NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 8 Health Related Physical Fitness

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NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 8 Health Related Physical Fitness

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 11 Health and Physical Education Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 8 Health Related Physical Fitness Notes, NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Textbook Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Chapter: 8

ASSESSMENT

I. Long Answer Questions:

1. What do you understand by health?

Ans: Health is a state of complete physical mental and social well-being. It’s not only the absence of disease. ​A person is said to be healthy when he/she is free of any type of disease (infectious/deficiency) when he/she is mentally happy and healthy, and when his/her social relationships are healthy in society. This means that health is a resource to support an individual’s function in wider society, rather than an end in itself. A healthful lifestyle provides the means to lead a full life with meaning and purpose.

In 2009, researchers publishing in The Lancet Trusted Source defined health as the ability of a body to adapt to new threats and infirmities. They base this definition on the idea that the past few decades have seen modern science take significant strides in the awareness of diseases by understanding how they work, discovering new ways to slow or stop them, and acknowledging that an absence of pathology may not be possible.

2. List and explain the components of health related fitness.

Ans: There are five components of health related physical fitness— 

(i) Muscular Strength.

(ii) Endurance.

(iii) Flexibility.

(iv) Body Composition.

(v) Cardiovascular Endurance.

(i) Muscular Strength: Muscular strength is directly related to force production. Not only in sports but it is related to our each and every movement. Movement of our body parts is possible due to strength be it flexing a finger or getting up from the bed. Paralysed people cannot move their body parts because they have lost the capacity to produce strength.

(ii) Endurance: When an individual continues doing physical activity for a longer period of time, then he or she is said to have good endurance for doing that particular work. By nature, it looks like both physiological as well as psychological abilities of an individual play a crucial role in determining the endurance ability.

(iii) Flexibility: It may be termed as the ability of an individual to move his body parts to its maximum range around the related joint. It is measured in degrees, radians or centimetres. This is a motor ability which is of great importance for sports performance as well as for leading a normal healthy life. It can be passive or active in nature.

(iv) Body Composition: It is the classification of human body into fat weight and lean body weight. It can be assessed using both direct and indirect methods. Direct method for evaluating the body composition is hydrostatic weighing or under water weighing, and assessing body composition by a skinfold calliper is called indirect method.

(v) Cardio-vascular Endurance: It is the ability of heart, lungs and blood vessels to supply sufficient amount of oxygen and nutrients to the cells to meet the demands of the activity characterised by moderate contractions of large muscle groups over prolonged period of time. Twelve minutes run/walk test can be used to evaluate cardio-vascular endurance.

3. Explain muscular strength.

Ans: Muscular strength is directly related to force production. Not only in sports but it is related to our each and every movement. Movement of our body parts is possible due to strength be it flexing a finger or getting up from the bed. 

Paralysed people cannot move their body parts because they have lost the capacity to produce strength. A new born baby cannot stand up and walk because they has less strength. So, we can say that for every movement of body part or for moving body from one position to another position, strength is required.

Whenever we think about sports performance, the first thing which comes into our mind is the muscular strength. Normally we use the term strength instead of muscular strength. If we ask someone a question, do you have the strength to do this physical work? He or she will knowingly or unknowingly flex his or her muscle and say I have the strength to do this. This shows in itself that somewhere strength is associated with muscles. Muscular strength is thus, ‘the ability of the muscle or muscle groups of an individual to exert force on the resistance to overcome it or to act against it as per the demand of the sports activity’.

4. Explain the benefits of endurance training.

Ans: Benefits of endurance training:

SystemIncreasesDecreases
Cardiorespiratory System1. Heart size and volume.1. Resting heart-rate.
2. Blood volume and slight increase in haemoglobin.2. Submaximal exercise heart rate.
3. Stroke volume.3. Blood pressure (if high).
4. Cardiac output.
5. VO2 max.
6. Oxygen interaction with cells.
7. Lung volume.
Muscular Skeletal System1. Mitochondria — number and size.1. Chances of injuries.
2. Myoglobin storage.
3. Triglyceride storage.
4. Oxidative Phosphorylation.
Other System1. Strength of connective tissues.1. Body weight (if overweight).
2. Heat acclimatisation.2. Body fat.
3. High-density lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL).3. Total Cholesterol.
4. Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL).

5. Explain flexibility and its types.

Ans: It may be termed as the ability of an individual to move his body parts to its maximum range around the related joint. It is measured in degrees, radians or centimetres. This is a motor ability which is of great importance for sports performance as well as for leading a normal healthy life. It can be passive or active in nature.

Types of flexibility:

(i) Passive flexibility: When the movement around the joint is done with external help, then this type of flexibility is termed as passive flexibility. Help may be taken from another person.

(ii) Active flexibility: When the movement around the joints is done without the external help, then this type of flexibility is termed as active flexibility. Further, active flexibility is sub divided into two parts — static and dynamic flexibility.

(a) Static: When the individual is executing movement around his joints in sitting or standing position, then it is called static flexibility.

(b) Dynamic: When the individual is executing movement around his joints while moving, then it is called dynamic flexibility. 

6. Explain the various factors affecting flexibility.

Ans: The range of movement around a joint depends on various factors which are as follows:

(i) Anatomical structure of joint: The range of movement around joints largely depends on the anatomical structure of the joint. For example, ball and socket type of joint has the maximum range of motion in comparison to other type of joints.

(ii) Ligaments and muscles stretchability: The bones are attached to each other by ligaments. These ligaments have a great role to keep the two bones attached to each other. Their stretchability has a great impact on the movement possible around that joint. The stretching ability of muscles around a particular joint also plays a major role in their movement. 

(iii) Coordination: Coordination between the agonist and antagonist muscles around the joint plays a very crucial role in determining the flexibility around the joint.

(iv) Strength of the muscle: For any movement, the muscle should have the basic strength to move the associated part or bone. If the muscle is weak, then it will not be able to move the bone to its maximum limits.

II. Short Answer Questions:

1. Define endurance.

Ans: Endurance is normally understood as the ability to do any work for longer duration. It is task specific in nature. We come across many such examples in our daily life which shows that this ability is task specific such as we see a teacher who stands and continues taking his classes for hours together. If the same teacher is asked to run for an hour or more, he or she will not be able to do so. At the same time, if you ask a long distance runner to run for an hour, he or she will do it easily, but you ask the same runner to sit and work in the office for long hours, he or she may not be able do it.

2. What is physical fitness?

Ans: Physical fitness directly influences the health of an individual. So to keep ourself healthy, fitness sessions should be incorporated in our daily routine. 

‘Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being. It develops your capacity to perform better in sports, your job and day-to-day routine work. This is achieved through moderate/ vigorous physical activities, balanced diet and proper recovery.’

3. What is interval method?

Ans: In this type of method, the athlete is trained with sub-maximum intensity and with a short break in between with incomplete recovery. This type of method is very effective and helps in improving endurance capacity. In this type of method, the training load is decided by monitoring the heart rate of the athlete. The interval given in between the exercise is also decided by monitoring the heart rate.

4. What is Post-Isometric Stretch?

Ans: In this, the muscle is isometrically contracted for around 8–10 seconds and as it returns to normal condition, muscle is stretched to its limit gradually. It is also called as proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). It requires supervision of a trained person and advanced methods to practice.

Physical fitness is not only required for players but also for everyone. One must do various fitness activities to keep oneself physically, emotionally and mentally healthy.

5. List down the four motion factors responsible for range of motion.

Ans: The range of movement around a joint depends on various factors which are as follows: 

(a) Anatomical structure of joint.

(b) Ligaments and muscles stretchability.

(c) Coordination.

(d) Strength of the muscle.

6. What is the full form of PNF?

Ans: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is the full form of PNF.

III. Fill in the Blanks:

1. Force is produced _____________.

Ans: Force is produced interaction. 

2. ___________ component helps in improving the number and size of mitochondria.

Ans: Muscular Skeletal System component helps in improving the number and size of mitochondria.

3. ___________ is a swedish method to develop the endurance.

Ans: Fartlek method is a swedish method to develop the endurance.

4. ____________ method has incomplete recovery in endurance.

Ans: Interval training method has incomplete recovery in endurance.

5. Body weight _____________ with endurance traning.

Ans: Body weight may decrease with endurance traning. 

6. ___________ is responsible for great range of motion.

Ans: Flexibility is responsible for great range of motion.

7. Flexibility movements done with rhythmic movements are called as ___________.

Ans: Flexibility movements done with rhythmic movements are called as ballistic method.

8. Universally practised stretching method is ____________.

Ans: Universally practised stretching method is static stretching.

IV. State whether True or False:

1. Passive flexibility training is done with internal help.

Ans: True. 

2. The bones are attached to each other by ligaments.

Ans: True.

3. Muscles are made up of two types of fibres namely, fast twitch and slow twitch fibre.

Ans: True.

4. Physical fitness indirectly influences the health of an individual.

Ans: False.

5. The ability of muscles to consume oxygen while working is known as aerobic capacity.

Ans: True.

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