Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 8 Religion

Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 8 Religion The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter Assam Board Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 8 Religion and select needs one.

Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 8 Religion

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Also, you can read SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 Logic And Philosophy Chapter – 8 Religion Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

E) Long type answers :- 5 marks each.

1) What is religion ? What is the nature of it ?

Ans:- Religion implies mans belief in God or gods and his attempt to commune with him.

Religion is generally defined as consisting in a belief in an everliving God as the Creator, Sustainer and Moral Governor of the world together with the feeling of owe, reverence, trust and love and voluntary acts of devotion, dedication and worship. Thus, religion touches the whole man. The total individuality with all the aspects of life. All the three elements of human life viz., thinking feeling and willing are involved in religion in a characteristic way.

Religion implies man’s belief in God or gods and his attempts to commune with him. Religion has two aspects viz., internal and external. The internal aspect refers to the intellectual and emotional elements present in consciousness i.e. ideas, thoughts and feelings concerning man’s relation to God. The external aspect refers to the practical activities i.e. rites, ceremonies thought which the religious feeling is expressed.

Religion has both individual and social aspect. In its individual aspect, religion is more or less a matter of individual experience and conviction of personal realisation, personal salvation. By the social aspect we mean a spirit, a devotion to the ideal of social unity and to all that is essential for its promotion and maintenance.

Religion is undeniably a feature of our personality which is constituted by the three elements of thinking, feeling and willing. But when we consider some of the prevalent definitions of religion, we find that they restrict religion to one or other of these elements. A critical estimate of these definitions may help us in understanding the nature of religion.

Hegel defines religion as a form of knowledge, the knowledge of the Absolute Idea involving the ultimate unity of the finite and the infinite. But religion devoid of feeling or devotion or worship and religious practices is nothing more than a barren abstraction.

Tylor describes religion as the belief in spiritual beings. But from this definition we do not know anything about the nature of spiritual beings. Schliermacher defines religion in terms of feeling. But the essence of religion consists in its mystic inwardness as immediate awareness of God. But the element of feeling in religion can not be mere feeling. It must have some ideal content and religious feeling can not be separated from the idea as to make the former essential and later non – essential.

Mc. Taggart defines religion in terms of emotion, neglecting the element of action.

Kant defined religion as the recognition of all our duties as devine commandments.

Mathew states that, religion is morality touched with emotion.

Frazer defined religion as “Propitiation or conciliation of powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life.” His definition emphasises the element of volition and action in religion.

Hoffding defines religion as “faith in the conservation of values”. But his definition fails to do justice to the active and purposive character of religious experience. It also ignores the intimate and personal relation to a supreme being called God regarded as the source and ground of all values.

But the most satisfactory definition, which is given by Flint is “Religion is man’s belief in a being or beings mightier than himself and inaccessible to his senses but not indifferent to his sentiments and actions, with the feeling and practices which flow from such a belief”.

2) According to Schilermacher what is religion ? What are the merits and demerits of his definition ?

Ans:- According to Schilermacher “the essence of religion consists in feeling i.e. feeling disconnected from thought on the one hand and morality or action on the other. Religion is a warm, intimate, immediate awareness of the infinite in the finite, the External in the temperal, a sense of dependence on the whole”.

Merits :- Schliermacher saved religion from barren intellectualism and mere moralism. The essence of religion consists in its mystic inwardness as immediate awareness of God.

Demerits :- The element of feeling is religion can not be mere feeling. It must have some ideal content and religious feeling can not be separated from the idea as to make the former essential and latter non – essential.

3) “Morality leads to Religion” – Discuss this statement critically.

Ans:- According to Marlineau, morality leads to religion. Our consciousness or moral faculty gives us an institution of right and wrong and of the obligatoriness of right conduct. It is obligatory upon us to do what is right. Obligation means obligation to some higher authority. I am not the source of this moral obligation. If I were so, I could annual my sense of obligation at my pleasure. The society or state also can not be the source of my moral obligation because it can not take cognizance of all my action, motives and intentions. So, God who is omniscient and omnipresent must be the ultimate source of moral authority of whom we are responsible for our actions. So, Martineau holds that moral obligation and responsibility necessarily lead to the idea of God.

Again, our conscience or moral faculty provides us with an ideal of perfect moral excellence. This ideal of excellence in realised in God. So, according to Marlineau, morality gives rise to the belief in God as the source of moral authority and as ideally perfect being.

4) What is the relation between religion and morality ?

Ans:- Belief in God and immortality of the soul are common to religion and morality. Existence of God and immortality of the soul are the fundamental articles of faith in religion. Similarly, immortality of the soul and existence of God are fundamental postulates of morality. The moral ideal is eternally realized in God who is an embodiment of moral perfection. Again, moral life demands that the soul does not persih along with the body.

There are some points of differences between religion and morality as follows :-

i) Religion has its centre in God while morality has its centre in man.

ii) It is conceivable that there may be a purely humanistic morality which contains no reference to the supernatural but religion would lose its essential nature if all reference to the supernatural is excluded from it.

iii) Religion is wider in scope than morality. Morality deals with goodness only but religion is more comprehensive as it includes other values i.e. the Beautiful, the True as well as the Good.

iv) Morality implies progress towards the infinite while religion implies progress within the infinite.

v) Religion is more characteristically an emotional experience than morality. This is the difference that aws expressed by Mathew Arnold’s definition by religion as ‘Morality touched by emotion’.

vi) Morality depends entirely in the consciousness of freedom whereas religion moves in the opposite sphere of necessity.

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