NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Sociology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Sociology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Patterns of Social Inequality and Exclusion Notes, NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 5



1. How is social inequality different from the inequality of individuals?

Ans: Social inequality different from the inequality of individuals are:

Social inequalityIndividual inequality
(i) Social inequality refers to the inequality in social status or the difference among people on the basis of their social status.(i) Individual inequality means the difference in physical characteristics like age intelligence, physical power, appearance, etc of individuals.
(ii) It encompasses systemic and structural inequalities that affect groups based on factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic class, age, disability, and geographical location.(ii) It addresses variations in personal circumstances and outcomes due to factors such as individual abilities, skills, efforts, choices, and personal characteristics.

2. What are some of the features of social stratification?

Ans: Some of the features of social stratification are:

(i) Social stratification is a universal phenomenon that is an unavoidable feature of all human societies.

(ii) It is the basis for the divisions of society and categorizations of people, and it forms social classes.

(iii) Social stratification is not just the function of individual differences, but denotes the characteristics of the society.

(iv) It persists over the generations as it is closely associated to the family and the inheritance of social resources from one generation to the other.

3. How would you distinguish prejudice from other kinds of opinion or belief?

Ans: Prejudice is a pre-judgement or preconceived opinion about a group of people, usually based on hearsay rather than personal experience. It’s different from opinions and beliefs, which are generally based on experience and can change over time with new evidence.

(i) Prejudice: Prejudices refer to preconceived opinions or attitudes held by members of one group towards another. The word literally means ‘pre-judgement’, that is, an opinion formed in advance of any familiarity with the subject, before considering any available evidence.

(ii) Opinions: Formed based on experience and can change with new evidence. Opinions are usually about individuals, not groups.

(iii) Beliefs: Beliefs are the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true. Individuals in a society have specific beliefs, but they also share collective values.

4. What is social exclusion?

Ans: Social exclusion refers to ways in which individuals may become cut off from full involvement in the wider society. It focuses attention on a broad range of factors that prevent individuals or groups from having opportunities open to the majority of the population. In order to live a full and active life, individuals must not only be able to feed, clothe and house themselves, but should also have access to essential goods and services such as education, health, transportation, insurance, social security, banking and even access to the police or judiciary. Social exclusion is not accidental but systematic – it is the result of structural features of society.

5. What is the relationship between caste and economic inequality today?

Ans: Caste is a major factor in economic inequality in India, where the caste system divides people into hierarchical social groups. In modern India, the poor are often from lower castes, while the rich are from higher castes. This can lead to exclusion in many areas of life, including access to services and resources. For example, in 2012, upper caste households earned almost 47% more than the national average annual household income. Lower class people may also have limited access to basic amenities, while upper class people may receive preferential treatment in education and other areas.

In the hierarchy of caste system each caste has a specific place and social status. There has been a close correlation between social or caste status and economic status. The high’ castes were almost invariably of high economic status. On the other hand the “low’ caste were almost always of low economic status.

6. What is untouchability?

Ans: ‘Untouchability’ is an extreme and particularly vicious aspect of the caste system that prescribes stringent social sanctions against members of castes located at the bottom of the purity-pollution scale. Strictly speaking, the ‘untouchable’ castes are outside the caste hierarchy – they are considered to be so ‘impure’ that their mere touch severely pollutes members of all other castes, bringing terrible punishment for the former and forcing the latter to perform elaborate purification rituals. In fact, notions of ‘distance pollution’ existed in many regions of India (particularly in the south) such that even the mere presence or the shadow of an ‘untouchable’ person is considered polluting. 

7. Describe some of the policies designed to address caste inequality.

Ans: Here are some policies that have been introduced to address caste inequality in India:

(i) Caste Disabilities Removal Act of 1850: This act prevented the prohibition of citizen rights and entry of Dalits into government schools.

(ii) Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989: This act abolished untouchability, introduced reservation provisions, and revised and strengthened legal provisions against Dalits and Adivasis.

(iii) Constitution Amendment (93rd Amendment) Act of 2005: This act introduced reservation for OBCs in higher education institutions.

8. How are the Other Backward Castes different from the Dalits (or Scheduled Castes)?

Ans: In the Indian caste system, Dalits (Scheduled Castes) and Other Backward Classes both face social and educational disadvantages. 

However, there are some key differences between the two groups:

(i) Caste hierarchy: Dalits are at the bottom of the caste hierarchy, while OBCs are not part of the upper caste hierarchy.

(ii) Terminology: Dalits were previously referred to as “untouchables”. The term “Dalit” literally means “downtrodden”.

(iii) Diversity: OBCs are more diverse than Dalits.

(iv) Identification: Establishing oneself as OBC is a more difficult process than establishing oneself as SC or ST.

(v) Occupations: Dalits are often confined to traditional occupations like agricultural labour, scavenging, or leather work.

(vi) Social perception: OBCs consider themselves superior to Dalits.

9. What are the major issues of concern to adivasis today?

Ans: Adivasis, or Indigenous peoples, in India face several challenges and concerns in the present day. 

Some of the major concerns for Adivasis today are:

(i) Land and Resource Rights: Adivasis have traditionally lived in forests and other natural habitats and have depended on these resources for their livelihoods. However, with the expansion of industries, mining, and other development projects, Adivasis are losing access to their land and resources.

(ii) Marginalisation and Discrimination: Adivasis continue to face discrimination and marginalisation in society, as they are often seen as “backward” and “primitive”. This has led to their exclusion from mainstream society and a lack of access to education, health care, and other basic services.

(iii) Education and Healthcare: Tribal communities in India face numerous socioeconomic challenges, including widespread poverty and limited access to education.

(iv) Cultural Identity and Social Discrimination: Adivasis were a group of scheduled tribes who belongs to schedule castes. They faced discrimination because they are not educated and don’t know how to fight for their rights.

(v) Forest Rights and Conservation Policies: The Forest Rights Act (FRA) of 2006 in India gives Adivasi and other forest-dwelling communities rights to forests, including reserved forests, protected forest land, sanctuaries, national parks, and farmers’ forest land.

(vi) Legal Rights and Justice: Adivasis face challenges in accessing justice due to inadequate legal aid, linguistic barriers, and discrimination within the judicial system.

(vii) Political Representation and Participation: Limited political representation and participation in decision-making processes at local, state, and national levels marginalise Adivasi voices in policies that affect their lives.

(viii) Climate Change and Environmental Vulnerability: Adivasi communities are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as erratic weather patterns, deforestation, and natural disasters.

10. What are the major issues taken up by the women’s movement over its history?

Ans: Women’s issues emphatically surfaced in 1970s . The burning issues were rape of women in police custody dowry murders and gender injustice etc. The new challenges have come in the form of social bias against the girl child sex ratio which is falling very sharply.

The women’s movement has taken up many issues over its history, including:

(i) Violence against women: Including domestic violence, sexual violence, and rape crisis centers.

(ii) Reproductive rights: Including access to contraceptives and abortion.

(iii) Political and legal rights: Including the right to vote and hold office.

(iv) Economic equality: Including equal pay and access to employment.

(v) Social bias against girls: Including child marriage, female infanticide, and the falling sex ratio.

(vi) Social customs: Including sati, dowry, and purdah

(vii) Education: Including access to education for women

(viii) Personal freedom: Including the right to make individual decisions.

11. In what sense can one say that ‘disability’ is as much a social as a physical thing?

Ans: The disabled are struggling not because they are physically or mentally challenged but also because society is built in a manner that does not cater to their needs. A disability is any condition of the body or mind (impairment) that makes it more difficult for the person with the condition to do certain activities (activity limitation) and interact with the world around them (participation restrictions).

Common features of the public perceptions of disability are:

(i) Disabled are considered to be biologically given.

(ii) They are seen as a victim.

(iii) When the disabled person is confronted with a problem, it is considered to be natural for others due to his/her impairment.

(iv) The very idea that comes when we think about disability is that they are in need of help.

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