NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Sociology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity

Join Telegram channel

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Sociology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity Notes, NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 6



1. What is meant by cultural diversity? Why is India considered to be a very diverse country?

Ans: Cultural diversity is about appreciating that society is made up of many different groups with different interests, skills, talents and. needs. It also means that you recognise that people in society can have differing religious beliefs and sexual orientations to you.

India is considered a land of immense cultural diversity due to several factors:

(i) When we say that India is a nation of great cultural diversity we mean that there are many different types of social groups and communities living here.

(ii) India is a pluralistic society. There is unity in diversity but its excessive diversity is becoming a challenge. 

(iii) When diverse communities, linguistic communities, religious communities, sects and so on are also a part of a larger entity like a nation then difficulties may be created by competition or conflict between them.

2. What is community identity and how is it formed?

Ans: Community identity is based on birth and ‘belonging’ rather than on some form of acquired qualifications or ‘accomplishment’. It is what we ‘are’ rather than what we have ‘become’. We don’t have to do anything to be born into a community – in fact, no one has any choice about which family or community or country they are born into. These kinds of identities are called ‘ascriptive’ – that is, they are determined by the birth and do not involve any choice on the part of the individuals concerned. It is an odd fact of social life that people feel a deep sense of security and satisfaction in belonging to communities in which their membership is entirely accidental.

Perhaps it is because of this accidental, unconditional and yet almost inescapable belonging that we can often be so emotionally attached to our community identity. Expanding and overlapping circles of community ties (family, kinship, caste, ethnicity, language, region or religion) give meaning to our world and give us a sense of identity, of who we are. That is why people often react emotionally or even violently whenever there is a perceived threat to their community identity.

3. Why is it difficult to define the nation? How are nation and state related in modern society?

Ans: At the simplest level, a nation is a sort of large-scale community – it is a community of communities. Members of a nation share the desire to be part of the same political collectivity. This desire for political unity usually expresses itself as the aspiration to form a state. In its most general sense, the term state refers to an abstract entity consisting of a set of political-legal institutions claiming control over a particular geographical territory and the people living in it. In Max Weber’s well-known definition, a state is a “body that successfully claims a monopoly of legitimate force in a particular territory” (Weber 1970:78).

The criterion that comes closest to distinguishing a nation is the state. Unlike the other kinds of communities mentioned before, nations are communities that have a state of their own. That is why the two are joined with a hyphen to form the term nation-state. Generally speaking, in recent times there has been a one-to-one bond between nation and state (one nation, one state; one state, one nation). But this is a new development. It was not true in the past that a single state could represent only one nation, or that every nation must have its own state. For example, when it was in existence, the Soviet Union explicitly recognised that the peoples it governed were of different ‘nations’ and more than one hundred such internal nationalities were recognised. Similarly, people constituting a nation may actually be citizens or residents of different states. For example, there are more Jamaicans living outside Jamaica than in Jamaica – that is, the population of ‘non-resident’ Jamaicans exceeds that of ‘resident’ Jamaicans.

4. Why are states often suspicious of cultural diversity?

Ans: The states fear that the recognition of varied culturally diverse identities such as language ethnicity religion will lead to social fragmentation and prevent the creation of a harmonious society. Also apart from the fear of fragmentation, accommodating these differences is politically challenging. States try to establish their political legitimacy through nation-building strategies. • They sought to secure the loyalty and obedience of their citizens through policies of assimilation or integration.

5. What is regionalism? What factors is it usually based on?

Ans: Regionalism is a political ideology that seeks to increase the political power, influence and self-determination of the people of one or more subnational regions. It focuses on the “development of a political or social system based on one or more” regions and/or the national, normative, or economic interests of a specific region, group of regions or another subnational entity, gaining strength from or aiming to strengthen the “consciousness of and loyalty to a distinct region with a homogeneous population”, similarly to nationalism.

Factors of regionalism usually based on:

(i) Geography: Living in a specific geographical area with shared landscapes, landmarks, or environmental features can foster a sense of regional identity.

(ii) Shared history: A common historical background or significant regional events can create a sense of “we” among the people of a region.

(iii) Local customs and traditions: Participating in shared traditions, festivals, or a regional way of life can strengthen regional identity.

6. In your opinion, has the linguistic reorganisation of states helped or harmed India?

Ans: The linguistic reorganisation of states in India, which occurred primarily in the 1950s and 1960s, aimed to create states based on linguistic lines to accommodate India’s linguistic diversity and promote regional identities. 

This process has had both positive and negative impacts:

Positive impacts:

(i) Strengthened democracy: Opened the path to politics and power for people speaking regional languages.

(ii) National integration: Promoted linguistic diversity as a cornerstone of Indian unity.

(iii) Administrative efficiency: States can have their own official languages and carry out official work more efficiently.

(iv) Cultural identity: Strengthened regional identities of diverse cultural entities.

Negative impacts:

(i) Regionalism: Increased tensions over resources and demands for new states.

(ii) Contradictions: Nehru believed that linguistic states would further fracture the nation and not serve the ideals of secularism.

7. What is a ‘minority’? Why do minorities need protection from the state?

Ans: Minority, a culturally, ethnically, or racially distinct group that coexists with but is subordinate to a more dominant group. As the term is used in the social sciences, this subordinacy is the chief defining characteristic of a minority group. As such, minority status does not necessarily correlate to population.

Here are reasons why minorities often need protection from the state:

(i) Protection of Rights: Minority rights cover protection of existence, protection from discrimination and persecution, protection and promotion of identity, and participation in political life.

(ii) Equal Opportunities: Equal opportunity is a state of fairness where people are treated similarly and have the same chance to access resources like employment, housing, or education.

(iii) Cultural Preservation: Minorities often have distinct cultural practices, languages, and traditions that contribute to societal diversity. State protection helps preserve and promote these cultural identities from being marginalised or assimilated into the dominant culture.

(iv) Prevention of Discrimination: Discrimination can be prevented by adopting anti-discrimination laws and international human rights instruments that prohibit all forms of discrimination.

(v) Political Participation: In the politics of some countries, a “minority” is an ethnic group recognized by law, and having specified rights.

(vi) Historical Injustices: Many minorities have faced historical injustices, including colonisation, forced displacement, and cultural suppression. State protection may involve acknowledging past wrongs, providing reparations, and promoting reconciliation.

(vii) International Obligations: It guarantees the right to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, and to use their own language, in private and in public, freely and without interference or any form of discrimination by the Persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities.

8. What is communalism?

Ans: Communalism is an ideology that divides people into groups based on their ethnicity, religion, beliefs, and values. It can also be defined as a shared belief that one community is superior to others. Communalism can lead to the creation of separate religious or ethnic identities, conflict, and violence between communities.

9. What are the different senses in which ‘secularism’ has been understood in India?

Ans: There are certain reasons why ‘secularism’ is understood in different senses which given below:

(i) Specifically in India the term secularism means not being in the favour of any one religion rather respecting others too.

(ii) In the Western the term secularism means the differentiation of church and state.

(iii) The presence of modernity or arrival of the modern era is termed as secularism.

(iv) There is an existence of conflict between the Indian sense and western idea of religion.

10. What is the relevance of civil society organisations today?

Ans: Civil society organisations (CSOs), also known as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), are voluntary groups of citizens that can be organised on a local, national, or international level. 

They play many roles in society, including:

(i) Advocacy: CSOs can advocate for the public’s rights and wishes, and offer alternative policies to the government, private sector, and other institutions. They can also launch movements on issues like human rights, the environment, and dalit movements.

(ii) Monitoring: CSOs can monitor government policies and actions, and hold the government accountable. They can also ensure transparency in public revenues.

(iii) Information: CSOs can provide citizens with important information, such as their rights and obligations in relation to government processes, political issues, and policy agendas.

(iv) Services: CSOs can deliver basic services, such as primary education, health, water and sanitation, and shelter, counselling, and support services to disadvantaged groups.

(v) Participation: CSOs can promote political participation and encourage citizens to act collectively in the public sphere.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top