NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 4 Individual Games

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NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 4 Individual Games

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Chapter: 4

ASSESSMENT
Athletics

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Explain the meaning and history of athletics.

Ans: Athletics is a group of sporting events that involves competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross-country running, and racewalking.

History of athletics: Ancient Olympic Games are the first recorded examples of organised track and field events. In 776 B.C., in Olympia, Greece, only one event was contested which was known as the stadion footrace. The scope of the games expanded in later years. Further it included running competitions, but the introduction of the Ancient Olympic pentathlon marked a step towards track and field as it is recognised today. There were five events in pentathlon namely—discus throw, long jump, javelin throw, the stadion foot race, and wrestling.

In the late 19th century, modern track and field competitions were separated from general sporting festivals and were first recorded. These competitions were typically organised by educational institutions, military organisations, and sports clubs. Competitive hurdling first came into being, with the advent of the steeplechase in England around 1850. The first national body for the sport of athletics, The Amateur Athletic Association (AAA) was established in England in 1880. The International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) was established in 1912, becoming the international governing body for track and field.

Indian History of Athletics: In the history of Indian Athletics, the decade of 1940’s to 1950’s is important as a number of Athletics associations were started in this decade. In 1946, the Amateur Athletics Federation of India (AAFI) was established for the management of Indian Athletics. The entire scenario of Indian Athletics was changed by AAFI as it worked in collaboration with the other Athletics associations for improving sports and athletics. Indian Athletics went through many phases. Many track and field games were played in the grass.

Some of the most successful athletes in the early history of Indian Athletics are Milkha Singh, T.C. Yohannan, Gurbachan Singh, Sriram Singh, etc. Some of the notable Indian Athletes in the contemporary period include P.T. Usha, Anju Bobby George, Jyotirmoyee Sikdar, Saraswati Saha, Soma Biswas, etc.

2. Describe the events organised in athletics.

Ans: According to the nature of competitions, athletics events are classified into four types. 

These are— 

(i) Track Events: All running events come under track events. 

(ii) Field Events: The jumping and throwing events are called field events. 

(iii) Combined Events: There are some other unique events which are called as combined events. These are also organised in athletics. In fact, these are the combination of some track and field events, such as decathlon, heptathlon, etc. 

(iv) Events conducted outside the stadium: These events are held outside the track, on roads or at natural places; for example, Marathon of 42.195 km and 20 and 50 km walk.

3. Describe the classification of track events in athletics.

Ans: Track events are classified into three categories. 

These are—

Short Distance RacesMiddle Distance RacesLong Distance Races
100 m800 m3000 m steeplechase
200 m5000 m
400 m10,000 m
110 m Hurdle Race (Men)1500 m20 km walking
100 m Hurdle Race (Women)Road Events
400 m Hurdle Race50 km walking
4×100 m relay50 km walking
4×400 m relay

4. Describe the classification of field events in athletics.

Ans: Field events are classified into two categories— 

(i) Jumping events. and 

(ii) Throwing events. 

Further these are classified as given below: 

Jumping EventsThrowing Events
Long JumpShot Put
High JumpDiscus Throw
Triple JumpJavelin Throw
Pole VaultHammer Throw

5. Enlist the different types of throw events. Explain shot put throw in detail. 

Ans: The different types of throw events are:

(i) Shot Put Throw.

(ii) Discus Throw.

(iii) Javelin Throw.

(iv) Hammer Throw.

(i) Shot Put Throw: Shot put is a track and field event where competitors push a heavy metal ball, called a shot, as far as they can from inside a circle. The shot put is different from a throw because of the arm motion involved, and competitors are not allowed to throw the shot overhead. Instead, they “put” the shot by holding it near their chin and pushing it through the air. The shot must not drop below or behind the athlete’s shoulders at any point during the put. 

6. Enlist the different types of jump events. Explain high jump in detail.

Ans: The different types of jump events are:

(i) Long Jump.

(ii) High Jump.

(iii) Triple Jump.

(iv) Pole Vault.

(ii) High Jump: The high jump is a track and field event where athletes jump over a horizontal bar without dislodging it. The bar is placed at a measured height between two standards, and athletes use a running start to clear it. The event takes place on a level, semicircular runway that’s at least 15 metres long and allows for an approach run from any angle within its 180° arc. Athletes must leave the ground from one foot, and remain in the competition as long as they don’t miss three times in a row.

7. Explain the types of crouch start in short distance running.

Ans: The crouch start is further divided into three types. 

They are—

(i) Bunch or Bullet Start: In such a start, the distance from the starting line to the block is between 16 to 19 inches. The distance between both the blocks (front leg and rear leg) may be 8 to 11 inches. The athlete sets the body in crouching position in such a way that the rear toe and the heal of front foot should be in a straight line. The toes should be behind the starting line like a bridge but in the line of big toe. In the set position, the hips should be slightly lifted up and the arms should be straight. This last position in the bunch start is a little unstable which helps the athlete in leaving the block quickly. 

(ii) Medium Start: The distance of the blocks from the starting line is 15 to 18 inches. The distance between both the blocks (front leg and rear leg) may be 15 to 20 inches. The knee of rear leg and the arch of front foot should be in a straight line. The shoulders and hips are almost at the same height. 

(iii) Elongated start: The distance of the blocks from the starting line is 11 to 14 inches. The distance between both the blocks (front leg and rear leg) may be 25 to 29 inches. The rear knee is placed near the front heal. In the crouch start, the distance between the blocks depends upon the length of the leg, breadth of the hip, length of torso, strength of arms and time reaction, etc. Medium start is considered as better than the other two starts. Most of the athletes, therefore, use this type of start.

II. Short Answer Questions:

1. What is the distance of runway in long jump and triple jump?

Ans: The distance of runway in long jump and triple jump are discussed below:

Long Jump: The minimum runway length for long jump is 40 meters.

Triple Jump: The triple jump runway has a minimum length requirement, but it’s not a single fixed distance. There’s a designated takeoff board for the jumper, and the minimum distance is measured from the beginning of the runway to this board.  This distance is at least 13 meters (42.7 feet) for men and at least 11 meters (36 feet) for women.

2. What is the size of landing area in high jump?

Ans: 6 m×4 m is the size of landing area in high jump.

3. Name any four throwing events.

Ans: The four throwing event names are: 

(i) Shot put.

(ii) Discus throw.

(iii) Hammer throw.

(iv) Javelin throw.

4. Name the famous technique used for high jump.

Ans: The famous technique used for high jump is Fosbury Flop. 

5. What is relay?

Ans: Relay races are team events. In this race, four runners complete a given distance. Each relay team needs four runners. Each runner runs the quarter of the running track, while holding a baton. Two runners will exchange the baton only in a given exchange zone mark in track. If the baton falls in the exchange zone, then only the athlete who has dropped it will lift it. 

6. What is the weight of discus for men and women?

Ans: The weight of discus for men and women is:

For Men: 2 kg.

For Women: 1 kg.

7. Which type of track is called a standard track?

Ans: A standard track is 400m. It consists of 8 lanes maximum with a width of 1.22 meters each. 

8. What is the weight of the shot in shot put for men and women?

Ans: The weight of the shot in shot put for men and women is:

For men: 7.260 kg.

For women: 4.00 kg.

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. The thickness of the take-off board in long jump and triple jump is ___________.

Ans: The thickness of the take-off board in long jump and triple jump is 10cm

2. Maximum weight of the crossbar in high jump is ___________.

Ans: Maximum weight of the crossbar in high jump is 2 kg.  

3. The ___________ of shot put in women is 4 kg.

Ans: The weight of shot put in women is 4 kg.

4. 28 hurdle jumps and 7 water jumps are there in ___________.

Ans: 28 hurdle jumps and 7 water jumps are there in 3000m steeplechase

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. 400 m track is known as standard track.

Ans: True. 

2. 5 runners participate in a relay race.

Ans: False. 

3. Bunch start is a throwing technique.

Ans: False.

4. Disco put style is applied in discus throw.

Ans: False. 

5. There are two types of tracks.

Ans: False.

Badminton

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Write the history of Badminton in Olympics.

Ans: History of Badminton in Olympics: Badminton, one of the world’s fastest racket sports is a popular school sport for both boys and girls. It is suitable for children of all ages and abilities. Badminton activities develop all-round physical skills important for school age children including eye hand coordination, catching and throwing, stability and balance, speed and agility—the ability to quickly change direction, jumping and landing skills, and also learn decision-making and tactical skills. Badminton was earlier known as Poona or Poonah when British Army officers started playing the game at Pune in 1860. The name Badminton derives from the Duke of Beaufort’s Badminton House in Gloucestershire. International Badminton Federation (IBF) is the international governing body for Badminton and was established in 1934. The new name Badminton World Federation (BWF) was adopted in 2006. Thomas Cup, a Men’s Team World Badminton Championship, was first held in 1948, and Uber Cup, a Women’s Team World Badminton Championship, was first held in 1956. Sudirman Cup, a World Mixed Team Badminton Championship, was first held in 1989. Individual World Badminton Championship started in 1956. Badminton was a demonstration event in the 1972 Munich Olympic Games and an exhibition sport in the 1988 Summer Olympics. It became an official Summer Olympic sport at the Barcelona Olympics in 1992.  

2. Write various types of events played in Badminton.

Ans: Various types of events played in Badminton are discussed below:

(i) Men’s and Women’s Singles, Doubles, Mixed Doubles.

(ii) Junior Boy’s and Girl’s (Under 17 and 19) Singles, Doubles, Mixed Doubles.

(iii) Sub Junior Boy’s and Girl’s (Under 13 and 15) Singles, Doubles, Mixed Doubles.

Single in Badminton: Badminton singles is an event where a single player plays on each end of the court. In tournaments, the singles events include men’s singles and women’s singles. Casual tournaments may not separate the event into different sexes and can combine them together. In singles, each player is responsible to retrieve and hit every shot in a rally without relying on a partner.

Doubles in Badminton: Badminton doubles is an event where a team of 2 players play on each end of the court. In tournaments, the doubles events include men’s doubles, women’s doubles, and mixed doubles. Casual tournaments may not separate the events and can combine them together. In doubles, each team must work together to try and overcome the opposing team.

Mixed Doubles in Badminton: Mixed doubles is a badminton event where a team consists of a male and a female. This event is the best of both worlds, where men and women must team up together to utilise their respective strengths while covering each other’s weaknesses. Mixed doubles is known for being very dynamic, fast, and exciting. The mixed doubles service situation is the most iconic part of the discipline, where the male player serves from behind the female player.

3. Write the dimensions of the Racket.

Ans: The dimensions of a badminton racket can vary slightly depending on the brand, model, and player preference. 

However, here are the typical dimensions and specifications of a standard badminton racket:

(i) Overall Length: Badminton Rackets have an overall length of 26.18”-26.77” (665-680 mm).

(ii) Head Width: Head width from 8.66”-9.06” (220-230 mm).

(iii) Grip Diameters: Handle diameter of 1” (25.4 mm).

4. Draw a labelled badminton court. 

Ans: Students Do yourself.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. Who won India’s first Olympic medal in Badminton?

Ans: Saina Nehwal won the India’s first Olympic medal in Badminton. 

2. What is the legal height a badminton player is allowed to serve from?

Ans: In Badminton, the legal serving height is not directly measured from the player’s hand or arm. 

According to the new rule, “the whole of the shuttle shall be below 1.15 metres from the surface of the court at the instant of being hit by the server’s racket”. 

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. Weight of a shuttle should be ___________.

Ans: Weight of a shuttle should be 4.74 to 5.50 grams.

2. Height of the badminton court for international competitions shall be ______________.

Ans: Height of the badminton court for international competitions shall be 12 metres.  

3. The colour of the lines of badminton court should be ______________.

Ans: The colour of the lines of badminton court should be white or yellow.

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. Thomas Cup was first held in 1956.

Ans: False.

2. In badminton, doubles A side has only one service.

Ans: False. 

3. A 60 seconds interval between each game is allowed.

Ans: True.

4. A player can win a game with a score of 30–28 points.

Ans: False.

5. High serve is used sometimes in badminton men’s singles.

Ans: True.

Gymnastics

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Explain the history of gymnastics in Olympics.

Ans: History of Gymnastics: Gymnastics begun in ancient Greece about 2500 years ago. It was used in training to keep people fit for sporting activities. In the Greek city of Athens, gymnastic tournaments were held, including tumbling, rope climbing, and other similar activities. Plato, Homer and Aristotle strongly advocated the strengthening qualities of gymnastics. The ‘Federation of International Gymnastics’ (FIG) was formed in Liege in 1881.

Gymnastics in India: Gymnastics Federation of India (GFI) was initiated in 1951. It was affiliated by the Indian Olympic Association (IOC) and Federation International de Gymnastics (FIG) in 1952. GFI is the founder member of Commonwealth Gymnastics Confederation (CGC) and Asian Gymnastics Union (AGU) since these bodies came into existence. The National Gymnastic Championship for men and women was organised in 1952 and in 1962 respectively. The first national championship for sub junior girls and boys was organised in 1986 at Karnal in Haryana. Sports Aerobics was also organised under Gymnastics Federation of India from 1997 along with gymnastics.

2. Explain the evolution of gymnastics in India.

Ans: Gymnastics came of age in India, when at the 2010 Commonwealth Games, Ashish Kumar won the first-ever medal in gymnastics, he won a bronze medal. However, soon after the win, the President of the Gymnastics Federation of India asked Ashish’s Chief Coach from the Soviet Union, Vladimir Chertkov: “Is this all that you can deliver, a bronze?” The comment was widely reported in the press.

Later, the coach revealed that “In August 2009, we had no equipment. Ashish trained on hard floor till February 2010, and then we got equipment around 20 years old.” Also, the Federation announced that no Indian team would travel to Rotterdam for the World Championships in October, which meant that Indian gymnasts automatically would not qualify as a team for the 2012 Summer Olympics. In October 2015, Karmakar became the first Indian gymnast to qualify for a final stage at the World Artistic Gymnastics Championships.

3. How many types of gymnastics are there? Enlist the men’s and women’s apparatus used in artistic gymnastics.

Ans: Gymnastics is performed by both men and women. Men have six apparatus and women have four apparatus on which they perform their routines. 

Their apparatuses are as follows:

Women’s apparatusMen’s apparatus
(i) Vaulting Table.(i) Vaulting table.
(ii) Balancing Beam.(ii) Horizontal Bar.
(iii) Floor exercise.(iii) Floor exercise.
(iv) Uneven Bars.(iv) Parallel bars  
(v) Roman Rings.
(vi) Pommel Horse.

4. Write down the specifications of uneven bars and pommel horse.

Ans: Specifications of Uneven bars:

(i) Height: Upper bar—2.50 m (8.2 ft), Lower bar—1.70 m (5.6 ft).

(ii) Diameter of the bar: 4 cm (1.6 in).

(iii) Length of the bars: 2.10 m (7.9 ft).

(iv) Diagonal distance between the two bars: 1.30 m (4.3 ft)–1.90 m (6.2 ft) (adjustable).

Specifications of Pommel horse:

(i) Height from top surface to floor: 1.15 m (3.77 ft) ± 1 cm (0.39 in). 

(ii) Length at top: 1.60 m (5.2 ft) ± 1 cm (0.39 in).

(iii) Length at bottom: 1.55 m (5.09 ft) ± 1 cm (0.39 in).

(iv) Width at top: 35 cm (14 in) ± 1 cm (0.39 in).

(v) Width at bottom: 30 cm (12 in) ± 1 cm (0.39 in).

(vi) Height of the pommels: 12 cm (4.7 in) ± 0.5 cm (0.20 in).

(vii) Distance between the pommels: 40 cm (16 in) –45 cm (18 in) (adjustable).   

5. Enlist some advanced skills in gymnastics and explain the process of ‘Cartwheel on Balancing Beam’.

Ans: Some advanced skills in gymnastics are:

(i) Floor Exercise: In gymnastics, the floor is a specially prepared exercise surface, which is considered an apparatus. It is used by both male and female gymnasts. The gymnastics event performed on the floor is called floor exercise.

(ii) Uneven Bars: The uneven bars or asymmetric bars is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. It is made of a steel frame. The bars are made of fibreglass with wood coating, or less commonly wood.

(iii) Balance Beam: The balance beam is a rectangular artistic gymnastics apparatus and an event performed using the apparatus. Both the apparatus and the event are sometimes simply referred to as “beam”.

(iv) Vault: The vault is an artistic gymnastics apparatus which gymnasts perform on, as well as the event performed on that apparatus. Both male and female gymnasts perform the vault.

(v) Still Rings: The gymnastics rings are well known apparatus among men. No wonder they can be found in almost every gymnasium. The rings are used for various strength elements and basic movements, such as a handstand, still swing, swing with drop, and somersault.

Cartwheel on Balancing Beam:

(i) Stand erect keeping feet slightly apart.

(ii) With a momentary swing, raise the front leg close to the chest, and arms by the side of the head, step out.

(iii) Place one leg ahead of the rear leg and shift the body weight on the supporting leg.

(iv) Turn shoulder on the side and place alternate arms on the beam at sideways.

(v) Swing and raise the rear leg first.

(vi) Move the supporting leg to the direction of the cartwheel. 

(vii) Turn the trunk up to 130–135 degree angle, keeping legs straddle as much as possible.

(viii) Push off the left arm and place the right leg on the beam surface and vice versa.

(viii) Keep the head in between arms throughout the cartwheel

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. When was the gymnastics introduced in the Olympic Games?

Ans: Gymnastics was introduced in the modern Olympic Games during the first modern Olympiad in Athens, Greece, in 1896.

2. Who is considered as the father of modern gymnastics?

Ans: Friedrich Ludwig Jahn is considered as the father of modern gymnastics.  

3. How many events are there in Artistic Gymnastics for men?

Ans: There are six events in Artistic Gymnastics for men. 

4. What is the full form of F.I.G.?

Ans: The full form of F.I.G. is Federation International de Gymnastics.  

5. When did women compete for the first time in Olympics?

Ans: Women competed for the first time at the 1900 Games in Paris.

6. In which year did Nadia Comaneci received the first perfect score in Olympics?

Ans: Nadia Comaneci received perfect score in 1976 at Montreal Olympics. 

III. Fill in the Blanks:

1. Gymnastics begun in ancient Greece about __________ years ago.

Ans: Gymnastics begun in ancient Greece about 2500 years ago.

2.  Today, gymnastics is often termed as the ultimate combination of ___________.

Ans: Today, gymnastics is often termed as the ultimate combination of sport and art.

3. Nadia Comaneci was the first female gymnast who received perfect score in 1976 at ______________ Olympics.

Ans: Nadia Comaneci was the first female gymnast who received perfect score in 1976 at Montreal Olympics. 

4. Like any other sport, gymnastics is a physical exercise that develops agility, coordination and ______________.

Ans: Like any other sport, gymnastics is a physical exercise that develops agility, coordination and flexibility

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. Gymnastics is an Olympic sport.

Ans: True.

2. There are three events in women Gymnastics.

Ans: False. 

3. Roman rings is a men’s apparatus.

Ans: False. 

4. Balancing beam is an apparatus for men.

Ans: False.

5. Floor exercise is an apparatus for both men and women.

Ans: True.

Judo

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Explain the history of Judo.

Ans: History of Judo: Judo is considered to have originated from Japan. Jigoro Kano invented this game in 1882, and he is considered as the founder father of Judo. It is believed that Judo is the comprehensive form of another ancient self-defence form ‘Ju Jutsu’. Judo is an art of self-defence and is considered gentle a way of attack with the help of one’s own body. Judo is an ideal form of physical exercise and self-defence. Judo became a system of self-defence in Japan involving throwing, hitting, kicking, choking, bending and pinning an opponent. Jigoro Kano reviewed all the principles of attack and defence and correctly applied these to the game. Judo in male category was introduced in Tokyo Olympic Games in 1964. Judo in women category was added in the Barcelona Olympic, 1992.  

2. Describe the basic rules of Judo.

Ans: Basic rules of Judo:

(i) During international competitions, each match lasts for four minutes, and points and penalties are awarded by the match referee assisted by the judges. 

(ii) The main objective of the player is to score an ‘Ippon’ (winning point) before the time runs out. Once a player scores an Ippon or is given a ‘Hansoku-make’ (severe penalty), the match ends immediately. Otherwise, the winner of the match is determined by the scored points. 

(iii) If the points are equal, then the winner is declared on the basis of the least number of penalty points known as ‘Shido’, means minor penalties. 

(iv) Judoka are not allowed to employ any of the outlawed techniques, attacking joints other than the elbows, punching or kicking, touching the opponent’s face, or intentionally injuring the opponent in any way. 

(v) In a judo bout, Judoka can achieve two types of scores (Ippon and waza-ari).

(vi) Ippon is the best, as it results in immediate victory. Ippon can be achieved by throwing an opponent in such a way as to make them land on their back. 

(vii) Ippon can also be achieved by trapping an opponent in an armhold or stranglehold to the extent that it forces the opponent to surrender or immobilising an opponent on the floor for at least 20 seconds. 

(viii) The next best score is waza-ari, which is awarded for lesser throws than those required for scoring ippon, and for immobilising the opponent for less than the time required to score ippon, i.e., 10 seconds. 

(ix) There are two types of penalties awarded in judo—shido and hansoku-make. Awarding hansoku-make to a judoka automatically gives the match to the opponent. Hansoku-make is given for major rule breaches or for the accumulation of three shidos. The third shido becomes hansoku-make (disqualified). 

3. Explain about the emergence of Judo in India.

Ans: Judo was introduced through the Judo training centre at Visva Bharati University started by Rabindranath Tagore in 1905. It is believed that on the suggestion of Okakura Kakuzo (master of Judo in Japan), Rabindranath Tagore called a Judo expert from Japan to India in 1905. 

Judo Federation of India (JFI) was formed in India in 1965 and thus attained steady growth. Worldwide, Judo is governed by the IJF (International Judo Federation). The year 1966 witnessed the first National Judo Championship in Hyderabad. 

Judo was included in the Asian Games in 1986 at Seoul and India got its much needed break in Seoul Asian Games, where Indians bagged four bronze medals. It was a milestone for team India and since then, India has been performing continuously at international Judo events. Several Indian Judoka (a person who practises or is an expert in Judo) qualified for the Olympic Games. Several of them received the prestigious Arjuna Award for their performances. In the 2010 Judo World Cup in Tashkent, Thoudam Kalpana Devi of Manipur became the first Indian to be included among the top-three positions in the World Cup.

4. Explain the measurement and specifications of the contest area in Judo.

Ans: A traditional Judo match takes place on tatami mats measuring 14×14 meters or 16×16 meters, with a combat area of 9×9 meters or 10×10 meters marked out within it. Players must wear the designated uniform with an appropriate knotted belt. The Judo player/athletes who are called Judoka, must bow before stepping onto the mat, and must bow to each other before and after the competition.

The competition area is a minimum of 14m×14m and is divided into two zones. The inner zone called the contest area is a minimum of 8m×8m to a maximum of 10m×10m. The outer zone is the safety area and is a minimum of 3m wide. The contesting area is of different colour to the safety area. When using two or more adjoining competition areas, the common or shared safety area is 4m. A free zone, a minimum of 50 cm, must be maintained around the entire competition area.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. Where did Judo come from?

Ans: Judo is considered to have originated from Japan.

2. What is the difference between Judo and Jujutsu?

Ans: Difference between Judo and Jujutsu:

Judo Jujutsu
Judo, is a  “gentle way”, is a modern Japanese martial art (gendai budō) and combat sport that originated in Japan in the late nineteenth century.An art of weaponless fighting employing holds, throws, and paralysing blows to subdue or disable an opponent.
Judo was created in peacetime for peaceful purpose.While jujutsu was created on the battlefield by warriors.
The biggest difference is that BJJ concentrates more on the ground game.While judo focuses on standing techniques.

3. What are the working principles of Judo?

Ans: Judo is built on a foundation of core principles that guide both its philosophy and technical execution. 

Here are some of the key working principles of Judo:

(i) Maximum Efficiency (Seiryoku Zenyo): The concept of maximum efficiency in judo, or seiryoku zenyo, is about using one’s energy efficiently and economically.

(ii) Mutual welfare and benefit (Jita Kyoei): Mutual welfare and benefit, or jita kyoei in Japanese, is a fundamental principle of judo that encourages people to help each other learn.

(iii) Gentleness (Ju): Judo, which literally translates to “gentle way” in Japanese, is a martial art that is often called “the gentle way” because it emphasises efficiency with minimal effort.

(iv) Breaking Balance (Kuzushi): Kuzushi consists of pulling or pushing an opponent to destabilise him/her.

(v) Body Movement (Tai Sabaki): Body Movement refers to the skillful manoeuvring of the body throughout throws and grappling techniques. Efficient footwork, posture, and body movement are crucial for success.

(vi) Respect (Ren): Judo’s founder, Jigoro Kano, created a moral code for judo that includes eight values: respect, courtesy, courage, honesty, honour, modesty, self-control, and friendship.

4. What is Kuzushi?

Ans: The noun comes from the transitive verb kuzusu meaning to level, pull down, destroy or demolish. As such, it refers to not just an unbalancing, but the process of putting an opponent to a position, where stability, and hence the ability to regain uncompromised balance for attacking, is destroyed.

In judo, it is considered an essential principle and the first of three stages to a successful throwing technique: kuzushi, tsukuri (fitting or entering) and kake (execution).

5. What is Kiai?

Ans: Two Japanese characters make up the word: Ki means “energy,” and ai means “to unify.” The concept appears often in the traditional martial arts of Japan and in different ways. In the broadest context, it refers to ways in which an opponent is manipulated through means other than physical contact.

6. What are the Judo ranks?

Ans: In judo, improvement and understanding of the art is denoted by a system of rankings split into kyu and dan grades.

Here’s a breakdown of the Judo ranking system:

Kyu Ranks:

(i) Sixth kyu: In judo, the 6th kyu rank is indicated by a white belt.

(ii) Fifth kyu to First kyu: In judo, the grades before the black belt are called kyu grades and are denoted by colour. The fifth kyu grade is the yellow belt, and the first kyu grade is the brown belt.

Dan Ranks:

(i) First dan: 1st Dan black belt, is the initial rank of a fully fledged judoka.

(ii) Second dan to Fifth dan: The second through fifth dan levels in judo are called Nidan, Sandan, Yondan, and Godan, respectively, and are all black belt ranks.

(iii) Sixth dan to Eighth dan: In judo, the 6th, 7th, and 8th dan ranks are represented by a belt with alternating red and white bands.

(iv) Ninth dan to Eleventh dan: The ninth, tenth, and eleventh dan ranks in judo are kudan, judan, and juichidan, respectively. The ninth and tenth dan are represented by a red belt and the eleventh dan grade is the black belt. 

7. Who created Judo?

Ans: Jigoro Kano a Japanese athlete, educator, and martial artist, founded judo in 1882.

8. What are the main types of Judo techniques?

Ans: A few basic techniques of Judo given below with the original terminology and their English version: 

(i) Tachi-Waza—Standing techniques. 

(ii) Koshi-Waza—Hip techniques. 

(iii) Ashi-Waza—Leg techniques. 

(iv) Te-Waza—Hand techniques. 

(v) Osae-komi-Waza—Ground techniques (Holds). 

(vi) Kensetsu-Waza—Arm lock techniques. 

(vii) Shime-Waza—Choking techniques. 

III. Fill in the Blanks:

1. The two types of penalties awarded in Judo are ___________ and ___________.

Ans: The two types of penalties awarded in Judo are shido and hansoku-make

2. The competition area of Judo is a minimum of ___________.

Ans: The competition area of Judo is a minimum of 14m×14m.

3. Judo was introduced in Olympic Games in __________ in Tokyo only in female category.

Ans: Judo was introduced in Olympic Games in 1992 in Tokyo only in female category.  

IV. State whether True or False:

1. Judo was included in the Asian Games in 1986.

Ans: True.

2. Judo was introduced in Olympic Games in 1964 in Tokyo only in male category.

Ans: True.

3. The contest area is of different colour from the safety area.

Ans: True.

4. Contest occurs under the supervision of a referee and two judges.

Ans: True.

Swimming

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Explain the world and Indian history of swimming.

Ans: In the early 1800s, swimming emerged as a competitive sport in England. The first indoor swimming pool, St George’s Baths, was opened for public use in the year 1828. The first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association, was formed in the year 1880. The Olympic Games were held in 1896 in Athens, which was a male-only competition. Six events were planned for the swimming competition, but only four events were actually contested—100 m, 500 m, and 1200 m freestyle and 100 m for sailors. The first gold medal was won by Alfréd Hajós of Hungary in the 100 m freestyle. In 1908, the world swimming body ‘Federation Internationale de Natation’ (FINA) was formed. Women were first allowed to take part in swimming competitions in the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm competing in freestyle races. In the 1912 games, Harry Hebner of the United States won the 100 m backstroke.

History of Swimming in India: In the year 1948, the Swimming Federation of India (SFI) was formed. Since then this body is looking after the promotion and administration of aquatic sports in India. The SFI is affiliated to FINA, the world governing body for the sport. Few not able Indian swimmers are Sachin Nag, Sufyan Shaikh, Khajan Singh, Nisha Milled, Sikha Tandon, and Sandeep Sejwal.

2. Write about the most renowned swimmers of India.

Ans: India has a rich history of swimming with several athletes making their mark on both national and international stages. 

Here are some of the most renowned swimmers from India:

(i) Virdhawal Vikram Khade: Virdhawal Vikram Khade is an Indian swimmer. He competed in the men’s 50, 100, and 200 meters Freestyle swimming events at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, setting an Indian national record in 100 meters Freestyle. He failed to qualify for the semifinals in his events despite winning his qualification heat.

(ii) Sandeep Sejwal: Sandeep Sejwal is an Indian swimmer who has participated in Olympics 2008. He contested in the men’s 100 m and 200 m breaststroke events at the 2010 Asian Juniors in Beijing, but did not reach the finals in both events. He won the bronze medal in 2014 Asian Games in 50 m breaststroke.

(iii) Sajan Prakash: Sajan Prakash is an Indian swimmer who specialises in freestyle, butterfly and medley events. At the 2015 National Games in Kerala, he set a record on 8 February 2015 by winning 6 gold and 3 Silver medals, and became the best athlete of the Indian National Games, held at Trivandrum, Kerala.

(iv) Maana Patel: Maana Patel is a rising star in Indian swimming, particularly known for her performances in backstroke events. She has set numerous national records and has represented India in international competitions such as the Asian Age Group Championships and the Asian Games.

(v) Khajan Singh: Khajan Singh is an Indian swimmer, who remained national swimming champion of India, and won a silver medal at the 1986 Asian Games in Seoul. He was awarded an Arjuna Award by Government of India in 1984. 

3. Explain the teaching stages of front crawl stroke.

Ans: The body position should be as streamlined as possible. The water should be at the hairline and the heels should just break the surface as the feet kick. During the stroke the body will naturally roll around the long axis. The front crawl or forward crawl, also known as the Australian crawl or American crawl, is a swimming stroke usually regarded as the fastest of the four front primary strokes.The leg kick in front crawl only contributes a small amount to overall propulsion, maybe 10% for elite swimmers and less for the rest of us. So the first thing is most of us would benefit from spending most of our time and focus on the rest of our stroke. Front crawl is the fastest of the four contemporary swimming strokes, it is swum almost universally in the freestyle event in competitive swimming. With front crawl there’s less of you in the water because one arm is always in the air. This means there’s less drag than breast stroke so is another reason that makes it more efficient so you can swim further and faster for less effort.

Front Crawl Swimming Tips:

(i) Focus on your breathing. Since you are swimming most of the stroke with your face down, finding the right moment to breathe is essential.

(ii) Maintain a stable head and chest position.

(iii) Be mindful of your head position.

(iv) Practice with a kickboard.

(v) Try the “catch up” stroke.  

4. Explain the teaching stages of back crawl stroke.

Ans: The body position should be as streamlined as possible with the ears in the water. The body lies at a slight angle from head to foot. The tummy, hips and knees should be close to the water surface. During the stroke the body will naturally roll around the long axis. A way of swimming in which you lie on your back and move one arm and then the other straight behind you so that they pass the sides of your head, while kicking with your legs. Back crawl uses an alternating arm action. One arm is under the water moving through the propulsive phase as the other is lifted over the water in recovery. Beginner learns may use a straight arm throughout the stroke – often referred to as a windmill action.

The Essential Elements of Backstroke:

(i) Head Position: The correct head position is vital for achieving correct body position.

(ii) Kicking Action: The kicking action is generated from the hips and upper legs with feet below surface.

(iii) Hand Entry: At the most basic level, you want to make sure you are exiting the water with your thumb and entering the water with the pinky side of your hand with each pull.

(iv) Arm Action: The arms are continuous and alternating with one arm providing propulsion under the water whilst the other recovers over the water.

(v) Timing: Accurately Time Body Rotation and Arm Action. For great backstroke, you need great timing between your arm actions and body rotation.

(vi) Hip and Shoulder Rotation: Hips are also a very important part of backstroke swimming. You should be moving your hips from side to side with each stroke. Backstroke is not swum flat. The hip should lead your arm pull.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. When was the first swimming association formed?

Ans: The first swimming association was formed in 1869.  

2. Discuss about SFI within 50 words.

Ans: The Swimming Federation of India (SFI) is the national governing body for aquatic sports in India. Legally, it is a non-profit association registered under the West Bengal Societies Registration Act, 1861. The federation holds elections for its office bearers every four years. The SFI currently oversees competition in the sports of swimming, masters swimming, synchronised swimming, diving, high diving, and water polo. It is affiliated to FINA, and the Asia Swimming Federation (AASF).

The SFI was formed by the merger of the National Swimming Association (NSA) and the Indian Swimming Federation (ISF) in 1948. Prior to the merger, the NSA and ISF had been engaged in disputes. While the Calcutta-based NSA received affiliation from FINA in 1932–33, the ISF had the support of the Indian Olympic Association. The Union Government intervened to resolve the dispute by merging the two entities to form the SFI. 

3. Explain the dimensions of a standard swimming pool?

Ans: As a guide, most rectangular pools are about twice as long on one side as they are on the other. Your average pool size for your average family is around nine metres in length with a width of four metres and a depth of 1.7 metres. Remember this is a guide only. 

There are two regulation pool sizes in the world of competitive swimming: 

(i) Short Course Pools – 25×18.29 meter min, with 6 or more lanes. 

(ii) Long Course Pools – 50×25 meter, with 8-10 lanes. 

4. What is the difference between freestyle and breast stroke?

Ans: Difference between freestyle and breast stroke:

FreestyleBreast stroke
The term ‘freestyle stroke’ is sometimes used as a synonym for ‘front crawl’, as front crawl is the fastest surface swimming stroke. It is now the most common stroke used in freestyle competitions.A swimming stroke executed in a prone position by coordinating a kick in which the legs are brought forward with the knees together and the feet are turned outward and whipped back with a glide and a backward sweeping movement of the arms.
In freestyle, swimmers use an alternating arm stroke combined with a flutter kick. The arms reach forward and pull through the water in a continuous motion, while the legs perform a flutter kick.A symmetrical arm stroke with a simultaneous frog-like leg kick. Both arms recover underwater before pulling forward together. Breathing is done by lifting the head forward out of the water after each arm pull.
Freestyle is generally faster than breaststroke due to its more streamlined technique and continuous movement.Slower than freestyle due to the drag created by the breaststroke kick and the pauses during breathing.
Freestyle is often swum in longer distances in competitive swimming and is the stroke used in the freestyle events in swimming competitions.Breaststroke is one of the four competitive swimming strokes and is swum in shorter distances, such as the 100-meter and 200-meter breaststroke events in competitions.

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. ________ºC to ________ºC is the normal range of temperature for water in swimming pool.

Ans: 25°C to 29°C is the normal range of temperature for water in swimming pool.

2. In a standard pool, there are ________ lanes.

Ans: In a standard pool, there are 10 lanes. 

3. Grab is a type of ________ in swimming.

Ans: Grab is a type of start in swimming.  

4. Jellyfish is a type of ________ in swimming.

Ans: Jellyfish is a type of stroke in swimming.

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. During the relay, we can change the swimmer of a team.

Ans: True.

2. During breast stroke, if the swimmer is tired he/she can use freestyle swimming.

Ans: False.

3. Back stroke in swimming starts from the water level.

Ans: True. 

4. During one’s turn, the swimmer is allowed to touch the floor.

Ans: False.

Table Tennis

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Briefly write the history of Table Tennis.

Ans: History of Table Tennis: Table tennis, also known as ‘Ping-Pong’, is a popular indoor recreational sport in India. The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) was founded in 1926. Table tennis made its Olympic debut at the 1988 Seoul Games. At present, there are 226 member nations affiliated to International Table Tennis Federation. Table Tennis Federation of India is one of the founder members of ITTF and officially started playing table tennis with the establishment of Table Tennis Federation of India (TTFI) in 1926. Table tennis has been contested at the Asian Games since 1958. Table tennis competition has been in the Commonwealth Games as an optional sport since 2002. World Team Table Tennis Championships, which include men’s team and women’s team events, started in the year 2000. World Table Tennis Championships have been held since 1926, and biennially since 1957. Earlier the game was played up to 21 points, which was changed to 11 points effective from September 2001. The change of rule made the game faster. The ITTF also changed the rule of five services by one player at a time to two services effective from 2002. All the table tennis events since 2014 are now being played with a new poly material ball.

2. Briefly write the scoring system in Table Tennis.

Ans: The tennis scoring system is a standard widespread method for scoring tennis matches, including pick-up games. Some tennis matches are played as part of a tournament, which may have various categories, such as singles and doubles. The great majority are organised as a single-elimination tournament, with competitors being eliminated after a single loss, and the overall winner being the last competitor without a loss. Optimally, such tournaments have a number of competitors equal to a power of two in order to fully fill out a single elimination bracket. In many professional and top-level amateur events, the brackets are seeded according to a recognised ranking system, in order to keep the best players in the field from facing each other until as late in the tournament as possible; additionally, if byes are necessary because of a less-than-full bracket, those byes in the first round are usually given to the highest-seeded competitors.

Scoring System in Table Tennis: 

(i) A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games.

(ii) A game shall be won by the player or pair first scoring 11 points unless both the sides score 10 points each, when the game shall be won by the first player or pair subsequently gaining a lead of 2 points.

3. Write about the expedite system in Table Tennis.

Ans: The expedite system comes into play when a game goes longer than 10 minutes unless the score in the game is 9 all or 10 – 8. When the expedite system comes in players take it in turn to serve. If the receive in any point returns 13 shots then they automatically win the point.

Expedite system in Table Tennis: 

(i) Activation: Table tennis offers moderate-intensity activity, which is good for your heart. Along with lots of other benefits.

(ii) Exception: The expedite system is not introduced if the score reaches 9-9 or 10-8 points before the 10-minute mark.

4. How many types of strokes are there in table tennis? Explain. 

Ans: There are two types of strokes in table tennis:

(i) Offensive strokes: The offensive strokes in table tennis include drive, loop drive, loop, loop kill, hook, counter drive, flip and smash.

It is the stroke where 5 conditions occur and these are as following:

(a) Speed Drive: This stroke is generally used to keep the ball in play, apply pressure on the opponent and potentially opening up an opportunity for a powerful attack. It is a direct hit propelling it forward back to the opponent.

(b) Loop: It is considered as the reverse of speed drive, in this the racket is parallel to the direction of the stroke and then the racket hit the ball that results in creating topspin.

(c) Counter Drive: The counter drives are considered as the high loop drives; in this the racket is closest to the ball and hit immediately after hitting the table so that the ball travels faster to the other side.

(d) Flick: When a player tries to hit the ball that has not bounced to the edge of table and player does not have the room to wind up in a backswing.

(e) Smash: This stroke is used by player when his opponent returned a ball that bounces too high or too close to the net and then player use large backswing and rapid acceleration that results as much speed on the ball as possible.

(ii) Defensive strokes: The defensive strokes in table tennis include push, slice, block, drive, lob, drop shot and spin (side backhand top).

In this stroke 4 conditions occur and these are as following:

(a) Push: It is used to keep the point alive and create offensive opportunities and it resembles tennis slice as the racket cuts underneath the ball by communicating backspin and causing the ball to float slowly to the other side of table.

(b) Chop: It is considered as a bigger, heavier push and can be taken well back from the table. In this stroke, the racket face points must be horizontally and little bit upward and then the direction of stroke would be straight down.

(c) Block: It is a simple shot and executing by just placing the racket in front of the ball right after the ball bounces that result in the ball to rebound back toward the opponent with same energy as it come in with.

(d) Lob: It is considered as the most impressive shot of the defensive stroke because it pushes the ball about five meters in height towards the land on the opponent’s side of the table with spin.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. How does a standard Table Tennis game end?

Ans: For each game, the first player to reach 11 points wins that game, however a game must be won by at least a two point margin. A point is scored after each ball is put into play. The edges of the table are part of the legal table surface, but not the sides. Each player serves two points in a row and then switch server. 

2. Besides the green colour? Which colour table can be used for the table?

Ans: Table tennis tables were green in colour in 20th century, but now the standard colour has changed to blue colour. Table tennis can be thought of as an indoor counter part to lawn tennis which also has green (grass), blue (synthetic), orange (clay) as the court colours.

Bright and Dull, Warm and Cool, Dark and Light. Consider the atmosphere you want to create in your dining room. Bright and light colours can make the space feel more open and airier, while dark and warm colours create a cosier and more intimate ambiance. 

3. What should be the height of the ball when tossed for the service?

Ans: In table tennis, the ball must be tossed at least 6 inches (16 centimeters) straight up when serving. The toss must be vertical, and the ball must be visible to the opponent at all times. The server must hit the ball on its way down before it touches anything. 

4. Which country has won the most international titles in the 20th century?

Ans: China has won the most international titles in the 20th century.  

5. What is the size of Table Tennis table?

Ans: The table. The upper surface of the table, known as the playing surface, is 2.74m long and 1.525m wide and is horizontal 76cm above the floor. 

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. In Table Tennis, penhold grip is used by ____________ players.

Ans: In Table Tennis, penhold grip is used by Chinese and Japanese players.

2. Diameter of the Table Tennis ball shall be ________ mm.

Ans: Diameter of the Table Tennis ball shall be 40mm.  

3. Table Tennis became an Olympic sport in ___________.

Ans: Table Tennis became an Olympic sport in 1988

4. Height of the table from the floor is _________.

Ans: Height of the table from the floor is 76cm

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. Table Tennis was included in Asian Games in 1958 in Tokyo.

Ans: True.

2. Table Tennis racket may be of any size, shape or weight.

Ans: False.

3. Table Tennis Federation of India was established in 1924.

Ans: False. 

4. Table Tennis is an indoor game.

Ans: True.

Wrestling

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Differentiate between freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling in detail.

Ans: Differentiate between freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling:

Freestyle wrestlingGreco-Roman wrestling
Free style is a type of wrestling in which holds on whole body parts are allowed.The Greco-Roman type of wrestling forbids holds below the waist.
In freestyle wrestling, you can simply toss the opponent and regain contact with them afterward when they are on the canvas in order to secure a favourable position.With Greco-Roman wrestling, however, you have to maintain contact with your opponent throughout the takedown for it to count.
Freestyle wrestlers typically shoot and defend shots better than their Greco-Roman counterparts.Greco-Roman wrestlers are better at slamming bodies.
Freestyle wrestling, like collegiate wrestling, has its origins in catch-as-catch-can wrestling.Greco-Roman wrestler can also win by pinning down (or fall) the opponent without completing the full time bout or periods.

2. Draw the labelled diagram of a wrestling playing mat.

Ans: A new FILA approved mat has a 9m diameter and a 1.5m border and is mandatory in Olympic Games, Championships and Cups. For all other international competitions mats must be approved/sanctioned but not necessarily new.

A red band, one metre wide, forms an integral part of the wrestling area. It is drawn along the circumference on the inside of the 9m circle. This is known as the red zone. The central circle in the middle of the mat is one metre in diameter. The inside part of the mat inside the red circle is the central wrestling area. It is 7m in diameter. The protection area is 1.5m wide. Surrounding the central circle is a band 10cm wide. For Greco Roman wrestling an 8cm wide line splits the circle into two parts. Two perpendicular lines, 40cm from each other, are called inside hand line and inside line. The colour of the lines are red. The diagonally opposite corners of the mat are marked in the wrestler’s colours, red and blue.

3. Discuss different age and weight categories in wrestling for male and female.

Ans: There are different weight categories in wrestling for various age groups, at school level as well as at senior level. Wrestlers in the junior age category are allowed to participate in the competitions at senior level. However, in order to take part at senior level competition, wrestlers aged 18 in the concerned year must provide a medical certificate and parental authorisation. Wrestlers aged 17 in the year in question may not participate in senior competitions. Weight categories are classified for the purpose of giving equal opportunity to every wrestler competing in the competition. 

Wrestling competition organised at international level for different age groups are:

School Boys: 14–15 years. 

Cadets: 16–17 years. 

Juniors: 18–20 years.

Seniors (Under 23): 19–23 years. 

Seniors: Above 20 years.

Male Weight Categories:

FILA/International (Freestyle and Greco-Roman)NCAA (Collegiate)
57 kg (125.5 lbs)125 lbs
65 kg (143 lbs)133 lbs
74 kg (163 lbs)141 lbs
86 kg (189.5 lbs)149 lbs
97 kg (213 lbs)157 lbs
125 kg (275.5 lbs)165 lbs
174 lbs
184 lbs
197 lbs
285 lbs

Female Weight Categories (Freestyle):

FILA/InternationalNCAA (Collegiate)
50 kg (110 lbs)101 lbs
53 kg (116.5 lbs)109 lbs
55 kg (121 lbs)116 lbs
57 kg (125.5 lbs)123 lbs
59 kg (130 lbs)130 lbs
62 kg (136.5 lbs)136 lbs
65 kg (143 lbs)143 lbs
68 kg (150 lbs)155 lbs
72 kg (158.5 lbs)
76 kg (167.5 lbs)

4. Discuss the various ways of winning points by a wrestler.

Ans: There are five ways to score points in a wrestling match:

(i) Takedown: You score two points for taking your opponent down to the mat and controlling him/her.

(ii) Escape: You score one point for getting away or getting to a neutral position when your opponent has you down on the mat.

(iii) Reversal: You score two points when your opponent has you down on the mat and you come from underneath and gain control of your opponent.

(iv) Near Fall (Back Points): You get near fall points when you almost but not quite get your opponent pinned. A near fall (near pin) is when both shoulders are held for two seconds within four inches of the mat, or one shoulder touches the mat and the other shoulder is at a 45 degree angle coming down to the mat, or the wrestler is held in a high bridge or back on both elbows.

If a near fall lasts for two seconds, you get 2 points. If a near fall lasts for 5 seconds, you get 3 points.

(v) Penalty Points: Penalty points are awarded to the opponent when a wrestler commits infractions or rule violations.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. List down the match officials in wrestling.

Ans: There are a number of expectations of officials including:

(i) Trustworthy – honest and impartial.

(ii) Responsible – have integrity and take the role seriously.

(iii) Prepared for their role – prepared physically and mentally for the task.

(iv) Competent – have and are further developing the skills for the task. 

2. Who was the first wrestler to win an Olympic medal?

Ans: Khashaba Dabasaheb Jadhav was the first wrestler to win an Olympic medal. 

3. What are the two types of wrestling styles?

Ans: The two types of wrestling styles are:

(i) Freestyle Wrestling. And

(ii) Greco-Roman Wrestling. 

4. What is the name of the governing body of wrestling in India?

Ans: The Wrestling Federation of India is the name of the governing body of wrestling in India.

5. What does WFI stands for?

Ans: Wrestling game in India is governed by a controlling body named Wrestling Federation of India (WFI), which was registered on 27th January, 1967 under the Society Act 1960 of the Government of India. 

6. What is the term used for wrestling costume?

Ans: Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable amount of jargon throughout its existence. Much of it stems from the industry’s origins in the days of carnivals and circuses. In the past, professional wrestlers used such terms in the presence of fans so as not to reveal the worked nature of the business. Into the 21st century, widespread discussion on the Internet has popularised these terms. Many of the terms refer to the financial aspects of professional wrestling in addition to in-ring terms.

7. What is the major difference between Greco-roman and freestyle wrestling?

Ans: The Greco-Roman type of wrestling forbids holds below the waist; this is the major difference between Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling. 

III. Fill in the Blanks:

1. The first national wrestling championship under WFI was held in ___________.

Ans: The first national wrestling championship under WFI was held in 1967

2. Passivity zone is of ____________ m in width.

Ans: Passivity zone is of 3m in width.   

3. First Indian male medallist in Olympics was ___________.

Ans: First Indian male medallist in Olympics was Khashaba Dabasaheb Jadhav.

4. First Indian woman medallist in Olympics was ____________.

Ans: First Indian woman medallist in Olympics was Sakshi Malik.

5. ___________ is the only Indian wrestler to win two medals at the Olympics Games.

Ans: Sushil Kumar is the only Indian wrestler to win two medals at the Olympics Games.

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. The registered office of wrestling federation of India is located in UT of Delhi.

Ans: True. 

2. Women wrestlers participated first time in Olympics after the gap of 100 years of their male counterpart.

Ans: False.  

3. In freestyle wrestling, the techniques are used only above the waist.

Ans: False.  

4. Wrestling is a combat sports originated from Martial Arts.

Ans: True.

5. Weight categories in Greco-Roman and freestyle are same.

Ans: False.

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