Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 8 Industry

Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 8 Industry, Elective Geography Class 9 SEBA Notes and Question Answer In English Medium The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 8 Industry and select need one.

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Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 8 Industry

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 8 Industry Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…


Chapter -8



Q.1. Classify industries stating the basis of your classification.

Ans : Systematic production characterised by division of labour, huge investment, use of machinery, tools, power, etc. is known as an industry. Industries are classified in the following manner : 

(a) On the basis of the size of establishment :

(i) Household cottage industries :- The industry managed by the family members and produces goods for the local market are called household industries eg, khadi, handloom, brassware, pottery, cane-making, bee-keeping, leather, small machine tools, carpentry, artificial flower-making etc.

(ii) Small-scale industries :- The industries having an investment of less than rupees one crore and employing few people are known as small-scale industries. e.g. cane-making industry, handloom industry, toy-making industry, etc.

(iii) Large-scale industries :- The industries which employ a large number of workers and have huge investment in plant and machinery are known as large-scale industries. e.g. iron and steel industries, cotton textile industries, ship-building industry, etc.

(b) On the basis of raw-materials used :

(i) Agro-based industries :- The industries using agricultural products as raw materials for the production of processed food items is termed as agro-based industries. e.g. sugar industry, jute industry, tea industry, etc.

(ii) Mineral-based industries :- The industries using various categories of minerals such as iron ore, copper, manganese, petroleum, diesel, coal, natural, gas etc. as raw-materials for the production of various goods are known as mineral-based industries. e.g. iron and steel industries, aluminum, copper and petroleum industries, etc.

(iii) Forest-based industries :- The industries using forest items for the production of various industrial items are formed as forest based industries, eg, paper industry, plywood industry, etc

(iv) Animal-based industries :- The industry using animal products such as meat, milk, skin, etc. for the production of various consumer items are known as animal-based industries.e.g dairy industry, meat industry, etc.

(c) On the basis of products produced :

(i) Basic industries :- The industries on which the other industries depend for their functioning and survival are known as basic industries. e.g, iron and steel industries, oil industries, etc.

(ii) Consumer goods industries :- The industry which produces goods directly consumed by the consumers are called consumer goods industry. e.g. cosmetic industry, radio and television industry, etc.

(d) On the basis of ownership :

(i) Public sector industries :- The sector of the economy under the control and management of government are termed public sector industries. The primary objective of this sector is to bring about maximum social welfare, e.g. defence industry, space exploration industry, nuclear industry, etc.

(ii) Private sector industries :- The sector of the economy under the control and management of private investors and entrepreneurs are termed as private sector industries. e.g. oil industry, iron and steel industry, cement industry, etc.

(iii) Co-operative industries :- The industries that are run by co-operative societies are known as co-operative sector industries. e.g. many sugar mills, Mother Dairy, etc.

Q.2. What is a household industry ? What kind of goods is produced by this industry ?

Ans : The industry organised at household level by the family members themselves and produce goods for the local market is known as household industry It is marked by the following:

(i) Very small in size.

(ii) Produce goods using local raw-materials and traditional technology.

(iii) Generally the goods are sold at the local level.

The main items produced by household industry include pottery (iii) goods, metallic utensils, handloom clothes, cane-making, furniture-making, ornament-making, etc.

Q.3. Present a comparative discussion on small-scale and large-scale industries.

Ans : A comparative discussion on large-scale industries and small scale industries is as follows:

Sl.No.Basis of differenceLarge-scale industriesSmall-scale industries
(i)MeaningIndustries employing a large number of people and have huge investment in plants and machineries.Industries having  an investment of less them rupees one core,employing few peoples and have small medicine to make products.
(ii)TechnologyAre mostly technology bases.Uses simple technology
(iii)UsesUse row materials from the local area.Use row materials from the local as well as outside area.
(iv)ObjectiveBring about rapid industrialisation and promitated in developed countries.Promote the industrial development of a particular region mostly in developing and underdeveloped countries. 
(v)National incomeContribution to national income is much higher.Contribution to national income is lower
(vi)Examplesiron and steel industries, cotton textile industries, ship-building industries etc.Handloom industries, toy making industries,etc.

Q.4. Define agro-based industry with examples. 

Ans : The industries primarily using agricultural raw-materials for industrial production in factories and processing units are known as agro-based industries. Generally, agricultural products are processed into consumer food items in processing As using industrial methods of production eg the main agro-based industries include sugar industry jute industry tea coustry cotton noustry edible oil industry etc.

Q.5. Give a brief idea of mineral-based industry.

Ans : The industries depending on minerals as the main raw-material for industrial production are known as mineral-based industries They generally come up in areas noted for the availability of mineral resources. However due to fast development of “anspori fac ities such industries also come up far away from the sources of minerals. The main mineral-based industries include iron and steel industry aluminium industry, copper industry, oil industry, etc.

Q.6 What do you mean by basic industry ? Give examples. 

Ans : The industries on which other industries depend for their functioning and survival are known as basic industries. eg iron and steel industry, oil industry, etc provide raw materials for other machine building industries.

Q.7 Give an outline of the factors determining the localisation of industry.

Ans : The concentration of several industries in a place or a region due to certain economic advantages is known as localisation of industries. The main factors which determine the localisation of industries are

(i) Nearness to raw-materials :- Most industries tend to get established near sources of raw-materials to avoid high transport cost eg iron and steel industries are found in the areas where iron-ore and coal are found. Cotton textile industries flourish in Maharashtra-Gujarat region.

(ii) Availability of power :- Most industries tend to get established near thermal power plants and hydel projects. Generally many industries get established close to power houses to reduce the overall cost of production. Moreover facilitates the continuous supply of power.

(iii) Good transport facilities :- Industries tend to get localised near highways, ports, cities and commercial centres. One of the reasons for high development of textile industry in the Mumbai region is due to the presence of excellent network of roadways, airways and railways.

(iv) Availability of labour :- The availability of labour encourages setting up of industries. Bangalore has become the centre of computer-related industries due to the presence of skilled manpower over here. This has been one of the main reasons for the rapid expansion of iron and steel industry in states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, etc. Which have abundant cheap labour. The availability of manpower has also contributed to the growth of sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh.

(v) Nearness to market :- Most industries and factories are situated near industrial and commercial towns as these provide a wide market to sell their goods. The textile industry developed in the Maharashtra-Gujarat region due to very huge market in this region. Besides, the export of finished goods to international market is also easy from the port of Mumbai.

(vi) Climate :- Climatic conditions have a bearing on the choice of the place of industries. e.g. cotton textile industries have come up in the western region due to its humid climate. The main reason for the high development of sugar industry in Uttar Pradesh or the development of woollen industry in Punjab region or the growth of jute industry in West Bengal has been mainly due to this reason.

Chapter 1Weather and Climate
Chapter 2People on the Earth
Chapter 3Population Growth and Distribution
Chapter 4Human Settlement
Chapter 5Concept and Classification of Resources
Chapter 6Economic Activities or Occupation
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Industry

Q.8. Write with examples about the role of raw materials in the location of industries.

Ans : One of the main factors that influence the localisation of industries is the availability of raw-materials near the centre of production. Generally, industries tend to come up near the sources of resources. The main reason for this is the eagerness of the investors and producers to reduce the cost of transporting raw-materials to the factories. This is the chief reason for the presence of textile industry in the MaharashtraGujarat region and for the development of iron and steel industry in the states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, etc. These states have huge reserve of iron-ore and coal which are essential for the production of iron and steel. 

Similarly Mute industry in India is mostly concentrated in the state of West Bengal as the state is the main supplier of raw jute in the country. The sugar industry is mostly concentrated in the state of Uttar Pradesh because the state is the chief producer of sugarcane in the country. Perishable raw materials like sugarcane cannot be transported to far-away places as they get spoiled during the stage of transportation. Therefore, sugar industrial units came to be established very close to the area of sugarcane production. All these show that availability of raw materials is a major determining factor in the localisation of industries.

Q.9. Write briefly on the iron and steel industry of India.

Ans : Iron and steel industry is the most basic and key industry of India. The real beginning of steel production in India began with the setting up of a steel plant at Jamshedpur by Jamshedji Tata in 1907. Soon after independence several steel plants were set up in different parts of India. Presently iron and steel industries are mainly located in the major mineral region of India such as Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. At present, there are some steel plants under private sector and some under public sector. 

The main steel plants under private sector are the steel plants at Jamshedpur in Bihar, Burnpur in West Bengal and Bhadravati in Karnataka. The main steel plants under public sector are at Bhilai (M.P.), Rourkela (Orissa), Bokaro (Bihar) and Durgapur (West Bengal). In Asansol and Salem also iron and steel industries are localised. Iron and steel industry plays a key role in the Indian economy. The factors responsible for rapid development of iron and steel industry in India are :

(i) Vast stock of iron ore in states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, etc.

(ii) Availability of cheap labour.

(iii) Huge domestic market.

(iv) Favourable government policy.

(v) Availability of adequate power near the sources of iron ore.

Q.10. Give an account of the cotton textile industry of India. 

Ans : Cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries of India Today, it is one of the key industries of India. It consists of three sectors, namely :

(i) Mill sector. 

(ii) Powerloom sector.

(iii) Handloom sector.

The cotton textile industry has a significant role in the Indian economy and profoundly contributes to its all-round growth. The main centres of cotton textile industries are located in and Maharashtra. This is chiefly due to availability o -materials, cheap power, nearness to the Mumbai an Kandla ports, excellent network of roads and railways and 

climate. It is also produced in different parts of the country well. The chief cotton textile producing areas are Maharash Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Ta Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal.

Q.11. Draw a map of India and locate thereon three iron and steel industries and the three cotton textile industries.

Ans : Suggestion Refer to Map of Question No 9 and 10.

Q.12.What kind of household industries are there in your village or nearby villages or towns ? Where from do the industries collect necessary raw material? Mention where the products are marketed.

Ans : Suggestion Students should do themselves.

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