NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 11 Change and Development in Industrial Society

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 11 Change and Development in Industrial Society Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 11 Change and Development in Industrial Society and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 11 Change and Development in Industrial Society Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Sociology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 11 Change and Development in Industrial Society

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Sociology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 11 Change and Development in Industrial Society Notes, NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 11



1. Choose any occupation you see around you – and describe it along the following lines: 

(a) social composition of the work force – caste, gender, age, region. 

(b) labour process – how the work takes place. 

(c) wages and other benefits. 

(d) working conditions – safety, rest times, working hours, etc.

Ans: 1. Presently social composition of the work force in industry is concerned, people from all caste and both gender from the age group of fifteen to sixty work. Some regions of the country are having more industry than the other.

2. Since 1990’s, the government has followed policy of liberalisation. Private companies, especially foreign firms encouraged investment in sector which was earlier reserved for the government.

3. Workers also expect that they can pass on their jobs to their children. Many factories employ badli workers who substitute for regular permanent workers who are on leave. Many of these badli workers have actually worked for many years for the same company but are not given the same status and security.

4. Generally people get jobs through advertisement or through employment exchange in industrial sector. Man and women both work in industrial sector. The persons engaged in industry get salary or wages along with certain benefits like HRA (House Rent Allowance) and Medical facilities.

5. Different workers have different working period in different industries according to their qualification, experience, age and risk of the job. The contract  labourers get fixed amount as per the terms and conditions of contract. In organized sector, pay and allowances are better than the unorganised sector.

6. The loaned money is treated as an advance wages and the worker works without wages until the loan is repaid. In the past, agricultural  labourers were tied to their landlord by debt. Now, however, by moving to casual industrial work, while they are still in debt, they are not bound by other social obligations to the contractor. In that sense, they are more free in an industrial society. They can break the contract and find another employer. Sometimes, whole families migrate and the children help their parents.

7. Job recruitment as a factory worker takes a different pattern. In the past, many workers got their jobs through contractors or jobbers. In the Kanpur textile mills, these jobbers were known as mistris, and were themselves workers. They came from the same regions and communities as the workers, but because they had the owner’s backing they bossed over the workers.

8. The contractor system is most visible in the hiring of casual labour for work on construction sites, brickyards and so on. The contractor goes to villages and asks if people want work. He will loan them some money. This loan includes the cost of transport of the work side.

2. How has liberalisation affected employment patterns in India?

Ans: The two ways by which liberalisation impacted the employment patterns in India are: 

(i) Liberalisatfon in India has pushed the government to privatise sectors causing workers to lose their jobs. 

(ii) There has been a rise in contracting/outsourcing and secure employment has therefore reduced.

Due to liberalisation foreign products are now easily available in Indian markets and shops. Due to this some of the labour have to loose their employment and jobs. Many Indian companies have been taken over by multinationals. At the same time some Indian companies are becoming multinational companies. An instance of the first is when, Parle drinks was bought by Coca Cola.

The government is trying to sell its share in several public sector companies, a process which is known as disinvestment. Many government workers are scared that after disinvestment, they will lose their jobs.

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