NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Structural Change

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Structural Change Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Structural Change and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Structural Change Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Sociology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Structural Change

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Sociology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Structural Change Notes, NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 7

PART – II: SOCIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

TEXTUAL QUESTIONS ANSWERS

1. How has colonialism impacted our lives? You can either focus on one aspect, like culture or politics, or treat them together.

Ans: Colonialism has had profound and multifaceted impacts on societies worldwide, influencing various aspects of life including culture, politics, economics, and social structures. 

Here are some key ways in which colonialism has shaped our lives:

(i) Cultural Impact: Colonialism can involve the imposition of a coloniser’s language, religion, and other cultural practices. For example, British colonialism in India led to changes in social practices, such as the increased prevalence of female infanticide, child marriage, sati, polygamy, and a rigid caste system.

(ii) Political Impact: Colonial powers established political structures that often marginalised indigenous governance systems, leading to centralised control and exploitation of resources. Legal, administrative, and judicial systems introduced by colonial powers continue to influence governance and legal frameworks in post-colonial societies.

(iii) Economic Impact: Colonialism can lead to economic underdevelopment and instability.

(iv) Social Impact: Colonialism can lead to poor social infrastructure, which can manifest in unequal access to health care, education, and social justice. Colonialism can also lead to human rights violations, ethnic rivalries, and the spread of disease. These issues can have long-lasting effects, even after colonial rule ends.

2. Industrialisation and urbanisation are linked processes. Discuss.

Ans: Industrialization and urbanisation are linked processes because industrialization can lead to urbanisation in a number of ways.

Here’s how they are interconnected:

(i) Industrialization Driving Urbanization: Industrialisation creates job opportunities. People migrate to industrial hubs to get these jobs.

(ii) Urbanisation Facilitating Industrialization: Cities provide a concentrated market for industrial goods and services, facilitating the growth and expansion of industries.

(iii) Spatial Integration and Specialization: Concentration of industries in urban centres allows for economies of scale in production, distribution, and innovation, enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

(iv) Social and Cultural Transformations: Social and cultural transformation refers to the profound and dynamic changes in the norms, values, beliefs, and practices of societies over time.

(v) Environmental and Infrastructure Challenges: Major current environmental issues may include climate change, pollution, environmental degradation, and resource depletion.

(vi) Policy and Planning Implications: Government policies play a critical role in promoting industrial growth, regulating urban development, and mitigating negative impacts through environmental regulations and social policies.

3. Identify any town or city with which you are familiar. Find out both the history of its growth and its contemporary status.

Ans: Suppose we take the city Mumbai (Bombay) for the comparison process.

History of Growth:

(i) Basically these were seven islands of Bombay which were joined into one landmass only over a period of time.

(ii) In the seventeenth century, Bombay was a group of seven islands under Portuguese control. In 1661, control of the islands passed into British hands after the marriage of Britain’s king Charles II with the Portuguese princess. The East India Company quickly shifted its base from Surat, its principal western port to Bombay.

(iii) At first, Bombay was the major outlet for cotton textiles from Gujarat. Later, in the nineteenth century, the city functioned as a port through which large quantities of raw materials such as cotton and opium would pass. Gradually, it also became an important administrative centre in western India, and then, by the end of the nineteenth century, a major industrial centre.

(iv) The earliest project related to land reclamation in Bombay started in 1784. The Bombay governor William Hornby approved the building of the great sea wall which prevented the flooding of the low-lying areas of Bombay. Since then, there have been several reclamation projects.

Contemporary Status:

(i) Bombay is one of the biggest and most crowded cities of India. It is called the commercial capital of India. It is a port town having all types of transportation and communication facilities.

(ii) Many Bombay films deal with the arrival in the city of new migrants, and their encounters with the real pressures of daily life. Some popular songs from the Bombay film industry speak of the contradictory aspects of the city.

(iii) Most of the people in the film industry were themselves migrants who came from cities like Lahore, Calcutta, Madras and contributed to the national character of the industry. Those who came from Lahore, then in Punjab, were especially important for the development of the Hindi film industry. Many famous writers, like Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi cinema.

4. You may be living in a very small town, may be in a very big city, a semi-urban settlement or a village. 

(i)  Describe the place where you live. 

(ii) What are the features, which make you think it is a town and not a city, a village and not a town, or a city and not a village? 

(iii) Is there any factory where you live? 

(iv) Is agriculture the main job that people do? 

(v) Is it the occupational nature that has a determining influence? 

(vi) Is it the buildings? 

(vii) Is it the availability of educational opportunities? 

(viii) Is it the way people live and behave? 

(ix) Is it the way people talk and dress?

Ans: Do Yourself.

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