NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Cultural Change

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Cultural Change Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Cultural Change and select need one. NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Cultural Change Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT Sociology Class 12 Solutions.

NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Cultural Change

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 12 Sociology Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Cultural Change Notes, NCERT Class 12 Sociology Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 8



1. Write a critical essay on sanskritization.

Ans: Introduction: Sanskritization brings about cultural changes as lower castes adopt the cultural patterns, rituals, and customs of higher castes. This cultural assimilation leads to the transmission of values from the dominant castes to the lower castes. Sanskritization influences the religious practices and beliefs of lower castes.

Meaning: Sanskritization refers to a process whereby people want to improve their status through adoption of names and customs of culturally high-placed groups. The “reference model’ is usually financially better off. In both the aspiration to be like the higher placed group occurs only when people become wealthier.

Defination: The term Sanskritization was coined by M.N. Srinivas. It may be briefly defined as the process by which a ‘low’ caste or tribe or other group takes over the customs, ritual, beliefs, ideology and style of life of a high and, in particular, a ‘twice-born (dwija) caste’. Its influence can be seen in language literature ideology music dance drama style of life and ritual.

Characteristics of Sanskritization: 

(i) Sanskritization is a process of imitation in Indian society, the social status of an individual is fixed on the basis of caste hierarchy. There are many lower castes who suffer from economic, religious or social disabilities. So in order to improve the status, the lower castes people imitate the life style of the upper caste people.

(ii) Sanskritization is a process of cultural change towards twice-born castes. Sanskritization is a process in which the lower castes adopt the cultural patterns of the higher castes, to raise their status in the caste hierarchical order. In some societies the lower caste people followed not only the customs of the Brahmins but also the customs of the locally dominant castes like Kshatriyas and Vaisyas to raise their status.

(iii) Sanskritization is helpful in the social mobility of lower caste. In this process a caste is only trying to change the status and not the social structure.

(iv) Sanskritization process also followed by the tribal. Sanskritization process is not only confined to the caste people of Hindu society, it is also found among the tribal society.

(v) The concept of Sanskritization has also given rise to De-sanskritization. There are some instances in modern times, some of the higher castes are imitating the behaviour pattern of lower caste, and for example Brahmins have started taking meat and liquor. This process is called De Sanskritization.

Conclusion: Sanskritisation has played a significant role in the socio-cultural changes within the Indian society. It has allowed lower castes to adopt upper caste practices and beliefs in an attempt to achieve higher status, leading to cultural mobility.

2. Westernisation is often just about adoption of western attire and lifestyle. Are there other aspects to being westernised? Or is that about modernisation? Discuss.

Ans: M.N. Srinivas defines westernisation as “the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, the term subsuming changes occurring at different levels…technology, institutions, ideology and values”.

There were different kinds of westernisation:

(i) One kind refers to the emergence of a westernised sub-cultural pattern through a minority section of Indians who first came in contact with Western culture. This included the sub culture of Indian intellectuals who not only adopted many cognitive patterns, or ways of thinking, and styles of life, but supported its expansion. Many of the early 19th century reformers were of this kind. The boxes show the different kinds of westernisation.

(ii) There were, therefore, small sections of people who adopted western life styles or were affected by western ways of thinking. Apart from this there has been also the general spread of Western cultural traits, such as the use of new technology, dress, food, and changes in the habits and styles of people in general. Across the country a very wide section of middle class homes have a television set, a fridge, some kind of sofa set, a dining table and chair in the living room.

(iii) Srinivas suggested that while ‘lower castes’ sought to be Sanskritised, ‘upper castes’ sought to be Westernised. In a diverse country such as India this generalisation is difficult to maintain. For instance, studies of Thiyyas (by no means considered ‘upper caste’) in Kerala show conscious efforts to westernise. Elite Thiyyas appropriated British culture as a move towards a more cosmopolitan life that critiqued caste. Likewise, Western education often implied opening up to new opportunities for different groups of people in the North- East.


(i) Modernisation refers to improvement in technology and production processes. Increasingly, however, the term had a wider usage. It referred to the path of development that much of west Europe or North America has taken. And suggested that other societies both have to and ought to follow the same path of development.

(ii) ‘Modernity’ assumes that local ties and parochial perspectives give way to universal commitments and cosmopolitan attitudes.

(ii) That the truths of utility, calculation, and science take precedence over those of the emotions, the sacred, and the non-rational.

(iii) That the individual rather than the group be the primary unit of society and politics.

(iv) That the associations in which men live and work be based on choice not birth.

3. Write short notes on: 

(i) Rites and secularisation.

Ans: Rites and secularisation: (i) It usually means a process of decline in the influence of religion.

(ii) Secularisation is a set of modern ideas. 

(iii) Rituals have secular dimensions i.e. they provide men and women occasions for socialising with their peers and superiors.

(iv) Rites means the rituals related to a particular caste or religion.

(v) During the last few decades in particular, the economic, political and status dimensions of ritual have become increasingly conspicuous.

(ii) Caste and secularisation.

Ans: Caste and secularisation: (i) In traditional India, caste system operated within the religious framework.

(ii) Belief systems of purity and pollution were centred to its practice. 

(iii) India has seen such formation of caste associations and caste based political parties. They seem to press upon the state their demands.

(iv) The traditional social system in India was organised around caste structures and caste identities. In dealing with the relationship between caste and politics, however the doctrinaire moderniser suffers from a serious xenophobia.

(v) Such a changed role of caste has been described as secularisation of caste.

(iii) Gender and sanskritisation.

Ans: Gender and sanskritisation: (i) Sanskritisation supports traditional way of life for women and it is more liberal for modernization or westernisation for men.

(ii) They like women to follow the traditional way of marriage with the consent of parents. Kumud Pawade as a student could enable her to read in the original what the texts have to say about women and the Dalits. As she proceeds with her studies, she meets with varied reactions ranging from surprise to hostility, from guarded acceptance to brutal rejection. As she says “I remember an expression I heard somewhere: “What comes by birth, but can’t be cast off by using an app dying-that is caste?”

(iii) Most of the supporters of Sanskritisation support the women’s life within the four walls of the houses. They support or prefer the role of women as a mother, a sister and a daughter.

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