NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 2 Understanding Health

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NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 2 Understanding Health

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Chapter: 2

ASSESSMENT

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. What are the common health needs of adolescents?

Ans: Adolescents constitute about one-fifth of India’s population. As you have already learnt, adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood and a critical period for the development of self-identity. The process of acquiring a sense of self-awareness is linked to physical, physiological, mental, and emotional changes. It is also a phase of learning to negotiate the social and psychological demands of being young adults. Responsible handling of issues like, independence, intimacy and peer group dependence are concerns that need to be recognised, and appropriate support be given to cope with them. Adolescents are confused about sudden changes taking place in their bodies and minds. As a result, they face many doubts regarding numerous concerns, and health related uses. Many adolescents experience tension, and stress and respond differently on different occasions.

There are concerns about growing too tall or not gaining height, growth and development of body parts, and so on. Worrying about pimples on the face is a common problem during adolescence. Major health needs and problems among adolescents include nutritional disorders (malnutrition as well as obesity), substance abuse, high risk sexual behaviour, stress, mental disorders, and injuries (including road traffic injuries, suicides, and different types of violence). Many of these are precursors of communicable and non-communicable diseases (including mental disorders), and injuries, which inflict high morbidity, mortality, disability, and economic burden on adolescents, their households, and health systems. Moreover, the addiction to internet, especially to social media, has been increasingly keeping them under great stress, leading them to undergo depression and selfharm. They need help and guidance to pass over this period smoothly. They need counselling and healthcare advice, as well as treatment.

2. List all the dimensions of health and explain the emotional and spiritual dimensions briefly.

Ans: Health, indicates a sound body and a sound mind. It is multidimensional— the dimensions being physical, mental, emotional, social, spiritual and environmental. All these dimensions are interrelated with one another.

(i) Emotional dimensions: Emotional dimension of health is another important ability to cope, adjust and adapt to our environment. People with positive mindset tend to be more successful. It is a commonly used statement that ‘individuals become the type of person like the friends they have’. It means that the friends and other people who live together in the immediate environment play a very important role in personality development and emotional wellness. Some of the techniques which help in having stable emotional health include: reading inspirational books, setting goals, learning how to deal with setbacks, acquiring characteristics such as hope, enthusiasm, and positive thinking.

(ii) Spiritual dimensions: There are different belief systems that exist all around the world. The spiritual beliefs will help the individuals discover and pursue their own value and belief and a sense of overall purpose in life. Generally, people often find their purpose from a belief or faith system while others create their own school of worship. A person who has a purpose in life is said to be healthier than those who do not have it. Spiritual health easily affects emotional and mental health as having a purpose in life can help you to apply yourself to achieving goals. Having a purpose in life can also help people to maintain a proper perspective of life and overcome adversity. Often people who are spiritual, meet together regularly around their spiritual purpose, which helps to improve their social health also.

3. What are MDGs, and SDGs? How are these important for the world?

Ans: MDGs: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were related to basic development issues. These were target-based, time bound and have been among the most successful global goals. Among the list of eight MDG goals, three were related to health. These goals stressed the importance of health challenges at the global level.

SDGs: The SDGs are also, known as ‘Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’. There are 17 Global Goals having 169 targets. SDGs also carry forward the unfinished agenda of MDGs for continuity and to sustain the momentum generated. These also aim to address the challenges of inclusiveness, equity, and urbanisation.

The third SDG—‘ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages’—is wide-ranging as compared to the health goals in MDGs that were limited to child and maternal mortality and communicable diseases. The most important feature of SDG3 is universal health coverage which means to provide ‘access to good quality health services without financial hardship for people in need’. 

The adolescents face challenges to their healthy development due to a variety of factors. Some of these include poverty, social discrimination, inadequate education, early marriage, and child-bearing. It is speculated that investments in adolescents will have an immediate, direct, and positive impact on India’s health goals.

4. What are the benefits of engaging in regular physical activity to the adolescents and the young?

Ans: Regular physical activity can have many benefits for adolescents and young people, including both physical and mental health benefits:

(i) Physical health: Physical activity can help adolescents and young people build strong bones and muscles, improve cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower body fat. It can also help them maintain a healthy weight, reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, and lower their risk of falls. Physical activity can also help prevent health conditions like heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, and various types of cancer.

(ii) Mental health: Physical activity can help adolescents and young people reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression, and improve their cognition. It can also help reduce stress and improve insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles.

5. Explain the physical and mental dimensions of health.

Ans: Physical dimension: Physical dimension refers to the ability of a human body to function properly. It involves exercises, healthy habits, balanced diet, bone health, and body mass index. We can maintain a healthy body by taking proper nutrition, exercising, and avoiding harmful habits such as substance abuse. It is better to consume nutritious foods and beverages that enhance good health rather than those which impair it. Physical wellness is the ability to maintain the quality of life that allows one to get through daily activities without undue fatigue or physical stress. Optimal physical health consists of building physical strength, flexibility, coordinative ability, and endurance while taking safety precautions including medical self-care and appropriate use of a medical system, as well as protecting oneself from injuries and harm. It involves personal responsibility, disease prevention, and care for minor illnesses and also knowing when professional medical attention is needed. Being physically fit and feeling physically well often leads to the psychological benefits of enhanced self-esteem, self-control, determination and a sense of direction.

Mental dimensions: Mental health refers to the cognitive aspects of health that includes thinking, reasoning, remembering, imagining, and learning words. Cognitive aspect is related to the processes of perception, memory, judgement, and reasoning, as contrasted with emotional processes. It refers to the ability of individuals to use their brain and think, process information and act properly. It is our capacity to master new skills, embrace humour, and creativity. A sound mental health plays an important role in shaping our daily activities. It helps individuals in making a complete person. To stimulate our mental health, we can engage in various activities such as questioning critically, involving ourselves in creative, and problem solving activities. Mental health leads to an increase in self-esteem, and thereby leads to confidence in social situations. A sound mental health depends primarily on increased physical activities. Engaging in games and sports regularly keeps us mentally active.   

6. How can we get good mental health? Explain.

Ans: Everyone wants to look good and healthy. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle requires commitment. Strong desire, dedication and motivation play an important role in accomplishing a healthy lifestyle. 

We all make New Year’s resolution and set a goal to change some things in a more meaningful manner in our life. One aspect, which most of us think to modify in our life relates to our body weight, physical and mental health, or our personality. Many are able to stick to these goals, but many of us fail also. It is difficult but not impossible to make changes in lifestyle especially with regards to engaging in regular physical activities or games. 

With respect to our health, how do we sustain such goals is the most difficult question. We need to work out many strategies to motivate us to continue keeping health goals in sight. So being regular with physical activities, games, or sports that you wish to play or restricting eating junk food on a weekly basis or on most of the days is the key to maintain good physical and mental health.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. List some reasons due to which the adolescents do not utilise health services.

Ans: Some of the reasons why adolescents do not use health services are:

(i) Adolescents are not able to go to clinics as their timings do not match their schedule. 

(ii) They cannot miss school and college classes to visit these clinics. 

(iii) Lack of privacy and confidentiality in health clinics. 

(iv) Long waiting period in the public health clinics.

2. List important signs of stress and tension among the adolescents.

Ans: Important signs of stress and tension among the adolescents:

(i) Tense muscles, headaches, a tight jaw, teeth-grinding, a racing heart and sweaty palms.

(ii) Trouble sleeping.

(iii) Low energy, tiredness or exhaustion.

(iv) The feeling of being on edge and irritable.

(v) Difficulty concentrating.

(vi) Loss of motivation.

(vii) The feeling of being overwhelmed.

3. What are the causes of lifestyle diseases?

Ans: Some chronic diseases that can be caused by lifestyle diseases include:

(i) Heart disease.

(ii) Stroke.

(iii) Diabetes.

(iv) Obesity.

(v) Metabolic syndrome. 

4. What are the benefits of setting positive health goals?

Ans: The benefits of setting positive health goals are: 

(i) Set positive health goals: Having positive health goals keeps us motivated to follow goals with energy and enthusiasm. For example, a student may decide, ‘I will skip dinner daily’. This is a determination with a negative mind. This type of goal does not train our mind for healthy lifestyle. Instead, the goal could be, ‘I will eat healthy food’.

(ii) Set realistic goals: You would agree that many times we set health goals but fail to achieve them. For example, we may decide to exercise at least five days a week. But we have not been able to do so for about two weeks now. Gradually we lose track of our goal and we feel that now it’s difficult to exercise. We slip into the attitude of either we follow it every day or none.

5. How much population of India is disabled currently?

Ans: While India is home to over 1.36 billion residents, over 2.2 percent of this population endures some form of severe mental or physical disability.

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. Health is commonly understood as a state of absence of __________.

Ans: Health is commonly understood as a state of absence of disease

2. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) helped in focusing global attention and resources towards basic ___________ issues.

Ans: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) helped in focusing global attention and resources towards basic development issues.

3. Health indicates a sound ___________, and sound ___________.

Ans: Health indicates a sound body and sound mind.

4. ___________ of health refers to the ability of individuals to interact with others in the socio-cultural environment.

Ans: This dimension of health refers to the ability of individuals to interact with others in the socio-cultural environment.  

5. Health of the children is a critical concern for all societies, since it contributes to their ___________.

Ans: Health of the children is a critical concern for all societies, since it contributes to their overall development.

6. Schools play a vital role in promoting the health and safety of young people and helping them to establish lifelong ___________.

Ans: Schools play a vital role in promoting the health and safety of young people and helping them to establish lifelong healthy behaviours.  

7. ____________ is a key determinant of energy expenditure, energy balance, and weight control.

Ans: Physical activity is a key determinant of energy expenditure, energy balance, and weight control.

8. The SDGs, known as ‘Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’ is a set of ___________ Global Goals with ____________ targets between them.

Ans: The SDGs, known as ‘Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’ is a set of 17 Global Goals with 169 targets between them.  

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. Health is influenced by biological, socio-cultural, economic, and environmental factors.

Ans: True.

2. Lifestyle diseases are—Typhoid, Malaria, and Tuberculosis.

Ans: False. 

3. Mental health refers to the cognitive aspects of health that includes thinking, reasoning, remembering, imagining, and learning words.

Ans: True.

4. Childhood is the stage during which the foundation of healthy life is laid.

Ans: True.

5. Physical health and mental health are separable.

Ans: False. 

6. Not everyone wants to look good and healthy.

Ans: False.

V. Skill based Questions: 

1. Find out the status of anaemia among the boys and girls in your State. What schemes have been developed by your State and the Government of India to tackle anaemia?

Ans: In rural areas, 68.3 per cent children are anaemic, while the urban load stands at 64.2 per cent. The second highest increase is recorded in women between the ages of 15 and 19, up from 54.1 in 2015-2016 to 59.1 in 2019-2021.

Schemes to Tackle Anaemia:

(i) National Iron Plus Initiative (NIPI): This program aims to address iron deficiency anaemia across all life stages, including children, adolescents, and women of reproductive age. It’s implemented in government, government-aided, and municipal schools, as well as AWCs, for both in-school and out-of-school children.

(ii) Weekly Iron Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS): This program is based on evidence and aims to address anaemia in adolescent boys and girls. It involves weekly IFA supplementation under supervision, as well as biannual helminthic control.

(iii) Anaemia Mukt Bharat: This program focuses on reducing anaemia in all age groups by ensuring IFA is available to beneficiaries and compliance is maintained. 

2. You have read about healthy diets in previous classes. Make a diet chart for an adolescent boy in the age group of 14–17 years.

Ans: Here are some tips on how to ensure healthy diets in adolescent boy in the age group of 14-17 years:

Breakfast: (i) 2 whole wheat toast slices with peanut butter or avocado spread.

(ii) 1 boiled egg.

(iii) 1 cup of low-fat milk or yoghourt.

(iv) A piece of fruit (e.g., banana, apple, or orange).

Mid-Morning Snack: (i) A handful of nuts (e.g., almonds, walnuts) and seeds (e.g., pumpkin seeds).

(ii) A glass of freshly squeezed fruit juice or coconut water.

Lunch: (i) 1 cup of cooked brown rice or whole grain pasta.

(ii) Grilled chicken breast or fish (or tofu for vegetarians).

(iii) Mixed vegetable salad with olive oil and lemon dressing.

Afternoon Snack: (i) Greek yoghourt with honey and berries.

(ii) Whole grain crackers or a small whole grain sandwich (e.g., whole wheat bread with hummus).

Dinner: (i) Grilled or baked lean meat (chicken, turkey, or lean beef) or fish.

(ii) Steamed vegetables (broccoli, carrots, bell peppers)

3. Make a project on lifestyle diseases. What are the major lifestyle diseases? Discuss how one can prevent lifestyle diseases.

Ans: These diseases are non-communicable, and can be caused by lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating, alcohol, substance use disorders and smoking tobacco, which can lead to heart disease, stroke, obesity, type II diabetes and lung cancer.

Some common lifestyle diseases include:

(i) Cardiovascular diseases.

(ii) Cancers.

(iii) Diabetes.

(iv) Obesity.

(v) Depression, anxiety disorders, neurosis, and addictions.

(vi) Heart disease.

(vii) Atherosclerosis.

(viii) Stroke.

(ix) Respiratory ailments.

You don’t have to change your entire way of living to keep lifestyle diseases at bay. A few simple but conscious steps are more than enough. Our article today is focused on them. 

How to prevent lifestyle diseases is discussed below:

(i) It starts with the diet: A healthy diet can fix almost all your problems. So, let’s start from there. Eating balanced meals full of fresh vegetables, fruits, and proteins can boost your health & build immunity. We advise lowering your carbohydrate intake and increasing protein intake. Also, needless to say, you must avoid junk food and oily snacks along with processed foods and flours.

(ii) Add some exercise to the mix: Diet and exercise go hand in hand. Along with fixing your diet, you should try and add some physical activity to your daily routine. It could be as simple as walking 10,000 steps every day, jogging, cycling, or working out.

(iii) Avoid intoxication: The ill-effects of smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can never be understated. They contribute to premature ageing of the skin, heart problems, lung cancer, breathing issues, atherosclerosis, and many other such concerns. Try and put an end to these bad habits in order to lead a long and healthy life.

Prevention of lifestyle diseases is not hard at all. You just need to prioritise your own health over everything else. The aforementioned steps are easy to incorporate and when followed with discipline, yield long-term results.

4. Find out the desired minimum levels of physical activities for children, adolescents, and adults in different age groups.

Ans: WHO recommendations about physical activities for children and adolescents aged 5–17 years:

(i) Should do at least 60 minutes from moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily.

(ii) Physical activities for more than 60 minutes daily will provide additional health benefits.

(iii) Should include activities that strengthen music and bone, at least thrice in a week. 

For Adults 18–64 years:

(i) Should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity throughout the week, or do at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity throughout the week, or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous-intensity activity.

(ii) For additional health benefits, adults should increase their moderate-intensity physical activity to 300 minutes per week, or equivalent.

(iii) Muscle-strengthening activities should be done involving major muscle groups on two or more days a week.

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