NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 5 Team Games

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NCERT Class 11 Health and Physical Education Chapter 5 Team Games

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Chapter: 5

ASSESSMENT
Basketball

 

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Explain the reason behind invention of Basketball by Dr. Neismith.

Ans: In the late 19th century, James Naismith, a physical education instructor at the YMCA Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts, faced a challenge. Winter in New England brought harsh conditions that forced his students indoors for physical activity classes. Traditional options like football proved too rough and unsuitable for the limited space of a gymnasium. Dr. Naismith, himself a former athlete, recognized the need for a new game – one that would be engaging, promote teamwork, and be less physically demanding than football.

Driven by this purpose, Naismith embarked on a creative quest. He envisioned a game that could be played indoors during the long winters, fostering a sense of athleticism and competition. It should be less prone to causing injuries compared to football, yet still require physical exertion and strategic thinking. He sought inspiration from various sources, including his own childhood game called “duck on a rock” where players attempted to knock an object off a larger one with a thrown ball.

The invention of basketball wasn’t just about creating a fun activity. Naismith recognized the importance of physical education in promoting overall well-being. Basketball, with its emphasis on agility, coordination, and strategy, offered a well-rounded exercise experience. It instilled discipline and sportsmanship, fostering a sense of camaraderie among players.

News of this novel game spread quickly, capturing the imagination of students and athletes alike. The simplicity of the game’s concept, requiring minimal equipment and space, made it adaptable to various settings.  Soon, basketball transcended the walls of the YMCA, finding its way into schools, colleges, and communities across the United States. Its popularity continued to soar, evolving into the global phenomenon we witness today. 

2. What are the reasons of basketball’s development at such a fast pace?

Ans: The reasons of basketball’s development at such a fast pace are:

(i) Simplicity and Accessibility: Basketball’s core concept is inherently easy to grasp. A ball needs to be thrown through a hoop – a straightforward objective that transcends language and cultural barriers.

(ii) Fast-Paced Action and Excitement: Basketball is a dynamic game filled with constant movement, quick transitions, and high-scoring plays. The unpredictable nature of the sport, with lead changes and buzzer-beaters, keeps fans engaged and players on their toes.

(iii) Emphasis on Skill and Strategy: While athleticism plays a significant role, basketball is more than just physical prowess.  Success hinges on mastering dribbling skills, shooting techniques, and passing accuracy.

(iv) Urban Appeal and Streetball Culture: Basketball’s adaptability to urban environments fueled its growth in major cities worldwide. Blacktop courts became havens for honing skills and fostering a unique streetball culture.

(v) Global Reach and Cultural Exchange: Basketball’s international appeal transcended geographical boundaries. Missionaries and American servicemen introduced the game to different parts of the world, where it was embraced with enthusiasm.

(vi) Media and Commercialization: The rise of television and mass media played a pivotal role in propelling basketball into the living rooms of millions. Broadcast games showcased the athleticism and drama of the sport, creating new fans and inspiring aspiring players.

3. Discuss the functional rules of basketball.

Ans: The functional rules of basketball:

(i) Traveling: In basketball traveling is a violation of the rules of basketball in which a player takes more steps than the limited amount.

(ii) Double Dribble: In basketball, a double dribble or dribbling violation occurs when a player ends their dribble by catching or causing the ball to come to rest in one or both hands and then dribbles it again with one hand or when a player touches it before the ball hits the ground.

(iii) Three-Second Rule: The three seconds rule requires that in basketball, a player shall not remain in their opponent’s foul lane for more than three consecutive seconds while that player’s team is in control of a live ball in the frontcourt and the game clock is running.

(iv) Five-Second Rule: The five-second rule is a food hygiene urban legend that states a defined time window after which it is not safe to eat food after it has been dropped on the floor or on the ground and thus exposed to contamination.

(v) Fouls: In basketball, a foul is an infraction of the rules more serious than a violation.

(vi) Free Throws: In basketball, free throws is unopposed attempts to score points by shooting from behind the free-throw line (informally known as the foul line or the charity stripe), a line situated at the end of the restricted area.

(vii) Traveling Violations: In basketball, a common violation is the most minor class of illegal action. Most violations are committed by the team with possession of the ball, when a player mishandles the ball or makes an illegal move.

(viii) Out-of-bounds: The player is out-of-bounds when he touches the floor or any object on or outside a boundary. For location of a player in the air, his position is that from which he last touched the floor.

(ix) Jump ball: A jump ball is a method used to begin or resume play in basketball. It is similar to a face-off in ice hockey and field lacrosse and a ball-up in Australian rules football.

(x) Violations and Timeouts: In basketball, a common violation is the most minor class of illegal action. In sports, a time-out or timeout is a halt in the play. 

4. Explain the four fouls in basketball.

Ans: The four fouls in basketball are:

(i) Personal foul: A personal foul occurs when there is illegal contact between two opponents. A player shall not hold, block, push, charge, trip or impede the progress of an opponent by extending the body part, neither in an ‘abnormal’ position nor shall the player indulge in any rough or violent play. A player who commits more than five personal fouls is excluded from the game. 

(a) Charging: An offensive foul that is committed when a player pushes or runs over a defensive player. The ball is given to the team upon which the foul was committed.

(b) Blocking: It is an illegal personal contact, which impedes the progress of an opponent with or without the ball. 

(ii) Technical Foul: It is a non-contact foul of a behavioural nature (disregarding warning, disrespectful, foul language, delay, etc.). 

(iii) Unsportsmanlike foul: It is a foul where spirit of the game or the hard contact is made. 

(iv) Disqualification Foul: It is any unsportsmanlike (violence) action by players, coaches or delegation members.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. What is the full form of FIBA?

Ans: The full form of FIBA is Federation Internationale de Basketball, which translates to International Basketball Federation in English. 

2. Who is known as the father of basketball?

Ans: Dr. James Naismith is known as the father of basketball. 

3. What is the full form of BFI?

Ans: The full form of BFI is Basketball Federation of India.  

4. When was the first set of basketball rules framed?

Ans: The first set of basketball rules was framed in December 1891 by James Naismith. 

5. What is the height of basketball ring from the floor?

Ans: The height of the basketball ring from the floor in regulation play is 10 feet (3.05 meters). 

6. What is the weight of the basketball?

Ans: The official weight of an NBA basketball is between 20 to 22 ounces (567 to 624 grams).

FIBA regulations specify a slightly lighter basketball, weighing between 18 to 20 ounces (510 to 567 grams). 

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. The first national basketball championship was held in ____________ under IOC.

Ans: The first national basketball championship was held in 1936 under IOC. 

2. Basketball become a regular part of Olympics officially in the year of ____________.

Ans: Basketball become a regular part of Olympics officially in the year of 1936

3. Basketball game is divided into ___________ Quarters.

Ans: Basketball game is divided into four Quarters. 

4. Circumference of a basketball is ____________.

Ans: Circumference of a basketball is 65–67cm and its weight is 260–280g.  

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. The first national championship under BFI was conducted in 1951.

Ans: True.  

2. Three seconds rule is related to violation.

Ans: True.

3. The boundary lines are a part of playing area in Basketball.

Ans: False.

Cricket

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Write down the international and Indian history of cricket.

Ans: International history of cricket: A reference of a game resembling to cricket is there in the records of King Edward I, in 1300 being played at Kent. Cricket as a game was first recorded in 16th century in England. Researches show that the game evolved from a very old, widespread game to pass time in which one player served a small piece like a ball made up of wood or any other material and another player hit it with a suitable item. The first recorded cricket match took place in Kent in 1646. Cricket was popular and widely documented in England during the 1700s. After 1760, the game saw the evolution of over arm bowling by replacing under arm bowling. The Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) was formed on 31st May, 1787. After a year, it laid down a code of laws regarding the game. Its laws were adopted throughout the game. MCC today remains the custodian and arbiter of laws relating to cricket around the world. Thereafter, cricket recognisably became the game that is played today. In the 1800, cricket had reached the West Indies and India and in the 19th century cricket was played in South Africa and New Zealand. The first international cricket game was played between the USA and Canada in 1844. The match was played at the grounds of St George’s Cricket Club in New York. In 1877, an England touring team in Australia played two matches against full Australian XIs that are now regarded as the inaugural test matches.

Indian history of cricket: The first Indian Cricket club, named the Parsee Oriental Cricket Club, was founded in the year 1848 and they played their first match in Bombay (Mumbai). From this point, the journey of Indian cricket began. The first international exposure in the history of Indian Cricket came in the year 1926. In the same year, a team from the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) toured India. Though it was an unofficial tour, Indian people were quite interested and enthusiastic about the matches that MCC played during the tour. The legendary Indian cricket player, C.K. Naidu played brilliantly during that tour and he also scored a century against the MCC in Bombay. Imperial Cricket Conference (ICC), now International Cricket Council, was formed on 30 November, 1907. At present there are 105 countries as members of ICC. The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) was established in the year 1928. India played its first test match against England in 1932. Now cricket is played to cover all the three formats, ranging from 5 Day tests, to the exciting one-day 50 over format, and the 20 over format which is called as T20.

2. Explain the 11 ways through which a batsman can be given ‘out’ in the game of cricket.

Ans:  The 11 ways through which a batsman can be given “out” in the game of cricket are:

(i) Bowled: If the ball is bowled and hits the striking batsman’s wickets, the batsman is given out (as long as at least one bail or stump is dislodged by the ball). It does not matter whether the ball has touched the batsman’s bat, gloves, body or any other part of the batsman.

(ii) Caught: If a batsman hits the ball or touches the ball at all with the bat or hand holding the bat and the fielders, or wicket keeper or bowler catches the ball, it is called as caught out.

(iii) Stumped: A batsman can be given out when the wicketkeeper puts down the wicket while the player is out of the crease and not attempting a run (while attempting a run it would be a run out) but trying to play the ball and misses it.

(iv) Leg Before Wicket (LBW): If the ball is bowled (not a No Ball) and it hits the batsman first without touching and the bat and umpire thinks and decide that the ball would have hit the wickets if the batsman was not there, then the LBW decision is possible.

(v) Run Out: A batsman is out if no part of the bat or body is grounded behind the popping crease while the ball is in play and the wicket is fairly put down by the fielding side.

(vi) Hit Wicket: If a batsman hits the wicket down with the bat or body after the bowler has entered the delivery stride and the ball is in play, then the player is out.

(vii) Handled the Ball: If the batsman willingly handles the ball with the hand that is not touching the bat without the consent of the opposition, then the player is declared out.

(viii) Obstructing the Field: A batsman is out if he willingly obstructs the opposition by word or action.

(ix) Timed Out: The time for an incoming batsman to face a ball or be at the non-strikers end within three minutes of the outgoing batsman being dismissed. If this is not done, the incoming batsman can be given out.

(x) Hit the Ball Twice: If a batsman hits a ball twice other than for the purpose of protecting his wicket, he is out.

(xi) Retired: If a batsman retires without the umpire’s consent and also doesn’t have the consent of the opposition captain to resume his innings, then technically he is out.

3. Elaborate the different types of bowling in cricket.

Ans: There are several kinds of bowling. But it is broadly classified under two types: 

(i) Pace bowling. and 

(ii) Spin bowling.

(i) Pace bowling: Pace bowling is an approach where the bowlers depend on the speed of the ball to get the wicket of the batsmen. Players who train in pace bowling are usually termed as fast bowlers or pacemen. Pace bowling is designed to stir the batsman to make a mistake by delivering a ball in style. Fast bowlers, with their main focus on pace, through seam or swing, try deviating the ball. On the other hand, slow bowlers will divert the batsmen with an array of spin and flight. Swing and Seam are subtypes of fast bowling. A seam is the circular leather stitch that joins the two halves of the ball. The stitch is slightly elevated. In-Seam bowling, the ball is released in such a way that the seam hits the pitch and deviates.

(ii) Spin bowling: Spin bowling relies on the ability to rotate the ball to put out the batsman. This causes the ball to turn at an angle after it bounces off the cricket pitch. The batsmen are unsure of the direction of the ball after the bounce. The deviation of the ball changes for each delivery depending on the grip of the ball held by the bowler and the nature of the pitch. Sometimes this leads the batsman to hit a mistimed shot and lose his wicket. The average speed of the ball is 70–90 km/h.

Spin bowlers are more useful in the later part of a game. This is because during the course of the game the ball gets old and worn out which could have more grip on the pitch.

4. Explain the different types of batting in cricket.

Ans: The different types of batting in cricket are:

(i) Vertical bat strokes: Vertical bat strokes in cricket refer to shots where the batsman holds the bat in a vertical position or near-vertical position while making contact with the ball. These shots are typically used to play deliveries that are pitched on or around the line of the stumps.

(ii) Horizontal bat strokes: The bat comes in a horizontal arc from a high back lift and the ball should be hit between square leg and fine leg. The body must pivot fully and the aim should be to hit down with a roll of the wrists.

(iii) Unorthodox strokes: A truly unorthodox shot, the switch hit involves the batsman changing their stance and grip to transform into a reverse-handed batter, often leaving the fielding team and bowler bewildered.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. When and where was the BCCI framed?

Ans: The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) was established in India 1928. 

2. What is the old and new full form of ICC?

Ans: The old and new full form of ICC was Imperial Cricket Conference and International Cricket Council is the new full form of ICC.

3. What is T20?

Ans: T20 is a shortened game format of cricket. At the professional level, it was introduced by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) in 2003 for the inter-county competition. A typical Twenty20 game is completed in about two and a half hours, with each innings lasting around 70 minutes and an official 10-minute break between the innings. 

4. What is a Wide Ball?

Ans: A Wide Ball in cricket is a delivery by the bowler that is judged by the umpire to be too far outside the batsman’s reach for them to play a normal cricket shot. It’s essentially a penalty against the bowler for not bowling within an appropriate range for the batsman to hit the ball. 

5. Who was the recipient of Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award in 2018?

Ans: Virat Kohli received Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award in 2018. 

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. Cricket is a game played with a ________ and __________ on a large field, known as a ___________. 

Ans: Cricket is a game played with a bat and ball on a large field, known as a ground.

2. First Indian batsman who scored century in Test Match was __________.

Ans: First Indian batsman who scored century in Test Match was Lala Amarnath.

3. First Indian batsman who scored century in One day match is _________.

Ans: First Indian batsman who scored century in One day match is Kapil Dev.

4. The colour of cricket ball should be _________ in night test matches.

Ans: The colour of cricket ball should be white in night test matches.  

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. There are two types of crease.

Ans: False.  

2. The height of stumps is 28 inches.

Ans: True.  

3. A ‘Bye’ run is scored when a batsman is trying to hit the ball but could not hit it and is miss-field by the fielder or wicket keeper.

Ans: False. 

4. A batsman is not out if he willingly obstructs the opposition by word or action.

Ans: True.

Football

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Explain the world history of Football.

Ans: The history of football is over more than 1000 years old. Today, football is world’s most favourite sport played in almost every country.

Both rugby and football have a common root. There were many who instead of kicking believed in running with the ball in their hands. Kicking the ball included tripping the legs without any legislation or rules to govern. On the contrary, many people stood for football with kicking as it involved greater mastery of ball. In football, high level of skill precision was required to control and manoeuvre the ball with foot. The rules of play were subsequently smoothed down and smartened to create organised sports at Britain and Scotland. It was at this point that the people spoke out against rough customs as tripping, shin-kicking and so on. As it happened, the majority also expressed disapproval at carrying the ball with hand. It was in 1863 in England that the Rugby football group withdrew and formed a separate branch. This further led to the development modern-day sports of ‘Association Football’, ‘Rugby Football’ and ‘Gaelic Football’ in Ireland. Later the Football Association in England was formed becoming the sports’ first governing body. In 1904, ‘Federation International de Football Association’ (FIFA) was founded in Paris as an international governing body of football. The game of football in today’s scenario is called ‘Soccer’. 

2. Draw a labelled football ground.

Ans: The two goal lines are between 50 and 100 yards (46 and 91 metres) wide and have to be of the same length. The two touchlines are between 100 and 130 yards (91 and 119 metres) long and have to be of the same length. All lines on the ground are equally wide, not to exceed 12 centimetres (5 inches).

Diagram of football ground:

3. Explain any five laws of football.

Ans: Five laws of football are:

(i) Law 1 (The Field of Play): It mentions about the field surface along with the dimensions for field marking. The field of play should be rectangular in shape and the width should not exceed the length of the field.

(ii) Law 2 (Ball): The football must meet the following criteria as per the FIFA laws— 

(a) The ball shall be spherical in shape. 

(b) It should be made of leather or any other suitable material approved by the governing body. 

(c) Ball circumference shall be 68 to 70 cm which is equal to 27 to 28 inches. 

(d) The weight of the ball shall be between 410 to 450g which is equal to 14 to 16 oz at the start of the match. 

(e) Air pressure should be equal to 0.6–1.1 atmosphere (600–1,100 g/cm2) at sea level.

(iii) Law 3 (Number of Players): A match is played by two teams. Each team shall consist of not more than 11 players during the match, one of whom shall act as goalkeeper. A match may not start if either team consists of fewer than seven players. 

Substitutions: Up to a maximum of three substitutes may be used in any match played in an official competition organised under the auspices of FIFA or the member associations. For all other competitions, the rules of the competition must state how many substitutes may be nominated, it can vary from three up to a maximum of twelve, before the tournament begins.

(iv) Law 4 (Players’ Equipment): The basic compulsory equipment of a player comprises the following items: 

(a) A jersey or shirt with sleeves: If undergarments are worn, the colour of the undergarments must be of same colour as the sleeve of the jersey or shirt. 

(b) Shorts: If undershorts or tights are worn, these must be of same colour as the shorts.

(c) Stockings: If tape or similar material is applied externally, it must be of same colour as that part of the stocking to which it is applied. 

(d) Shin guards. 

(e) Shoes.

(v) Law 5 (Referee): Each match is controlled by a referee, who shall enforce the Laws of the Game. Duties of a Referee: 

(a) Enforces the Laws of the Game. 

(b) Controls the match in cooperation with the assistant referees (Line Judges) and, wherever applicable, with the fourth official (Table Official). 

(c) Ensures that the ball used meets the requirements of Law number 2. 

(d) Ensures that the player’s equipment meet the requirements according to Law number 4. 

(e) Acts as timekeeper and keeps a record of the match. 

(f) Stops, suspends or abandons the match, for any infringements of the Laws. 

(g) Stops, suspends or abandons the match because of outside interference of any kind. 

(h) Stops the match if, in his opinion, a player is seriously injured and ensures that player is removed from the field of play. An injured player may only return to the field of play after the match has restarted. 

(i) Allows the play to continue until the ball is out of play if a player is, in his opinion, only slightly injured.

4. What are the players’ equipment in football?

Ans: The basic compulsory equipment of a player comprises the following items:

(a) A jersey or shirt with sleeves: If undergarments are worn, the colour of the undergarments must be of same colour as the sleeve of the jersey or shirt. 

(b) Shorts: If undershorts or tights are worn, these must be of same colour as the shorts.

(c) Stockings: If tape or similar material is applied externally, it must be of same colour as that part of the stocking to which it is applied. 

(d) Shin guards. 

(e) Shoes.

5. List the types of kicks in football and explain any two.

Ans: There are many types of kicks in there football. They are given below:

(a) Direct Free Kick. 

(b) Penalty Kick.

(c) Indirect Free Kick.

(d) Goal Kick.

(e) Corner Kick.

(a) Direct Free Kick: A direct free kick is a free kick from which an attacking goal can be scored directly. For example, when a direct free kick is taken, a player like David Beckham will be able to strike the ball on goal from a stationary position, and any direct goal will be legally allowed. This might sound basic, but in fact, it’s a fairly common occurrence in football for free kicks to be awarded that players aren’t allowed to shoot directly from.

(b) Penalty Kick: A penalty kick is given against a team that commits one of the ten offences inside its own penalty area while the ball is in play. A goal may be scored directly from a penalty kick.

During the penalty kick, all the players other than the kicker are located— 

(i) inside the field of play. 

(ii) outside the penalty area. 

(iii) behind the penalty mark. 

(iv) at least 9.15 m (10 yds) away from the penalty mark. 

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. When was the first Football Association formed?

Ans: The first Football Association was formed on October 26, 1863.

2. Tsu-Chu was played in which country?

Ans: Tsu-Chu, also known as Cuju, was played in ancient China. 

3. What is FIFA?

Ans: FIFA stands for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association, which is the international governing body for the sport of soccer (or football, as it is known outside of the United States). FIFA is responsible for organising and overseeing major international soccer tournaments, such as the FIFA World Cup, which is held every four years and is the most prestigious tournament in the sport. The organisation also sets the rules and regulations for the game of soccer and works to promote and develop the sport around the world. One verifiable fact about FIFA is that it was founded in 1904 and currently has 211 member associations, making it one of the largest and most influential sports organisations in the world.

4. When was AIFF formed?

Ans: The All India Football Federation (AIFF) was formed on June 23, 1937.  

5. What are the dimensions of a football field for international competitions?

Ans: The dimensions of a football field for international competitions, as specified by FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association).

Are as follows:

(i) Length (Touch Line): Minimum 100 meters (110 yards) and 110 meters (120 yards).

(ii) Width (Goal Line): 64 meters (70 yards) and 75 meters (80 yards). 

6. List the criteria as per FIFA for the football to be used.

Ans: The football must meet the following criteria as per the FIFA laws— 

(a) The ball shall be spherical in shape. 

(b) It should be made of leather or any other suitable material approved by the governing body. 

(c) Ball circumference shall be 68 to 70 cm which is equal to 27 to 28 inches. 

(d) The weight of the ball shall be between 410 to 450g which is equal to 14 to 16 oz at the start of the match. 

(e) Air pressure should be equal to 0.6–1.1 atmosphere (600–1,100 g/cm2) at sea level.

7. What is the difference between free kick, indirect free kick and penalty kick?

Ans: Differences between free kick, indirect free kick and penalty kick are:

Free kickIndirect freePenalty kick
A free kick is a method of restarting play in association football. It is awarded after an infringement of the laws by the opposing team.A score cannot be made through an indirect free kick if taken straight way into the goal without touching any other player.A penalty kick is given against a team that commits one of the ten offences inside its own penalty area while the ball is in play.
The fouled team can take a direct free kick, meaning they can attempt to score a goal directly from the kick.The indirect free kick is taken from the place where the offence occurred.A goal may be scored directly from a penalty kick.
If a direct free kick is kicked directly into the opponents’ goal, a goal is awarded.The indirect kick, the referee will hold one arm straight up in the air until the second person touches the ball.It is awarded when an offence punishable by a direct free kick is committed by a player in their own penalty area.

III. Fill in the Blanks:

1. The game of football is also known as __________ in the world.

Ans: The game of football is also known as Soccer in the world.

2. The first known/oldest football tournament is ___________.

Ans: The first known/oldest football tournament is FA Cup.

3. India holds the record of organising _________ cup as second oldest tournament in the world. 

Ans: India holds the record of organising Durand Cup as second oldest tournament in the world.

4. Less than _________ players cannot be allowed for a team to play in tournament.

Ans: Less than 7 players cannot be allowed for a team to play in tournament.

5. Two yellow cards are equal to _________ which means sending off offence.

Ans: Two yellow cards are equal to red card which means sending off offence. 

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. The Throw-In is a method of restarting play.

Ans: True. 

2. The measurement of a goal area is 5.5m × 19m.

Ans: False.

3. A goal can be scored directly from the indirect free kick.

Ans: False.

4. A direct free kick, kicked in own goal is awarded as corner to opponent.

Ans: True.

5. Unsporting behaviour is a questionable offence.

Ans: False. 

6. A direct goal can be scored from the corner kick but only against the opposing team.

Ans: True.

7. A flag post should not be less than 1.5m (5 feet).

Ans: True.

Handball

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Write down the History of Handball.

Ans: At the end of the nineteenth century, somewhere in Northern Europe, it became necessary to unify the rules, which was done by Karl Schelenz. The new game rules came in force in Berlin, in 1917. The sports international governing body was first formed in 1928 as the Federation International Handball Amateur. It took its current name in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1946 as the International Handball Federation (IHF). The first president of IHF was Avery Brundage—an American who went on to become president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The first Field Handball World Championships were played in Germany in 1938, following its appearance at the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games and then it made a comeback into the games in the 1972 Munich Olympic games. The women’s version of the game was added in the 1976 Montreal Olympic games. Indoor Handball was invented in the 1940s in Denmark. The International Handball Federation which was established in 1946, oversees the game, and at present it has 175 member countries associated with it. The first International Handball Federation (IHF) World Men’s Handball Championship commenced in 1954. The IHF World Women’s Handball Championship commenced in 1957.

The Asian Handball Federation had begun when the Martyr Sheikh Fahad Al-Ahmad AlSabah of the Kuwait initiated a motion to the Executive Committee of the Asian Games requesting recognition of the handball game and also formation of the Asian Handball Federation during seventh Asian Games, Tehran, Iran in 1974. The Handball federation of India was established in 1972. The first senior National Handball Championship was held at Rohtak (Haryana) in 1972. Haryana won the gold medal and Vidharbha got the silver medal. First time in India, Handball Team participated in Asian Games held in India in 1982.

2. Draw a labelled handball playfield.

Ans: The handball court measures 40 meters in length and 20 meters in width which is divided by the centre line. The goal area line, or 6-meter line, is the most important line. No one except the goalkeeper is allowed to stand in the goal area. Opponent players may not jump or enter into the goal area without releasing the ball for goal.

Diagram of handball playfield:

3. Explain the functional rules of Handball.

Ans: Functional rules of Handball are as follows:

(i) Playing Area: The handball court measures 40 meters in length and 20 meters in width which is divided by the centre line. The goal area line, or 6-meter line, is the most important line. No one except the goalkeeper is allowed to stand in the goal area. Opponent players may not jump or enter into the goal area without releasing the ball for goal.

(ii) Number of Players: A team consists of 16 players and substitutes in each team. There are seven playing members on each team (six court players and one goalkeeper).

(iii) Uniform of the Players: Player chest numbers range from 1 to 99. Uniform shirts and shorts are of the same colour. The goalkeeper must wear a different coloured shirt from the teammates and opponents.

(iv) Referees: There are two referees, a court referee and a goal line referee. Referees have complete authority and their decisions are final. The referees are assisted by a timekeeper and a scorer.

(v) Duration of the Game: The duration of the match for different age groups is allotted as mentioned in the following table:

Age GroupPlaying time with 10 minutes of interval
8–12 yearsTwo halves of 20 minutes.
12–16 yearsTwo halves of 25 minutes.
16 and aboveTwo halves of 30 minutes.

(vi) Team Time-out: One minute time-out can be taken by each team in every half.

(vii) Throw-off: A throw-off is given to the team that wins the toss. Both the teams must be in their own side of the court with the defence 3 meters away from the ball.

(viii) Throw-in: When the ball goes out of bounds on the sideline or when the ball is last touched by a defensive player (not goalkeeper), a throw-in is awarded and goes out of bounds over the endline.

(ix) Scoring: A goal is scored when the entire ball crosses the goal line inside the goal. A goal may be scored from any type of throw, i.e., free-throw, throw-in, throw-off, and goal-throw.

(x) Playing the Ball: A player is permitted to throw, push, stop, catch, or hit the ball, by using hands (open or closed), head, arms, torso, thighs, and knees.

(xi) Defending the Opponent: A player may use the torso of the body to defend an opponent with or without the ball.

(xii) Passive Play: A ball possession team cannot delay the game without making a recognisable attempt to attack and to shoot or goal.

(xiii) Free-throw: Free-throw is awarded to the opponent against a minor foul or violation at the exact spot of the foul.

(xiv) 7 Meter Throw: The 7 meter throw is awarded when: 

(a) Illegally demolish a clear chance to goal.

(b) The goalkeeper carries the ball back into his/her team’s own goal area.

(c) A court player intentionally plays the ball to his or her own goalkeeper in the goal area and the goalkeeper touches the ball.

(d) A defensive player enters his or her goal area to gain an advantage over an attacking player in possession of the ball.

(e) All players must be outside the free-throw line when the throw is taken. 

(f) Any player may take the 7 meter throw.

(xv) Goal-throw: When the ball rebounds off the goalkeeper over the end line, a goal-throw is given. The player of the attacking team throws over the ball from the end line.

(xvi) Warnings (Yellow Card): The referee gives only one warning to a player for rule violations and a total of three warnings to a team. Exceeding these limits results in 2 minute suspension thereafter.

(xvii) Disqualification and Exclusion (Red Card): A disqualification is equivalent to three 2 minute suspensions. A disqualified player must leave the competition arena.

4. Differentiate between the 6 m Goal Area Line and 9 m free throw line.

Ans: Differences between the 6 m Goal Area Line and 9 m free throw line:

6 m Goal Area Line9 m free throw line
A 3m line directly in front of the goal. This line is parallel to the goal line and 6m away from it (measured from the rear edge of the goal line to the front edge of the goal area line).The 9m free throw line is a broken line, drawn 3m outside the goal area line.
This line is drawn 6 meters away and parallel to the goal line.This line marks the distance from which free throws are taken after certain fouls or violations by the defending team.
This area is where the goalkeeper is allowed to use their hands to defend the goal.It provides a designated spot for restarting play under controlled conditions.
It also serves as a zone where certain rules regarding defensive play apply, such as limitations on how closely defending players can approach attacking players without the ball.The 9-meter free throw line is a point of restart for the attacking team after certain infractions and provides a set distance for the execution of free throws, ensuring fairness and consistency in restarts of play.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. What is the full form of IHF?

Ans: International Handball Federation is the full form of IHF.

2. When and where was the IHF framed?

Ans: The IHF was founded on 12 July 1946, in Palace Hotel in Copenhagen, Denmark.  

3. How many players and substitutes are there in a Handball team?

Ans: A handball team consists of 7 players on the court and can have up to 7 substitutes on the bench. 

4. Write down the names of the current Indian Handball team members?

Ans: (i) Amit Ghanghas.

(ii) Amit Sharma.

(iii) Ankit.

(iv) Arjun Lakra.

(v) Ashok Nain.

(vi) Atul Kumar.

(vii) Avin Khatkar.

(viii) Bhupender Jangra.

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. The first national handball championship was held in ___________.

Ans: The first national handball championship was held in 1972

2. Handball became a regular part of Olympics officially in the year of ___________.

Ans: Handball became a regular part of Olympics officially in the year of 1936

3. Time out is related to ___________ quarters of playing time.

Ans: Time out is related to One minute quarters of playing time.  

4. Panalty line is ___________ away from the Goal Post.

Ans: Panalty line is 7 meter line away from the Goal Post.    

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. The first World Championship under IHF was conducted in 1954.

Ans: True. 

2. 3 seconds rule is related to violation.

Ans: True.

3. The length of a Handball ground is 42 m.

Ans: False.

Hockey

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Who founded the International Hockey Federation and in which year?

Ans: International Hockey Federation was founded on 7 January 1924 in Paris by  Paul Leautey, who became the first president, in response to field hockey’s omission from the programme of the 1924 Summer Olympics. First members complete to join the seven founding members were Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Spain, and Switzerland.

The Federation International Hockey (FIH) not only regulates the sport, but is also responsible for its development and promotion so as to guarantee a secure future for hockey.

In 1982, the FIH merged with the International Federation of Women’s Hockey Associations (IFWHA), which had been founded in 1927 by Australia, Denmark, England, Ireland, Scotland, South Africa, the United States, and Wales.

The organisation has been based in Lausanne, Switzerland since 2005, having moved from Brussels, Belgium.

FIH comprises a network of five continental federations (CHFS), 12 National associations (NHAS), an executive board and 7 expert advisory committees, with a Head Office in Brussels. 

2. In which year was hockey introduced in the Olympic Games.

Ans: Ice hockey debuted as an Olympic sport in the 1920 Games in Antwerp. Professional athletes were allowed to compete at the Olympics from 1998 through 2014. Women’s ice hockey wasn’t introduced until the Nagano 1998 Olympic Winter Games.

Field hockey was removed from the Summer Olympic Games at the 1924 Paris Games because of the lack of an international sporting structure. The International Hockey Federation (FIH, Federation Internationale de Hockey) was founded in Paris that year as a response to field hockey’s omission. Men’s field hockey became a permanent feature at the next Olympic Games, the 1928 Games in Amsterdam.

India won the gold medal in seven out of eight Olympics from 1928 to 1964. Later, Pakistan was also dominant, winning three gold and three silver medals between 1956 and 1984. India lost their dominance after the 1980s and Pakistan after the 1990s. India won their last gold medal in 1980 and Pakistan in 1984 Games. However, India again won the bronze medal in the 2020 games. 

3. Draw a labelled diagram of hockey field playground.

Ans: The field of play is rectangular, 91.40 metres long, bounded by sidelines and 55 metres wide, bounded by backlines.

4. Explain in detail the new match time format in field hockey.

Ans: There are four quarters of 15 minutes each in field hockey. There is a two-minute break after the first and third quarter and a 15 minute-interval after the second quarter, which is halftime. The average NHL hockey game length is about 60 minutes. There are three 20-minute periods in a game with intermissions after the first and second periods. Each intermission lasts 18 minutes during NHL games, but may be shorter in other leagues. The total duration of a hockey match as per the International Hockey Federation Rule is 60 Minutes. Before 2019, matches were played for 70 minutes.

For tie-breaking purposes, especially in knockout stages or tournaments, shoot-outs (similar to penalty shoot-outs in soccer) have been introduced to determine the winner after a drawn match. This is not related to regular match time format but affects the outcome of matches.

5. Explain the new format of shootout in field hockey.

Ans: In hockey, overtime is necessary if the teams are tied after three periods. A shootout occurs after overtime when three on three play for five minutes and remains scoreless. Each team selects one player to take a shot at the opposing goaltender for three rounds.

If a group-stage match is tied after four quarters, the match ends in a draw and each team receives one point in the standings. If an elimination or medal match is tied after four quarters, the teams will compete in a shootout to determine a winner. Five players from each team alternate penalty strokes in the shootout. If the shootout is tied after those five players from each team go, the shootout moves to a sudden-death format where the first team to score more goals after an equal number of strokes wins. If the shoot-out competition takes place after the end of a match, the first shoot-out should take place within four (4) minutes of the end of regulation playing time.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. What is the full form of FIH?

Ans: International Hockey Federation is the full form of FIH. 

2. What is the weight of a field hockey ball?

Ans: In accordance with FIH regulations, a field hockey ball should weigh 156-163 grams. 

3. What should be the shape of the head of a hockey stick?

Ans: The head part of a hockey stick is hooked. The right-hand side of the stick is rounded, while the left-hand side is flat. The ball can be played only with the flat, left-handed side f the stick, or with its edge. The ball cannot be played with the rounded side of stick. 

4. How many umpires are there in field hockey?

Ans: There are two umpires (or ‘referees’) in each game. Each umpire controls half of the field, although general play in the midfield can be called by either umpire. 

5. How many types of cards can be issued by the umpire in field hockey? What is the effect of yellow card on a player?

Ans: There are three types of cards can be issued by the umpire in field hockey.

Yellow Card (Caution): When a player commits an offence that disrupts the flow of the game or is deemed unsporting, the referee may issue a yellow card as a caution. If a player receives two yellow cards in a single game, it results in an automatic red card, and the player is sent off.

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. The height of the goal post in field hockey is __________.

Ans: The height of the goal post in field hockey is 7 feet.  

2. The player is suspended for __________ minutes if he gets a green card.

Ans: The player is suspended for two minutes if he gets a green card.  

3. National championship for field hockey is __________.

Ans: National championship for field hockey is Rangaswamy Cup.

4. The duration of a field hockey match is __________.

Ans: The duration of a field hockey match is 60 Minutes.

5. The international field hockey match played is _________ quarters of __________ minutes.

Ans: The international field hockey match played is four quarters of 15 minutes. 

6. Indian men’s Hockey team won _______________ gold medals in Olympic Games.

Ans: Indian men’s Hockey team won eight gold medals in Olympic Games. 

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. A player is suspended for 5 minutes when the umpire shows yellow card to the player.

Ans: True.

2. The height of the backboard in goal post is 480 mm.

Ans: False. 

3. The height of the flag post is 2.00m.

Ans: False.

4. Field hockey was first introduced in 1900 Olympic Games.

Ans: False.

Kabaddi

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Briefly explain the origin of Kabaddi as a game in India.

Ans: Kabaddi is an indigenous game of India which has originated and developed since the epic age of Mahabharata. The word ‘Kabaddi’ has been derived from the term Kaun Bada which means ‘to challenge an opponent’. The game, known as Hu-Tu-Tu in Western India, Ha-Do-Do in Eastern India and Bangladesh, Chedugudu in Southern India and Kaunbada in Northern India. Kabaddi attained national status in the year 1918. Maharashtra was the pioneer state to bring the game to the national platform and popularity. Standard rules and regulations were formulated in 1918 but were brought out in print in the year 1923 and in this very year, an All India Tournament was organised at Baroda with these rules.

The Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India (AKFI) was founded in 1973. After the formation of Amateur Kabaddi Federation of India, the first men’s nationals were held in Madras (renamed as Chennai), while the women’s nationals were held in Calcutta (renamed as Kolkata) in 1955 (1955 does not come after 1973). 

2. Describe any three rules of giving raid.

Ans: Here are three important rules governing the raid in kabaddi:

(i) Raider shall continue to chant “Kabaddi”. Raider must start the chant before the player touches the opponent’s court.

(ii) If a raider goes out of turn, the Umpire or Referee shall order the raider to go back and a technical point will be given to the opponent team.

(iii) Not more than one raider shall enter the opponent’s court at a time; otherwise a technical point will be awarded to the opponent and a chance to raid.    

3. What are the situations in which the raider can be given ‘out’?

Ans: In kabaddi, a raider can be declared “out” in several circumstances during their raid into the opponent’s half of the court. The primary way a raider is declared out is if they are successfully tackled or tagged by defenders from the opposing team. A tag occurs when a defender makes physical contact with the raider and stops their movement without allowing them to return safely to their own half of the court. Once a tag is made, the raider is immediately declared out, and the defending team earns a point. If a raider goes out of turn, the Umpire or Referee shall order the raider to go back and a technical point will be given to the opponent team.

If the raider fails to score points during their raid, such as not touching any defenders or failing to cross the midline (bonus line) and return safely within the time limit (usually around 30 seconds), they can also be declared out. This time limit adds urgency to the raid, as raiders must act quickly and decisively to avoid being caught by defenders.

4. How does an anti-raider team get points?

Ans: In kabaddi, the team defending against the raider, often referred to as the anti-raiding team, can score points through several strategic actions when the opposing raider attempts to score points in their half of the court.

When a raider enters the opponent’s half to score points, the anti-raiding team’s primary objective is to prevent the raider from returning to their own half successfully.

Here are several ways the anti-raiding team can score points:

(i) Successful Tackle or Tag: If the raider is successfully stopped (tackled), the opposite team earns a point instead. All players tagged are taken out of the game, but one is “revived” for each point a team scores from a subsequent tag or tackle.

(ii) Avoiding Bonus Points: Bonus Point is awarded to a Raider while raiding, only if he/she comes in contact with the ground between End Line and Bonus Line.

(iii) Defensive Strategy and Coordination: The players on the defensive side are called “Antis” while the player of the offence is called the “Raider”. Their strategy will vary in accordance with the number of players they are having.

(iv) Strategic Time Management: Effective time management is crucial for the anti-raiding team to maximize their defensive efforts and capitalise on the raider’s mistakes or hesitations. 

5. How can a bonus point be scored?

Ans: In the standard form of kabaddi, the structure of the game is simple; the two teams of seven take up positions on opposite sides of the rectangular mat. One player from each team (a raider) will take turns to enter the opposition’s half.

Any opposition player (defender) they make contact with before returning to their half will result in a point for the raiding team. If the defenders tackle a raider and do not allow them to return to their own half, the defending team will gain a point. If the raider steps beyond the bonus line marked in the defending team’s territory when there are six or more players, they earn an additional point known as a bonus point (the bonus point is only scored if the raider’s trailing foot is in the air while they step over the line). The bonus point adds an additional tactical element to the game, encouraging raiders to take risks and attempt to penetrate deeper into the opponent’s territory. It rewards skillful raiding and quick thinking by allowing raiders to capitalise on opportunities to score points even when defenders are closely guarding them.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. Name the place from where Kabaddi has originated?

Ans: Kabaddi originated in Tamil Nadu over 4,000 years ago. 

2. When did Kabaddi receive international exposure?

Ans: Kabaddi received international exposure during the 1936 Berlin Olympics.  

3. How many players play in a Kabaddi match?

Ans: Each team shall consist of minimum 10 and maximum 12 Players. Seven players shall play at a time and the remaining players are substitutes. 

4. What is ‘lona’?

Ans: In Kabaddi, a team scores a bonus of two points, called a “lona”, if the entire opposing team is declared out. A bonus scored in the game of kabaddi for getting the entire opposing team declared as out. 

5. What is the duration of time out in a Kabaddi match?

Ans: Each team shall be allowed to take two ‘Time Outs’ of 30 seconds each in each half; such ‘time out’ shall be called for by the Captain, Coach or any playing member of the team with the permission of referee. The ‘time out’ time shall be added to the match time. 

6. Enlist some defensive fundamental techniques mostly used in Kabaddi.

Ans: The main objective of the defence players or catcher is to catch the raider and prevent him from escaping to his home court. To achieve this objective, the catcher can use any of the six fundamental defence skills.

They are:

(i) Ankle hold: Ankle hold is one of the commonly used defensive skills. In this technique, the defending player (catcher) holds the ankle of the raider with both hands.

(ii) Thigh hold: It is also a defensive technique in which the defender throws his body on the raider to hold both thighs with the arms around the thighs of raider.

(iii) Knee hold: This is not a common skill in kabaddi but when used by the defender, it works like a jaw to catch the raider.

(iv) Waist hold: Waist hold is used during the struggle when the raider moves back to one’s own court after the raid.

(v) Wrist hold: Wrist holding technique is best used during one to one situation and not advised during the usual course of game.

(vi) Arm hold: During struggle, arms of the raider are held to stabilise the raider but this is not a very common practice as the arm hold is natural action occurs during competition.

7. What does green card indicate in Kabaddi? 

Ans: In Kabaddi, the term “green card” is used to indicate a warning given to a player by the referee or match officials for a minor infringement or misconduct.

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. The game of Kabaddi has been developed and played since the epic age of ___________.

Ans: The game of Kabaddi has been developed and played since the epic age of Mahabharata.  

2. The surface for playing Kabaddi game in present day is ___________.

Ans: The surface for playing Kabaddi game in present day is synthesis.

3. A raider is allowed to chant only___________.

Ans: A raider is allowed to chant only Kabaddi.  

4. A raider cannot be held by his ___________ or __________.

Ans: A raider cannot be held by his clothes or hair. 

5. When all the members of a team are made out by the opponents, it is called ___________.

Ans: When all the members of a team are made out by the opponents, it is called all-out.

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. To warn a player, the umpire shows green card.

Ans: True.  

2. Temporary suspension of 4 minutes is given by yellow card.

Ans: False.  

3. Red card is given to a player for suspension from the match.

Ans: True. 

4. A raider gets 1 point for crossing the bonus line only when there are minimum 6 defending players.

Ans: True. 

5. In the case of tie match in knock-out tournament, five raids are allowed from both the teams.

Ans: False.

Kho-Kho

I. Long Answer Questions: 

1. Explain the history of Kho-Kho.

Ans: The origin of Kho-Kho is not easy to mark out, but many historians believe that it is a modified form of ‘Run and Chase’, which in its simplest form involves chasing and touching a person. The popularity and development of this game has been associated with the development of ‘Akharas’ and ‘Vyayamshalas’ in Maharashtra. Probably, the game Kho-Kho has originated from Pune, Maharashtra and slowly spread within the country and also gained popularity in the neighbouring countries, i.e., Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The rules of this game were framed in 1914 by a committee of veteran players. Initially two players were made to stand at the two ends instead of the posts. The game is controlled and governed by the rules formed by KhoKho Federation of India which was established in 1956. It is believed that the first championship of Kho-Kho was held in 1959 at Vijayawada. ‘Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal’ Amravati, has given the modern form to this game. 

Kho-Kho game was first introduced in the National Games in 1985, held in Delhi. First Asian Kho-Kho championship was held in 1996 in Calcutta, where Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and India participated. It was also introduced as a demonstration game in the Berlin Olympics in 1936. 

2. Draw a Kho-Kho court according to the specifications.

Ans: Kho-Kho ground is rectangular in shape and can be constructed either outdoor or indoor. In outdoor spaces, it should be made on a levelled clay surface and synthetic or wooden surface should be used when playing indoors. 

3. Describe some fundamental skills of Kho-Kho. 

Ans: Fundamental skills of kho-kho:

1. Types of giving Kho: 

(a) Simple Kho. 

(b) Beginners Kho. 

(c) Late Kho. 

2. Method of chasing: 

(a) Left hand chase. 

(b) Right hand chase. 

3. Method of sitting: 

(a) Bullet/Bunch method. 

(b) Parallel method. 

4. Method of getting up: 

(a) Monkey style. 

(b) Standing up style.

(c) Combined style.

5. Making the chain:

(a) Single chain.

(b) Double chain.

(c) Making a ring.

6. Dodging.

7. Diving.

(a) straight dive (front dive).

(b) Sideward dive.  

4. Write about the important national and international tournaments organised in Kho-Kho.

Ans: The game Kho-Kho is based upon the natural principles of physical development and develops all of the motor qualities of an individual. It involves and cultivates a healthy combative spirit among the youth. It is not merely a game of running with speed but also to chase at natural instinct to overtake.

Important tournaments:

NationalInternational
(i) Federation Cup.(i) Asian Championship-started in 1996 at Calcutta.
(ii) Nehru Gold Cup.(ii) Netaji Subhash International Tournament-first held in 1998 National.
(iii) National Kho-Kho Championship.
(iv) Inter University Championship.

5. Explain the general rules and regulations of Kho-Kho.

Ans: General rules and regulations:

1. Each team consists of 12 players. Nine players play the game.

2. On the basis of the toss, the captain chooses running (defending) or chasing (attacking).

3. Nine players of the chasing team participate during the attack, out of which eight players sit on the boxes of the central lane. The players sit in the boxes alternately in such a way so as to face in opposite direction.

4. An active chaser gives a vocal signal ‘kho’ to the team’s own sitting player with a simple tap by palm on his/her back and sits in their box. It is a violation if the sitting player moves before the kho is completed. This violation of the sitting player is termed as ‘early kho’. 

5. A chaser while chasing is not allowed to change the direction, but they can change the direction in rectangles known as free zones which are outside the poles. 

6. If a chaser touches the runner, the runner is given out. 

7. The match consists of two innings. Each team is given nine minutes for chasing (attack) and nine minutes for running (defend). 

8. The running team is divided into three groups consisting of three players in each group. First group enters with the starting whistle and the second group enters when the players of first group are out and the game continues.

9. A runner is also declared out if any part of his body touches outside the playing area or moves out of the playing area while defending himself.

10. A substitution can be made: 

(a) for the runners team before giving the order of the runners to officials.

(b) chasers can be substituted during the game any time. 

11. After getting out, the runner should sit in the lobby accorded to his group. 

12. In a match, there are two umpires, one referee, one time keeper and one scorer. 

6. Explain the dimensions of the Kho-Kho ground for women.

Ans: Kho-Kho ground is rectangular in shape and can be constructed either outdoor or indoor. In outdoor spaces, it should be made on a levelled clay surface and synthetic or wooden surface should be used when playing indoors.

A kho-kho playing field is rectangular. It is 27 by 16 metres (89 ft × 52 ft) in length nio. In the middle of these two rectangles, there are two wooden poles. The central lane’s dimensions are 24 m × 30 cm. There are eight cross lanes which lie across the central lane, whose dimensions are 16 m × 35 cm. It makes the small rectangles and each of them are 16 m × 2.3 m (the two rectangles of near by the wooden poles are 2.55 m wide), at right angles to the central lane and divided equally into two parts of 7.85 m (25.8 ft) each by the central lane.

II. Short Answer Questions: 

1. Define ‘chasers’.

Ans: The Kho-Kho players sitting in the squares are called Chasers. Chasers are responsible for chasing and tagging the runners to get them out. Runners are the players who run around the field trying to avoid being tagged by the chasers. Active Chasers are the players who are currently chasing the runners. 

2. State the height of the pole in Kho-Kho.

Ans: Each pole is 120 to 125 centimetres (47 to 49 in) high and 9 to 10 centimetres (3.5 to 3.9 in) in diameter. The poles are smooth and round, with no sharp edges. 

3. Can a runner touch the sitting chaser?

Ans: A runner will not touch sitting chaser, he/she will be given warning if it is done. 

4. Is a player considered out, if his both feet are outside the playing court?

Ans: A player must have both feet outside the lobby to be considered out of bounds.

5. Name the basic techniques of Kho-Kho.

Ans: Each player requires following Kho Kho skills to contribute and win the game:

(i) Chasing skills: Pole diving, Sudden Change of direction, Tapping, Diving, Grasping Direction, Fake Kho, Late Kho, Giving Kho.

(ii) Running Skills (Running): Zig Zag, Avoiding, Dodging & Position on Kho Kho Playground. 

6. Who was the first Kho-Kho player to get the Arjuna Award?

Ans: Shri Sudhir B. Parab was the first Kho-Kho player to get the Arjuna Award.

7. Can the chasers finish their turn before the allotted time?

Ans: The captain of the chasing team may end their turn before the allotted time. The team that scores more wins a match. And if a defender got out, he should enter the sitting box from the lobby. 

8. Will the defenders have to come again, if they are all out before the time?

Ans: No. If all defenders are out (all out), the raider automatically scores points and returns to their side. Defenders don’t return until their team gets someone out. 

9. What are the dimensions of each square for the men’s playfield?

Ans: A kho kho playing field is rectangular. It is 27 by 16 metres (89 ft × 52 ft) in length nio. In the middle of these two rectangles, there are two wooden poles. The central lane’s dimensions are 24 m × 30 cm. 

10. How many points are awarded if a runner is out?

Ans: In Kho-Kho, when a runner (known as a “chaser”) is declared out, the opposing team earns 1 point. This happens when the chaser is touched by a member of the defending team before they can return to their starting position after completing a successful raid.

11. How many officials are required in a Kho-Kho match?

Ans: 2 Umpires, 1 Referee, 1 Time Keeper and 1 Scorer are officials required in a Kho-Kho match. 

12. Name some of the famous players of Kho-Kho.

Ans: Some of the famous players of Kho-Kho are: 

(i) Satish Rai.

(ii) Sarika Kale.

(iii) Pankaj Malhotra.

(iv) Mandakini Majhi.

(v) Praveen Kumar.

13. How many players are there in a Kho-Kho team?

Ans: Each team consists of 12 players, but during a contest, only 9 players from each side take the field. 

14. How many innings are there in a Kho-Kho match?

Ans: A match consists of two innings. In an innings, each team gets seven minutes for chasing and seven for defending.

15. What is the total duration of a Kho-Kho match?

Ans: Duration of kho-kho match is (9-5-9)-10-(9-5-9) minutes means two innings of 9 min. each and there is interval of 5 minutes but this interval is of 10 minutes after two innings. 

16. Who had given the modern form to Kho-Kho?

Ans: The modern form of the game was standardised in 1914, with its rules and formalised structure being given by Pune’s Deccan Gymkhana club.  

III. Fill in the Blanks: 

1. For the first time, the rules of Kho-Kho were framed in the year __________.

Ans: For the first time, the rules of Kho-Kho were framed in the year 1914. 

2. The modern frame of the game is credited to __________.

Ans: The modern frame of the game is credited to Kho-Kho Federation of India. 

3. The governing body of Kho-Kho in India is ___________.

Ans: The governing body of Kho-Kho in India is Kho Kho Federation of India.  

4. Asian championship started in ___________.

Ans: Asian championship started in 1996.  

5. Chaser in Kho-Kho is also called ____________.

Ans: Chaser in Kho-Kho is also called attacker. 

IV. State whether True or False: 

1. Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal has given the modern form of Kho-Kho.

Ans: True. 

2. Kho-Kho federation of India was established in 1940.

Ans: False.

3. Eleven players play in a Kho-Kho game.

Ans: False. 

4. Running team is divided into three groups consisting three players each.

Ans: False.

5. The Kho-Kho game develops agility.

Ans: True.

Volleyball

I. Long Answer Questions:

1. Explain the international and Indian history of Volleyball game.

Ans: International history: The history of volleyball dates back to 1895 when the game was invented by William G. Morgan. It was initially created as a recreational sport for indoor play during the winter months, offering a physically engaging yet less strenuous alternative to basketball. The ball came from basketball, the net from tennis and the use of hands from handball. While this made up a game of volleyball, it was lent some competitive tone with the introduction of innings – later to be called sets – that was borrowed from baseball.

Morgan introduced the sport — called mintonette, the original name of volleyball — at the YMCA Physical Director’s Conference a year later at Springfield College, Massachusetts.

Indian history: The Volleyball Federation of India was formed in the year 1951. Prior to the formation of the Volleyball Federation of India (VFI), the game was controlled by the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) and at that time the Interstate Volleyball Championship was held every two years from 1936 to 1950 for men only. The first Championship was held in the year 1936 at Lahore (now in Pakistan). In 1951, the Volleyball Federation of India was formed and its first meeting was held in Ludhiana (Punjab).

2. Explain about ‘libero’ in Volleyball.

Ans: Libero, player on an indoor volleyball team who serves as a defensive specialist and is not allowed to serve or rotate to the front line. The libero wears a different colour jersey from the rest of the team and is thus easily recognizable. There are several other unique rules regarding the position. Notably, the libero is barred from completing an “attack hit”—which refers to hitting the ball strategically into the opponent’s court—if the ball is above the net at the time of contact.

If those two rules weren’t in effect, the position would likely be utilized completely differently. Since those rules restrict hitting and setting at the position, the libero — based on size and the area that confines the position, as well — is often the best defensive player on the team and is used as a second defensive specialist. However, coaches aren’t required to use a libero, and the defensive specialist position doesn’t have a specific set of rules. Liberos are all about reaction time, ball control, and consistency. They are often the first player to have contact with the ball on the serve-receive, so it’s important for liberos to be able to receive consistently and keep the ball alive.

3. Write down the scoring system in Volleyball.

Ans: Volleyball scoring is essential to the game. It determines which teams wins and loses.

Basic rules of volleyball scoring:

A side out is used as reference to an absolute rule, this is when only the serving team can score. Although, now the meaning of side out has changed . A side out now referred to when the receiving team gets to serve even if they get a point or not. The scoring system was changed to the Rally system. A rally is a sequence of playing actions that decides each point from the moment the ball is served until the ball is out of bounds. If the serving team wins the rally they continue to serve, and if the receiving team wins the rally they receive the opportunity to serve.

(i) Rally Scoring: Rally scoring is when a team gets a point when the other team fails to return the ball over the net,  or when the ball goes out of bounds, commits an infraction or makes a service error.

(ii) Sideout Scoring: When the opposing team fails to return the ball over the net, hit the ball out of bounds, commits an infraction or make a service error, the serving team scores a point. This also counts for the receiving team.

(iii) Rally Game Parameters: Games are played until a team hits 25 points and at least has a two point lead to win the set. Most games has five sets, so to win a team must have won three out of five sets. The last set goes up to 15 points and a team must have a two point lead to win the set.  

4. Explain about the fundamental skills of Volleyball.

Ans: Volleyball is a sport that requires you to master a complex skill set. Because you rotate from playing front line positions to back line positions, you constantly are shifting from setting up offensive plays to completing offensive plays.

Fundamental skills of Volleyball:

Serving: A serve is used to put the ball into play to start the volley. The serve is the only skill controlled solely by one player. Advanced players take advantage of this fact by developing their serving skills.

Passing: Passing also is known as “bumping” in an offensive sequence and “digging” when used to defend an offensive shot. Passing is executed by interlocking your fingers, holding your arms straight and away from your body. Make contact with the ball on your forearms and follow through to your target.

Setting: Setting in volleyball refers to an overhead pass to the hitter so that, in turn, they can spike the ball and score. The goal for the setter is to get in the direct line of the ball.

Hitting: Generally, you want to hit the ball with the greatest force possible on the third shot of a sequence. When the ball is struck forcefully downward, above the height of the net, it is referred to as a “spike” or “kill” shot.

Blocking: Blocking in volleyball is a defensive play that is accomplished by 1, 2, or 3 front-row players jumping and pressing their arms over the net in an effort to “block” the opposing hitter.

II. Short Answer Questions:

1. When was the Volleyball Federation of India (VFI) formed?

Ans: The Volleyball Federation of India was formed in the year 1951. 

2. When was the Federation Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) founded?

Ans: The Federation Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) was founded in April 1947. 

3. List the equipment used in Volleyball.

Ans: The equipment used in Volleyball:

(i) The ball shall be spherical, made of a flexible leather or synthetic leather case with a bladder inside, made of rubber. 

(ii) The colour may be a uniform light colour or a combination of colours.

(iii) The circumference is 65–67 cm and its weight is 260–280g.

(iv) Its inside pressure shall be 0.30 to 0.325 kg/cm2.

(v) The height of net is 2.43 m for men and 2.24 m for women measured from the centre of the playing court.

(vi) The net is 1 m wide and 9.50 to 10 m long, made of 10 cm square black mesh. Preferably adjustable posts that are 2.55 m high are placed 1 m outside the side lines.

4. Write down the fundamental skills of Volleyball.

Ans: The following are described: 

(i) Serving.

(ii) Passing (forearm underhand passing). 

(iii) Setting (overhead passing).

(iv) Attack options (hitting/spiking).

(v) Blocking (from attack and defend positions).

(vi) Defensive skills (rolling & sliding).

5. Name the types of services in Volleyball.

Ans: There are a total of 6 types of serves performed in volleyball. 

They are: 

(i) Underhand.

(ii) Overhand.

(iii) Jump.

(iv) Jump float.

(v) Hybrid. and 

(vi) The side arm serves. 

6. What is ‘attack’ in Volleyball?

Ans: An attack is recorded when a player attempts to attack the ball towards the opponent’s side of the court. An attack can be a spike, tip, set or a hit as an over-the-head contact. 

7. Who was the recipient of the Arjuna award in 2014 in Volleyball?

Ans: Tom Joseph was the recipient of Arjuna Award in 2014. 

III. Fill in the Blanks:

1. In Volleyball, the height of the free space above the playing area from the playing surface shall be _______ m.

Ans: In Volleyball, the height of the free space above the playing area from the playing surface shall be 12.5 m.

2. Diagonal measurement of full Volleyball court shall be ______ m.

Ans: Diagonal measurement of full Volleyball court shall be 20.125 m.

3. A team may request a maximum of ________ substitutions per set.

Ans: A team may request a maximum of three substitutions per set.

IV. State whether True or False:

1. Volleyball was introduced in 1964, Tokyo Olympic Games.

Ans: False. 

2. Federation Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) was formed in 1949.

Ans: False.

3. Libero cannot serve, block or attempt to block.

Ans: True.

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