NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Introducing Indian Society

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NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Introducing Indian Society

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Chapter: 1



1. What are the main problems of national integration in India?

Ans: The main problems of national integration in India are:

(i) Ethnic Diversity: Ethnic diversity refers to the presence of people from a variety of cultural and ethnic backgrounds or identities, and it’s one of the many different kinds of human diversity that have an impact on psychology.

(ii) Religious Differences: The major incidences include the 1969 Gujarat riots, 1984 Sikh massacre, the 1989 Bhagalpur riots, 1989 Kashmir violence, Godhra train burning, 2002 Gujarat riots, 2013 Muzaffarnagar riots and 2020 Delhi riots.

(iii) Linguistic Diversity: India has a very rich linguistic diversity, which is evidenced by people of our vast country who write in many languages and speak in many more voices.

(iv) Regionalism: Regionalism is a political ideology that seeks to increase the political power, influence and self-determination of the people of one or more subnational regions.

(v) Caste System: The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic instance of social classification based on castes. It has its origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in mediaeval, early-modern, and modern India, especially in the aftermath of the collapse of the Mughal Empire and the establishment of the British Raj.

(vi) Economic Disparities: Inequality in India has skyrocketed since the early 2000s, with the income and wealth share of the top one per cent of the population rising to 22.6 per cent and 40.1 per cent, respectively, in 2022-23, according to a working paper.

(vii) Political Factors: Political factors include the external constraints linked to governmental activities and political conditions that affect a business’ area of operation.

(viii) Historical Factors: The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to 30,000 years ago. Sedentariness began in South Asia around 7000 BCE; by 4500 BCE, settled life had spread, and gradually evolved into the Indus Valley Civilisation, which flourished between 2500 BCE and 1900 BCE in present-day Pakistan and north-western India.

(ix) Communication Barriers: Communication barriers can be defined as obstacles that one may face when attempting to effectively communicate with another person.

(x) Education and Awareness: The Act describes the modalities having the provision for free and compulsory education for children between 6 to 14 years under article 21 A of the Indian Constitution.

2. Why is sociology a distinct subject in comparison with all other subjects?

Ans: Sociology is a subject with which everyone knows something about society. Other subjects are learnt at home, school or elsewhere through instructions but much of our with growth in years as it appears to be acquired naturally or automatically.

3. What are the basic functions of a society?

Ans: The basic functions of a society are as follows:

(i) Social Order and Stability: Social order is a fragile system that relies on a majority of the population adhering to social norms and expectations. It’s maintained by a combination of factors, including well-established social systems, government institutions, and people’s willingness to follow the rules.

(ii) Socialisation: Socialisation is the process through which people are taught to be proficient members of a society. It describes the ways that people come to understand societal norms and expectations, to accept society’s beliefs, and to be aware of societal values.

(iii) Resource Allocation: Resource allocation is the distribution of finite resources to specified purposes selected from among several feasible possibilities.

(iv) Protection and Security: Security and protection system, any of various means or devices designed to guard persons and property against a broad range of hazards, including crime, fire, accidents, espionage, sabotage, subversion, and attack.

(v) Social Integration: Social integration is the force that knits together diverse communities into a cohesive whole. In sociology, social integration takes centre stage as a concept of paramount importance.

(vi) Social Change: Social change as changes in human interactions and relationships that transform cultural and social institutions. These changes occur over time and often have profound and long-term consequences for society.

(vii) Social Welfare: Social Welfare refers to the holistic development of a human being. It includes protection against unemployment, poverty, old age, disability, among others.

4.What do you understand by social structure?

Ans: Social structure is the framework that organises human societies, and is made up of patterned social arrangements that influence people’s actions. Social structure is often treated together with the concept of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the organisation of society.

In sociology, social structure is the organised set of social institutions and patterns of relationships that make up society. It’s a framework that determines the norms and patterns of relationships between different institutions, and it can also be seen as the rules and principles that influence human behaviour. Social structure is both a product of social interaction and directly determines it.

5. Why is the social map provided to us in childhood by the deluding socialisation essential?

Ans: While the social map provided during childhood through socialisation may be partial and contain unlearnt knowledge, it’s still essential for individual development and upholding cultures and societies. Socialisation helps children acquire the skills, behaviours, and attitudes needed to function in their society. It provides us only with common sense or unlearnt or perceivable knowledge which may or may not be real.

6. What is community identity? Discuss its characteristics.

Ans: Community identity is based on birth and belonging rather than on some form of acquired qualifications or accomplishment. These kind of identities are called ascriptive i.e. they are determined by birth and individuals choice is not involved.

Here are some key characteristics of community identity:

(i) Shared Beliefs and Values: Shared Values are explicit or implicit fundamental beliefs, concepts, and principles that underlie the culture of an organisation. These values guide decisions and behaviours of the employees and management.

(ii) Sense of Belonging: The sense of belonging and identification involves the feeling, belief, and expectation that one fits in the group and has a place there, a feeling of acceptance by the group, and a willingness to sacrifice for the group.

(iii) Distinctiveness: Community identity often involves a sense of distinctiveness or uniqueness that sets the community apart from others. This could be based on cultural practices, language, historical experiences, or geographical location.

(iv) Collective Memory: It is the individual or collective memory that strives, voluntarily or forced by others, to remember and to cope with an intrusive event that crushed the social and cultural basis of identity.

(v) Symbolism and Rituals: Ritual is often described as a symbolic expression of actual social relations, status, or the role of individuals in a society.

(vi) Social Boundaries: Social boundaries are objectified forms of social differences manifested in unequal access to and unequal distribution of resources (material and nonmaterial) and social opportunities.

(vii) Sense of Responsibility: Responsibility to society and humanity can be defined as the obligation to promote the well-being of the community and to act in ways that benefit the greater good.

(viii) Adaptability and Change: While community identity is rooted in tradition and shared history, it can also evolve over time. Communities may adapt to changing circumstances, integrate new members, and incorporate new cultural elements while still maintaining core aspects of their identity.

7. What is Self-reflexivity?

Ans: Reflexivity is a sociological theory that relates to self-examination that impacts the initial force making an impact on the individual in the first place. This theory focuses on the forces of socialisation in society and how an individual responds to those forces. For example, an individual who experiences a low level of reflexivity would allow themselves to be heavily impacted by societal forces. Whereas someone with high reflectivity allows themselves to be heavily impacted by their own forces, such as desire, norms, and ideology. There is a strong link between high reflexivity and an autonomous individual.

8. ‘Sociology can help us to map the links and connections between ‘personal troubles’ and ‘social issues’. Discuss.

Ans: Wright Mills a famous American Sociologist has mentioned “Sociology can help us to map the links and connections between personal troubles and social issues.” Personal troubles involve an individual’s private problems in relation to others. By contrast, public/social issues are forces which are outside of the personal control of an individual.

Sociological imagination is a concept that refers to the ability to connect personal experience with larger social structures and to see the link between personal troubles and public issues. This allows us to see how our environment and society influence our lives.

9. How colonial rule facilitated Indian consciousness to emerge? Discuss.

Ans: Colonial rule unified India politically and administratively for the first time. The shared experience of colonial domination and exploitation helped unite different sections of Indian society.

Colonial rule in India played a significant role in shaping and facilitating Indian consciousness to emerge in several crucial ways:

(i) Nationalism: The concept of modern Indian nationalism emerged under British colonialism. Colonialism introduced ideas of liberty, equality, and fraternity, which led the colonised to question the colonisers.

(ii) Modernization: Modernization in sociology the transformation from a traditional, rural, agrarian society to a secular, urban, industrial society.

(iii) Exploitation: Exploitation is a relationship in which one party uses power to gain at the expense of another. Exploitation happens through a claims-making process.

(iv) Economic impact: The colonial economy in India was influenced by British rule and had a big impact on India’s future. The British exploited India’s resources and people, destroying its wealth and hindering economic growth.

(v) Social impact: Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance.

10. What steps were taken by colonial rules for the smooth functioning of its rule?

Ans: The steps taken by colonial rules for the smooth functioning of its rule were that they:  

(i) Used new mechanical techniques in production. 

(ii)  Started new market system in trade.  

(iii) Developed means of transport and communication.  

(iv) Formed bureaucracy based on civil service of all India nature.  

(v) Established formal and written law.

11.Which social reformers carried out social reform movements during the British colonialism in India?

Ans: There were many social reformers who emerged during British colonialism in India, each with their own focus and approach.

Here are some of the notable social reformers:

(i) Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833): A key figure in the Bengal Renaissance, Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1828. This reform movement advocated for monotheism, social justice, and the abolition of oppressive practices like sati (widow burning) and child marriage.

(ii) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820-1891): A champion of women’s education, Vidyasagar campaigned for the legalisation of widow remarriage and played a key role in the passage of the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856.

(iii) Dayanand Saraswati (1824-1883): Dayanand Saraswati was a Hindu philosopher, social leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, a reform movement of Hinduism. His book Satyarth Prakash has remained one of the influential text on the philosophy of the Vedas and clarifications of various ideas and duties of human beings. He was the first to give the call for Swaraj as “India for Indians” in 1876, a call later taken up by Lokmanya Tilak.

(iv) Jyotirao Phule: Jyotirao Phule was an Indian social activist, businessman, anti-caste social reformer and writer from Maharashtra. His work extended to many fields, including eradication of untouchability and the caste system and for his efforts in educating women and oppressed caste people.

(v) Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (1836-1886): Ramakrishna, also called Ramakrishna Paramahansa, born Ramakrishna Chattopadhay, was an Indian Hindu mystic. He was a devotee of the goddess Kali, but adhered to various religious practices from the Hindu traditions of Vaishnavism, Tantric Shaktism, and Advaita Vedanta, as well as from Islam and Christianity.

(vi) Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902): Swami Vivekananda born Narendranath Datta was an Indian Hindu monk, philosopher, author, religious teacher, and the chief disciple of the Indian mystic Ramakrishna. He was a key figure in the introduction of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world, and the father of modern Indian nationalism who is credited with raising interfaith awareness and bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion.

12. State the processes the began during the British colonialism in India.

Ans: During the nearly 200 years of British rule, India was greatly impacted in many ways. One of the most significant changes was the introduction of Western education, which led to an increase in literacy rates and a rise in the middle class, to improve transportation and communication throughout India.

Here’s a simplified explanation of how British colonial rule transformed India in various aspects:

(i) Political Changes: The colonial jolt transformed our national movement, education system, political system, parliamentary and judicial systems, constitution, traffic rules, police, and, in general, the entire political framework.

(ii) Economic Changes: Another major economic impact of the British policies in India was the introduction of a large number of commercial crops such as tea, coffee, indigo, opium, cotton, jute, sugarcane and oilseed.

(iii) Social Changes: Unemployment, famine, poor sanitary conditions, lack of access to education and healthcare, caste-based oppression, religious violence and gender-based violence are all a part of the legacy of colonialism.

(iv) Administrative Changes: The British introduced the concepts of civil services and district administration. They established structures like imperial services, Indian Police Service and Indian Forest Service.

13. State main differences between Sociology and other subjects.

Ans: Sociology is a social science that studies human society as a whole, including social relationships, structures, institutions, culture, and interaction. Sociology focuses on the broader social structures and their impact on individuals and groups. Psychology examines individual thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. The two disciplines often overlap in areas such as social psychology and the study of social interactions. The social sciences are subjects concerned with how humans interact with the world, and sociology is interested in the study of society.

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