to get more employment opportunities, higher income, better wages, better facilities activities.

7. Visit your local fruit-seller, and ask her/him about the fruits she/he sells, where they come from, and their prices. Find out what has happened to the prices of local products after fruits began to be imported from outside of India (such as apples from Australia). Are there any imported fruits cheaper than Indian fruits?

Ans: Near my house in the Dhemaji fruit and vegetable market. Usually the fruits from various States of India are sold in this market, like we get apples from Kashmir, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Oranges from Arunachal and so on.

Due to liberalisation and globalisation the door of the world market has been opened for Indian producers and it is often observed that the fruits of good quality are generally exported and we are offered low quality fruit at higher rate.

Various fruits from foreign markets are also available in India which has lowered the price of Indian fruits. Imported fruits are not cheaper than Indian fruits but they have increased the competition in the Indian market which has brought down the rate of Indian fruit in the local market.

8. Collect information and write a report on the environmental situation in rural India. Examples of topics: pesticides; declining water table; impact of prawn farming in coastal areas; salination of soil and waterlogging in canal irrigated areas; loss of biodiversity. Possible source: State of India’s Environment Reports, Reports from Centre for Science and Development and the magazine Down to Earth.

Ans: The Environmental situation of rural India is not very good.

The negative impacts of various means of agriculture are as follows:

(i) Pesticides: Pesticides play a crucial role in modern agriculture by controlling pests, diseases, and weeds that threaten crop yields.

(ii) Declining Water Table: The declining water table is a significant environmental issue affecting many parts of India, particularly in regions where groundwater is a crucial source of water for agriculture, industry, and domestic use.

(iii) Soil salinity: Salinization is the process of increasing salt content in the soil which is the result of irrigation. 

The negative impacts of salinity are:

(a) It adversely affects the plant growth and yield.

(b) It damages the infrastructure like roads, bricks, cables, pipes, etc.

(c) It reduces the water quality and results in soil erosion.

(iv) Loss of Biodiversity: Loss of biodiversity refers to the ongoing reduction of the variety of life forms (species diversity), their genetic variability (genetic diversity), and the variety of ecosystems (ecosystem diversity) on Earth. This phenomenon is primarily driven by human activities and poses significant environmental, economic, and social challenges.

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