NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 6 Yoga and its Relevance in the Modern Times

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NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 6 Yoga and its Relevance in the Modern Times

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Chapter: 6

ASSESSMENT

I. Long Answer Questions:

1. Write the meaning of yoga and its relevance in day-to-day life.

Ans: Yoga is a science of living. It needs to be incorporated in daily life. It works on physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual levels of human beings. Yoga helps in improving the quality of life. For example, yoga teaches us how to think, behave and grow to become a fully mature person. Yoga brings harmony between body and mind. It is an art and science for healthy living.

Now a days, the word yoga has a strong impact on human life. The ultimate purpose of yoga is the attainment of human growth. Yoga has been established as a new field in education system. It helps in achieving higher state of consciousness on the evolution of an individual’s development. It is the discipline of body and mind. Children face too much stress in their surroundings, such as, school, home, playground, etc. Due to this stress they have many problems such as physical, mental and emotional. When these health hazards create problems for long, they lead to psychosomatic diseases and social unrest.

According to the Upanishads, yoga is a higher state of 

consciousness and a process to ease the mind and manifest 

the wisdom. Yoga establishes the activities of a healthy state 

of body, mind and harmonious interpersonal relationships. 

Due to unhealthy lifestyle, the overall growth of child gets 

ceased and it leads to ill health. 

2. Write about the history and development of yoga.

Ans: Yoga has a very long history and in terms of legacy it is as old as human civilisation. Its history is also linked with the vedas and upanishads. Yoga had a special place during the Indus Valley Civilisation (2000 B.C). The stone seals restored from the sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation depict the practice of Yoga during old days.

The word yoga is frequently referred in all the four Vedas Rigveda, Yujurveda, Samveda and Atharvaveda. Moksha is the ultimate goal of yoga, which is well explained in the Upanishads. The teaching of Buddha (Arya Asthangic Marga) and Jainism (five great vows) are the two pillars of yoga tradition. These two had greatly contributed to the development of yoga.

Ramayana and Mahabharata have numerous references about yoga. The Bhagavad Gita is considered as a classical treatise on yoga. There is also description of Yoga in Shad Darshans. Maharishi Sage Patanjali had codified the comprehensive system of Yoga around second century B.C. Patanjali gave the concept of eight limbs of yoga called as Ashtang Yoga. Nath culture also played an important role in the development of the Hatha Yoga Tradition. Hatha Yoga deals with day-to-day health related problems and emphasised on the human body and mind. The famous scriptures of Hatha Yoga are Hatha Yoga Pradeepika, Gheranda Samhita, Hatha Ratnavali, Shiva Samhita, Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, etc. Nineteenth century gurus, such as, Ramakrishna Parmahansa, Swami Vivekananda, Maharishi Aurobindo and Ramana Maharishi preached yoga to the masses.

3. Mention the guiding principles of yoga.

Ans: The guiding principles given below should be followed by the Sadhakas performing the yogic practices.

Before the yogic practice:

(i) Shauch means cleanliness, an important pre-requisite for Yogic practice.

(ii) It includes the cleanliness of surroundings, body and mind. 

(iii) Yogic practices should be performed in a calm and quite atmosphere with a relaxed body and mind.

(iv) Yogic practices should be performed on an empty stomach. 

(v) Bladder and bowels should be emptied and evacuated before starting yogic practice.

(vi) Yogic practice should not be performed on uneven surface.

(vii) A mattress, durry or folded blanket should be used.

(viii) Light and comfortable cotton clothes are preferred to facilitate easy movements of the body.

(ix) These practices should not be performed in a state of exhaustion, illness or in a hurry.

During the practice:

(i) Practice session should start with prayer as it creates conducive environment and thereby relaxes the mind.

(ii) Perform the practice slowly with body, breathe awareness along with relaxation.

(iii) Breathing should always be done through nostrils unless instructed otherwise.

(iv) Observe your body movements, do not strain too much. Practice as per your own capacity.

(v) Regular practice is very essential for good results.

After the practice:

(i) Bath may be taken only after 15 to 30 minutes of the yoga practice.

(ii) Light food may be taken only after 15 to 30 minutes of the yoga practice.

(iii) After each practice session, shavasana should be practised as per need.

(iv) Yoga session should end with meditation followed by deep silence and then Shanti Path.

4. Write the role of asana in wellness.

Ans: An asana is a body posture, originally and still a general term for a sitting meditation pose, and later extended in hatha yoga and modern yoga as exercise, to any type of position, adding reclining, standing, inverted, twisting, and balancing poses. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali define “asana” as “[a position that] is steady and comfortable”. Patanjali mentions the ability to sit for extended periods as one of the eight limbs of his system. Asanas are also called yoga poses or yoga postures in English.

The 10th or 11th century Goraksha Sataka and the 15th century Hatha Yoga Pradipika identify 84 asanas; the 17th century Hatha Ratnavali provides a different list of 84 asanas, describing some of them. In the 20th century, Indian nationalism favoured physical culture in response to colonialism. In that environment, pioneers such as Yogendra, Kuvalayananda, and Krishnamacharya taught a new system of asanas (incorporating systems of exercise as well as traditional hatha yoga). Asanas were claimed to provide both spiritual and physical benefits in mediaeval hatha yoga texts. More recently, studies have provided evidence that they improve flexibility, strength, and balance; to reduce stress and conditions related to it; and specifically to alleviate some diseases such as asthma and diabetes.

5. Write the role of pranayama in wellness.

Ans: Prana refers to the ‘vital force’ and ayama means to restraint. Prana is the vital energy without which the body would not survive. Pranayama is a breathing technique by which breath regulates and controls the prana. It helps to improve the control over autonomic respiratory mechanisms through breathing patterns that generate energy and enhance emotional stability.

Some of the breathing practices are mentioned here:

(i) Puraka: In puraka, inhalation is very gentle and deep with full awareness. This helps the chest to expand more in its clavicular (upper) region, coastal (middle and lower) region, from front to back and also sideways. This expansion creates more inner space allowing more inflow of air into lungs. At the same time, diaphragm contracts more and moves down towards abdominal cavity to the maximum. In this process, muscles of the front wall in abdominal cavity and the perineal region are under pressure to move outwards and downwards respectively.

(ii) Kumbhaka: Kumbhaka means retention of breath inside or outside. Kumbhaka performed along with bandhas (Mulabandha, Uddiyanabandha and Jalandharbandha) helps in the process of metabolism and assists in more efficient exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Through regulated breathing, Kumbhaka ensures sufficient supply of oxygen and thus helps the brain to work efficiently.

(iii) Rechaka: Rechaka assists in more efficient releasing of carbon dioxide. The duration of rechaka is supposed to be double of puraka. The process of rechaka starts at the end of kumbhaka, when bandhas are released. In the process of rechaka, diaphragm is pushed upwards towards the cavity of chest making the chest to contract. Slow and prolonged exhalation prescribed for rechaka helps in completely pushing the carbon dioxide out of lungs.

6. Write the role of shodhana a kriyas in wellness.

Ans: It is practiced for internal purification. These are followed in Hatha Yoga. It helps to clean the accumulated toxins and generates a sense of relaxed lightness. Physically, Shodhana Kriyas play a significant role in detoxification. Through practices like Neti (nasal cleansing), Dhauti (cleansing of the digestive tract), and Kunjal (stomach wash), accumulated toxins and impurities are expelled from the body. This detoxification process not only enhances physical health by improving organ function and boosting immunity but also supports the body’s natural ability to heal and rejuvenate itself.

Beyond the physical benefits, Shodhana Kriyas also have profound effects on mental and emotional well-being. These practices help clear mental clutter and emotional blockages, leading to improved mental clarity, concentration, and emotional stability. By balancing the flow of prana (life force energy) in the body, Shodhana Kriyas create a sense of inner calm and equilibrium, reducing stress and promoting a positive outlook on life.

7. What is kapalbhati? Write its technique and benefits.

Ans: Kapala means skull (head) and Bhati means to shine. Because this practice makes the skull (head) shine, therefore it is called Kapalbhati. In other words, it rejuvenates the skull (head) and the mental functions.

Breathing technique of Kapalbhati:

(i) Take in a deep breath.

(ii) Feel the air entering your abdomen.

(iii) Exhale forcefully with the help of your abdominal muscles.

(iv) While exhaling, pull your navel button as close to the spine. The movement should be fast, and you will be able to hear a hissing sound.

(vi) You will feel abdominal muscles contracting and relaxing.

Repeat techniques of Kapalbhati:

(i) Follow up the exhalation with automatic and immediate inhalation.

(ii) After two to three repetitions, you will observe passive and automatic inhalation.

(iii) Start with 15 to 20 repetitions and slowly increase the number and pace.

(iv) If you have high blood pressure, do not exceed 20 slow repetitions. Take necessary precautions.

Benefits of kapalbhati:

(i) Kapalbhati reduces abdominal fat, tones your abdominal muscles, and increases your core strength.

(ii) It helps in fighting obesity.

(iii) It declutters your brain and improves your focus.

(iv) It stimulates your nerves and energises your brain.

(v) For people with acidity issues, Kapalbhati reduces acidity by removing excess carbon-di-oxide. It also helps in getting rid of gas and heartburn.

(vi) It reduces stress, anxiety, and worries caused by day-to-day life.

8. Explain the concept of puraka, rechaka, and kumbhaka.

Ans: Puraka: In puraka, inhalation is very gentle and deep with full awareness. This helps the chest to expand more in its clavicular (upper) region, coastal (middle and lower) region, from front to back and also sideways. This expansion creates more inner space allowing more inflow of air into lungs. At the same time, diaphragm contracts more and moves down towards abdominal cavity to the maximum. In this process, muscles of the front wall in abdominal cavity and the perineal region are under pressure to move outwards and downwards respectively.

Kumbhaka: Kumbhaka means retention of breath inside or outside. Kumbhaka performed along with bandhas (Mulabandha, Uddiyanabandha and Jalandharbandha) helps in the process of metabolism and assists in more efficient exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Through regulated breathing, Kumbhaka ensures sufficient supply of oxygen and thus helps the brain to work efficiently.

Rechaka: Rechaka assists in more efficient releasing of carbon dioxide. The duration of rechaka is supposed to be double of puraka. The process of rechaka starts at the end of kumbhaka, when bandhas are released. In the process of rechaka, diaphragm is pushed upwards towards the cavity of chest making the chest to contract. Slow and prolonged exhalation prescribed for rechaka helps in completely pushing the carbon dioxide out of lungs.

9. Write the benefits of dhyana.

Ans: Benefits of dhyana:

(i) The relation between body and mind was widely accepted by the ancient scholars. 

(ii) It is a well accepted fact that the regular practice of certain asanas, mudras, pranayamas, dhyana etc.

(iii) Dhyana is an important Yogic technique. The regular practice of Dhyana bestows many benefits to the practitioner – some direct and some indirect. It not only helps the practitioner to control many mental problems but also help a person to rise to the highest level of spiritual experience. 

(iv) Negative emotions like fear, anger, depression, stress & tension, panic, anxiety, reactions, worry etc are reduced and a calm state of mind is developed. 

(v) The practice of Dhyana makes the person a positive personality, having positive thoughts and doing positive acts. Dhyana also increases the concentration, memory, confidence, clarity of thoughts, and will-power receiving power of brain and decrease the level of fatigue.

(vi) A yogi who meditates regularly develops a magnetic and charming personality. Those who come in contact with him are much influenced by his sweet voice, powerful speech, lustrous eyes, brilliant complexion, strong healthy body, good behaviour, virtuous qualities and divine nature.

(vii) In his Yoga Sutras Maharishi Patanjali has mentioned certain powers a Yogi may acquire through concentration and Meditation. For example, through sustained and prolonged concentration on the hollow of the throat a Yogi can transcend hunger and thirst. Such a claim can be verified only by practising the specified concentration method.

(viii) Many scientific studies have been conducted and are being conducted to prove the claims made by the ancient scholars. 

(ix) It has been revealed by the studies that application of Dhyana is highly effective tool not only for health rejuvenation, but also helps tremendously to cope up with stressful situations faced by present day society.

II. Short Answer Questions:

1. What is Karma yoga?

Ans: Karma Yoga is one of the main streams of yoga. Karma literally means action. The aim of Karma Yoga is attaining union with the higher-self by harmonising the actions. Karma Yoga inspires the person to perform the work to the best of their abilities without any attachment or expectation of the results. The concept of Karma Yoga and its practice are mentioned in the Bhagavad Gita.

2. What is Jnana yoga?

Ans: Jnana Yoga is related to the knowledge of ‘self’, the world and realisation of ultimate reality or truth. Jnana Yoga, thus is a path of philosophy that uses intellect and helps to gain knowledge and keeps the person away from avidya.

3. What is Raja yoga?

Ans: In Sanskrit, the word raja translates as king, chief, or royal. Thus, raja yoga is considered to be the best path to attaining the highest state of yoga—samadhi or enlightenment. It refers to both the highest goal of yoga and the meditation practices used to attain this goal. Swami Vivekananda describes this internal meditative practice as a path towards mastering the whole universe. He writes, “Raja-Yoga proposes to start from the internal world, to study internal nature, and through that, control the whole—both internal and external.”

4. Write the types of neti.

Ans: There are two types of Neti. 

They are:

(i) Jala neti (nasal cleansing with water).

(ii) Sutra neti (nasal cleansing with thread).

5. Write the name of yogic practices.

Ans: The name of yogic practices are:

(i) Asana (Yoga postures).

(ii) Pranayama (Breath control).

(iii) Dhyana (Meditation).

(iv) Mudra (Hand gestures).

(v) Bandha (Energy locks).

(vi) Kriya (Cleansing practices).

(vii) Mantra (Chanting).

(viii) Neti (Nasal cleansing).

(ix) Trataka (Gazing meditation).

(x) Nauli (Abdominal massage).

(xi) Dhauti (Cleansing techniques).

(xii) Kapalabhati (Skull shining breath).

(xiii) Bhastrika (Bellows breath).

(xiv) Anulom Vilom (Alternate nostril breathing).

(xv) Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation).

6. Write the root word of yoga.

Ans: The word ‘Yoga’ is derived from the Sanskrit root ‘Yuj’, meaning ‘to join’ or ‘to yoke’ or ‘to unite’.

7. How many poses are present in surya namaskara?

Ans: There are 12 poses are present in surya namaskara.

8. Nath culture is related to which school of yoga?

Ans: The Nath tradition is a syncretic Yoga and Vedanta schools of Hindu philosophy based Shaiva tradition, that reveres Shiva and Dattatreya. Its founding is attributed to the ideas of Matsyendranath and Gorakshanath, developed further with an additional seven other Siddha Yoga Gurus called “Naths” (literally, lords).

9. Ashtanga yoga is related to which school of yoga?

Ans: Ashtanga vinyasa yoga is a style of yoga as exercise popularised by K. Pattabhi Jois during the twentieth century, often promoted as a dynamic form of classical Indian (hatha) yoga. Jois claimed to have learnt the system from his teacher Tirumalai Krishnamacharya.

10. What is Nishkam karma?

Ans: Nishkama Karma means action which is free from personal motives and is performed as a duty. This attribute emphasises that actions should be performed without any expectations of the results. 

11. What is Navdabhakti?

Ans: Navdabhakti means 9 kinds of devotion such as Sravaṇam, Kirtanam, Smaraṇam, Pada-sevanam, Arcanam, Vandanam, Dasyam, Atma-nivedanam. Srimad Bhagavatham elaborates nine forms of bhakti which, if cultivated and practised regularly will no doubt lead us closer to the lord.

12. What is Vihara?

Ans: Vihara can be brought about by activities such as exercise, recreation and creative activities like drawing, painting, singing, etc. These activities help to regulate and channelise our emotions and bring us joy and happiness. Yogic practices of asana, pranayama and meditation relax body and mind.

13. Which system is related to pranayama?

Ans: This Pranayama harmonises the secretions of reproductive organs and all the endocrine systems. Also, it improves digestion, lowers High Blood pressure, and purifies the blood.

14. Name the practice which cleanse our nasal passage.

Ans: Neti kriya is the most beneficial cleansing procedure of the nasal passage and sinuses. It is of the following types: Jal Neti kriya. Sutra Neti kriya.

III. Fill in the Blanks:

1. Vedas have __________ types.

Ans: Vedas have four types.  

2. Uddiyana bandha is related to __________ region.

Ans: Uddiyana bandha is related to abdominal region. 

3. Jalandhara bandha is related to __________ region.

Ans: Jalandhara bandha is related to throat region.

4. In Kapalbhati, the meaning of kapal is __________.

Ans: In Kapalbhati, the meaning of kapal is skull (head). 

IV. State whether True or False:

1. Ujjayi is a practice of asana.

Ans: False.

2. Surya Namaskar is a process of 12 asanas.

Ans: True.

3. Agnisar is related to water element of body.

Ans: False.

4. Jnana Yoga is a path of devotion.

Ans: False.

5. Kapalbhati is a pranayama.

Ans: True.

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