Class 12 AHSEC 2020 Anthropology Question Paper Solved English Medium

Class 12 AHSEC 2020 Anthropology Question Paper Solved English Medium, AHSEC Class 12 Anthropology Question Paper Solved PDF Download, to each Paper is Assam Board Exam in the list of AHSEC so that you can easily browse through different subjects and select needs one. AHSEC Class 12 Anthropology Previous Years Question Paper Solved in English can be of great value to excel in the examination.

Class 12 AHSEC 2020 Anthropology Question Paper Solved English Medium

Class 12 AHSEC 2020 Anthropology Question Paper Solved English Medium

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1. Answer in short:

(a) Provide the formula used for the estimation of Cephalic Index.

Answer: The formula used for the estimation of Cephalic Index is cl=BPD/OFD×100.

(b) Mention the name of one pastoralist community of India.

Answer: The name of one pastoralist community of India is the Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh.

(c) In which prehistoric culture the microliths were used?

Answer: The Mesolithic or Middle stone Age, the microliths were used.

(d) How many pairs of chromosomes are found in the human body?

Answer: There are 23 pairs of chromosomes are found in the human body 

(e) What is the name of the bachelor dormitory in the Garo society?

Answer: The name of the bachelor dormitory in the Garo society is Nokpante.

2. Choose the Correct Answer:

(a) The tribes in Assam are predominantly Caucasoid/ Mongoloid/Negroid.

Answer: The tribes in Assam are predominantly Mongoloid.

(b) End scrapers is a core tool/flake tool.

Answer: End scrapers is a flake tool.

(c) The seasonal migrations of people with their livestock is known as transhumance /shifting cultivation.

Answer: The seasonal migrations of people with their livestock is known as transhumance.

3. What do you understand by homozygous and heterozygous alleles?

Answer: Homozygous allele: The prefix homo means the same and zygo means a pair. Every organism or individual possesses two genes for every character. If in an organism or individual, the two genes for a particular character are identical, it is considered to be homozygous. TT and tt plants are Homozygous as in both the cases two alleles are identical.

Heterozygous allele:- If in an organism, the two genes for a particular character are not identical, it is said to be heterozygous. 

In Mendel’s peas plant experiment, A Tt plant is said to be in heterozygous state as it exhibits two different alleles i.e. T for tallness and t for dwarfness .

4. Define race. What are the major races? 

Answer: Race is a group which shares in common a certain set of innate physical characters and a geographical origin within a certain area.

The major races are:

(a) Caucasian races.

(b) Mongoloid races.

(c) Negroid races.

5. Who discovered ABO blood group system? What is Agglutination?

Answer: Karl Landsteiner discovered ABO blood group system.

If the serum of a person of A blood group is injected into the body of a person belonging to B blood group, the latter’s blood cells will clump together. This phenomenon is termed as agglutination. 

6. Mention two kinds of raw materials which were used to make tools in the prehistoric period. Name the raw material which was used to make the neolithic tools discovered from Daojali Hading.

Answer: Two kinds of raw materials which were used to make tools in the prehistoric period are:

(a) Bone.

(b) Wood.

The raw material which was used to make the neolithic tools discovered from Daojali Hading are:

(a) Fossil wood.

(b) Potery.

7. Distinguish between matrilocal residence and matri patrilocal residence.

Answer: The differences between matrilocal residence and matri patrilocal residence are:

Matrilocal residence: (a) In this type of residence, the husband after marriage resides with his wife in his wives house.

(b) This is seen among the Garos and Khasi tribes of Meghalaya.

Whereas matri patrilocal residence: (a) In this type of residence, the husband resides with the wife in her house for sometimes. After sometimes he returns to his parental house with his wife.

(b) This type of residence is found among the Chenchus of India.

8. What do you mean by collecting economy?

Answer: Collecting economy is the social demand, based on the perception that a collection is valuable, defines its salability. In contrast to the traditional economy, the collector economy recognizes that taste is socially created, and that a community creates consensus on the value, rarity and desirability of a collection.

9. What is water cycle in ecology?

Answer: The water cycle involves interchange of water between the surface of the earth and the atmosphere through rainfall and evaporation. This cycle is constantly maintained between the living organisms, atmosphere and the earth. The water cycle begins with evaporation by solar energy. In this way, water of the oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers etc. gets evaporated by solar energy and ultimately clouds are formed and the water comes down again from the clouds as rain. This reversible process is known as hydrological or water cycle. 

10. What is hand axe? For what purpose was it used?

Answer: The hand axe is belonging to a core tool known as coup-de-poing family in French. This type of core tool is made from a nodule or a lump of stone stuck off flaking from both the surfaces by applying the stone hammer technique. 

It was used for cutting, probably for meat and skinning, and for scavenging.

11. In which prehistoric period blade tools were used? Mention the type of technique used for making blades.

Answer: Blade tools were used in Upper palaeolithic era The type of technique used for making blades is Fluting technique.

12. What do you understand by food chain? Provide an example.

Answer: The biotic factors of the ecosystem are linked together by food. 

For example: The producers eaten the food for the herbivores. The herbivores form the food for the carnivorous. The sequence of eater being eaten is called food chain.

13. Who was Gregor Mendel? What is law of segregation?

Answer: Gregor Johann Mendel was the father of genetics.

The law of segregation is commonly known also as Mendel’s first law. It states that every individual possesses two alleles of a gene and these alleles segregate from each other during gamete formation.

14. Name the major cultures of Upper Palaeolithic period. Mention the major characters of Upper Paleolithic cultures.

Answer: The major cultures of Upper Palaeolithic period are:

(a) In Europe, for the first time about 40,000 years ago ‘Homo Sapiens’ modern human like physical appearance is seen.

(b) They are the people who first had constituted the Upper Paleolithic culture by introducing quite different and new evolved industries.

The major characters of Upper Palaeolithic cultures are:

(a) The Upper Palaeolithic tools are essentially made on blades replacing the earlier hand-axe and flake tools.

(b) In upper Palaeolithic culture there was evidences of occuring fertility cult.

15. What is Joint family? Discuss its functions.

Answer: Big family that has three or more generations living together, such as grandparents, parents, siblings, uncles, aunts and cousins together in one house, is said to be a joint family.

Its function are – the joint family is based on blood relations and extends over three or more generation. The traditional joint family system among the Hindu in India is patrilineal in nature and descent, inheritance and residence after marriage is based on this principle. It is based on common residence, single kitchen and a common code of conduct for all it’s members. The two most important characteristics of the joint family is the indivisibility and common sharing of property. The property belongs to the family and all members share the benefits of this common property. The eldest male of the family is the head and is known by the name of ‘Karta’. He wields authority and enjoys this respect and confidence of the family.

16. What do you understand about the Rules of Descent? Discuss its significance in the society.

Answer: Descent is the principle which links one generation to another in a systematic manner. In different societies, certain links are stressed whereas other links are ignored. Succession and inheritance is related to the rules of descent.

Its significance in the society are:- the practical importance of descent comes from its use as a means for one person to assert rights, duties, privileges, or status in relation to another person, who may be related to the first either because one is ancestor to the other or because the two acknowledge a common ancestor.

17. Highlight three differences between Food Gathering economy and Food Producing economy. 

Answer: Three differences between Food Gathering economy and Food Producing economy are:

(a) The Food Gathering economy is based on gathering of wild fruits and roots and hunting and fishing, while the Food Production economy is based on raising of crops through different methods like Horticulture, Shifting Cultivation, Terrace Cultivation and Plough Cultivation.

(b) The different mode of subsistence followed by a given society is determined by the resources available and the level of technical knowledge of the people of that society while the subsistence of human being since their inception depended on the bounties of nature.

(c) The Food gathering societies mostly lived in small communities while the food producing societies mostly lived in big communities. 

18. Who is the author of Social Structure? What do you understand by family?

Answer: Robert k. Merton is the author of Social Structure.

The family is a social group characterized by common residence, economic co- operation, and reproduction. It includes both sexes, at least two of whom maintain a socially approved sexual relationship, and more children, own or adopted.

19. Who are Mishings? Discuss their primary means of livelihood.

Answer: The Mishings are one one of the major tribal community of Assam. They are a riverine tribe and are to be found in the districts of Lakhimpur, Dibrugarh, Sibsagarh, Jorhat and Sonitpur in Assam. The Mishings are said to be originally inhabitants of the hills, but lateral came down to the plains and settled in the riverine areas of the Brahmaputra and Subansiri rivers of Assam. 

Agriculture is the primary occupation of the misings. They also rear animals and poultry as secondary source of income. Traditional Misings were fond of hunting which is seldom practiced now. They also do fishing and use various fishing implements like Zurki, Chaloni, Dirdang, Porang, Ei Jamborok and Dibung. The Mising women are expert weavers. Traditionally they were very skilled in spinning and dyeing threads. The mirizim, is a unique cloth woven by the Misings.

Rice is the staple food of the Mising community. They also eat a variety of vegetables, creepers and edible roots. They relish pork and fowl. They are also fond of dried fish which they call as Ngo San. Apang, a locally brewed rice beer serves as a drink for the people.

The dress of a Mising woman consist of the piece of cloth to cover the lower part of the body. It is called as Sumpa. On the upper part of the body they wrap a narrow piece of cloth called as Galuk. The headdress is called as Hura. The married women wear a narrow piece of cloth around their waist. The Mising male usually wear mill made clothes. They tie a traditional piece of cloth around their waist called as Kaping. During festive occassions the Mising women Yambo, RiwiGaseng and Ege while the men wear Miboogaluk, Tangali and Gonroo.

20. Write short notes on: (any two)

(a) Plough cultivation.

Answer: Plough cultivation as an intensive and permanent method of cultivation of pants. The plough is a simple wooden device which ensures wedding of unwanted pants and adds  humus to the soil. Agriculture is often done by men over large tract of land. The use of ploughs is characteristics of agriculturists. In addition to the plough, the cultivators use irrigation devices and fertilizers, practice crop rotation and planting of leguminous plants for better quality and increased production of crops.

(b) Compound family.

Answer: Compound family include more than one family or several isolated individuals living together, or any other combination of isolated individuals and families. These households are described as composite ones because the types of relation between the people. It is composed of two or more nuclear families which can be divided into polygamous family and the extended family. 

(c) Ecological balance.

Answer: Ecological balance may be defined as a state of dynamic equilibrium within a community of organisms in which genetic, species and ecosystem diversity remain relatively stable subject to gradual changes through natural succession. An environment is said to be balanced, when all the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystem exist in perfect harmony. In such an environment, the abiotic components never come in conflict with the biotic components. That indicates that a proper balance is maintained. 

(d) Pebble tool and chopper-chopping tool.

Answer: Pebble tool: This type of tool is found at the very beginning of the Pleistocene. These type of tools are made on pebbles that have been crudely flaked so as to give one rough cutting edge. These tools are commonly termed as pebble tools because most of the tools are made from river worn pebbles.

Chopper-chopping tool: The term chopper chopping is used in the early part of the Palaeolithic period. It was a great controversy regarding the recognition of the Chopper- Chopping whether is a tool or not. But after discovery of the Olduvai gorge of South Africa it is confirmed that Chopper- Chopping was a tool made from river worn pebble or a block of stone in the earliest part of the human culture. 

21. What is prognathism? Highlight the distinctive physical features of the Negritos.

Answer: An extensor or bulging out of the lower jaw is called prognathism. It occurs when the teeth are not properly aligned due to the shape of the face bones.

The distinctive physical features of the Negritos are:- the Andamanese, Semang, Aeta, Tapiro are the typical representatives of this racial type. Outbof these four, the first three belong to Asiatic pygmy group while the Tapiro belongs to the Oceanic pygmy group.

a. Asiatic pygmy groups 

Andamanese Physical features:

Skin colour – Bronze to sooty black

Hair form – woolly

Hair colour – Black with a reddish tinge

Body and facial – Scanty or absent

Head form – Small brachycephalic 

Eye colour – Dark Brown

Nose from – Straight

Nasal root – Sunken

Face – Broad at the malar region

Jaws – Not projecting

Lips – Full but not everted

Body and limbs – Well proportioned with small hands

Stature – Very short

Geographical distribution: The Andamanese live in the Andaman Islands.

Semange Physical features

Skin colour – Dark chocolate brown 

Hair form – woolly

Body and facial hair – Scanty

Head form – Mesocephalic 

Eye colour – Dark brown or black

Nose form – Short, flattened and very broad 

Face – round

Upper jaw – Slightly projecting

Lips – Usually thin

Body size – Well- proportioned and study built body

Stature – Short 

Geographical distribution: The semangs inhabit in the central region of the Malay peninsula and East sumatra.


Physical features:

Skin colour – Scooty brown

Hair form – Frizzly

Hair colour – Dark brown to black

Body and facial hair – Frequently abundant

Head form – Brachycephalic

Nose form – Very short, broad and flat 

Lips – Moderately thick

Stature – Short 

Geographical distribution: They live in the Philippine Islands.

b. Oceanic pygmy Tapiro

Physical features: 

Skin colour – yellowish brown

Hair form – Black

Body and facial hair – abundant

Head form – Mesocephalic

Nose form – Short Straight and medium

Upper lip – Deep and comvex

Face – Round or oval

Body size – Muscular

Stature – Short 

Geographical distribution: They are the inhabitants of New Guinea.


What do you understand by Purity of gametes? Discuss Mendel’s Monohybrid ratio with a diagram.

Answer: A gamete has one or the other of a pair of allelomorphs. Therefore, a gamete may carry only the gene for tallness or dwarfness, but it cannot carry both. Thus in Mendel’s experience a gamete carried either the gene for tallness or dwarfness, not both the genes. It further implies that the two types of gametes, T(tall) type and t(dwarf) type, will be produced in equal numbers. An important implication of this law is that a gamete is always pure for a character and never a hybrid. This is called the purity of gametes which forms the bulk of Mendel’s lavish discovery.

With a view to solve the riddle of heredity Mendel hybridized varieties of garden peas and kept careful record of all the transmitted characters to various generations. He used garden pea plant for his breeding experiment as it is a self-fertilized plant. Mendel found a good number of contrasting characters in the garden pea. These characters are tall or dwarf plants; purple or white flowers and yellow or green, wrinkled or smooth seeds. Mendel choose tallness and dwarfness of pea plants for one series of experiments. Pure breed of tall plants were collected by breeding tall plant with tall plant with tall for various generations. Likewise dwarf plants were also collected. 

He started his breeding experiments by crossing tall plants with dwarf plants. This generations is termed as the parents generation. When tall plants of pure breed were crossed with pure dwarf plants it was seen that all the plants were tall. This generation is known as the first filial or F1 generation. But in the next generation or F1 generation the tall members of the F1 generation were crossed with each other and strikingly different results were found. This second filial or the F2 generation gave rise to mixed generation  of tall and dwarf varieties in the ratio of 3:1. No intermediate form was produced. The ratio 3:1 is called Mendel’s monohybrid ratio.

When the dwarf plants were crossed with each other, it was seen that all the plants were dwarf. But it was not so with the tall plants. Though the tall plants were indistinguishable in appearance some of them gave rise to tall plants only, while others behaved like the original tall hybrid, splitting up into tall and dwarf in the ratio of 3:1. If we consider a true breeding tall plant as T, a dwarf plant as t and a tall plant which gives both tall and dwarf plants in the ratio of 3:1 as Tt, the result of Mendel’s monohybrid experiment may be shown as follows: 

22. What is Grinding and Polishing technique? Mention the chief differences between Palaeolithic and Neolithic period.

Answer: Grinding and Polishing is the last phase of the stone age culture in which the new technique i.e. peeking, grinding and polishing are introduced by the people of the Neolithic period. This phase of man’s past culture is marked by different sophisticated flaking techniques evolved for making stone industries. In this process, the surfaces of the stone tools are ground and smoothed by applying the method of grinding and polishing. So, it is called grinding and polishing method.

The chief differences between Palaeolithic and Neolithic period are:

Palaeolithic period: (a) In the palaeolithic age, humans lived in caves.

(b) Palaeolithic humans made simple tools.

(c) Palaeolithic humans made cave paintings.

(d) Palaeolithic age is marked by the hunter and the use of stone tools.

Neolithic period: (a) In the neolithic age, humans lived in huts.

(b) Neolithic humans made complex tools.

(c) Neolithic human made complex carvings, pottery, tombs, etc.

(d) Neolithic age is marked by the domestication of animals and development of agriculture.


“Family is a universal social unit”, Discuss.

Answer: ” Family is a universal social unit”, because it is the foundation of society. The family provides the individual with primary socialization, which helps the individual to become accepted into society. It helps in the transmission of culture from one generation to another. It is the basic production and consumption unit. It is a key social institution in all societies, which makes it a cultural universal. Similarly, values and norms surrounding marriage are found all over the world in every culture, so marriage and family are both cultural universals.

Family is a social unit, and every individual is its member. It is the most important primary group in the society. 

Some distinct features which constitute the family are: 

(a) a family is characterized by some form of institutionalized mating, i.e., some type of marriage.

(b) descent in the family is reckoned by having a nomenclature.

(c) the family is limited in size. It is one of the smallest social organization in the society.

(d) it is the nucleus of other social organizations. In small scale societies it acts on the basis on which the whole social structure is built.

(e) the family is considered as an economic unit.

(f) family is associated with a common habitations for all its member. 

(g) the family is universal, it is found in all societies all over the world.

(h) the family is always bound together by emotional factors like love and affection.

(i) all the members of a family is also bound together by a sense of responsibility towards one another,

(j) the family is a socializing unit, where a child gets the earliest and the most fundamental lessons in socialization.

(k) lt is guarded by social taboos and legal regulations which rigidly prescribe its form.

(l) It is of both permanent and a temporary nature. While the institution of family is both universal and permanent, the family as an association is the most temporary and the most transitional of all the important organizations in the society.

23. Provide a brief account on the social organization of the Ao Nagas. 

Answer: The Ao Nagas are one of the major tribe of Nagaland. They inhabit the Mokokchung district of present day Nagaland. The Ao call themselves as Aor which means as ‘those who came’ crossing over the Dikhu river. They are also called as Chunglir or the people of Chungliyimti by the Sema Nagas.

The Ao Nagas can be divided into three major socio- linguistic groups called as Chongli, Mongsen and Changki. These are further divided into smaller groups. 

According to traditional belief among the Ao, six men issued forth from a rock at Lungtrok and became the progenitors of six patri- lineal exogenous sibs called as kidongs. The kidong is considered an important indicator of many social activities in the Ao society. Members of a kidong trace their descent from a male ancestor. They are bound together like a family.

The kinship ties among Aos is very strong. They put great emphasis on clan affiliation. Hence they consider that an Ao a child is not only born into a household but also into a clan.

Inheritance is in the male line. All the sons inherit equally. A daughter cannot inherit property, movable or immovable, though she can be given a gift. If a woman receives immovable property like land from her father during his lifetime, it may remain with her till her death, after which the property goes back to her father’s heirs.

The term Kiyemba is commonly used by the Ao to denote marriage. The Ao practice clan exogamy. The traditional system of choosing mate is through mutual consent, although the boy consults the girl’s parents later. Monogamy is the rule. Cross cousin marriage is permitted. Such type of marriage are called as ana-Kigem. Remarriage is permitted. Marriage with younger brother’s widow is permitted while marriage with an elder brother’s widow is not permitted. Marriage with wife’s elder or younger sister is permitted. 


Mention two green house gases. Discuss the role of human activity in increasing green house effect on earth.

Answer: Two green house gases are:

(a) Carbon dioxide.

(b) Methane.

The role of human activity in increasing green house effect on earth are- humans are increasingly influencing the climate and the earth’s temperature by burning fossil fuels, cutting down forests and farming livestock. This adds enormous amounts of greenhouse gases to those naturally occurring in the atmosphere, increasing the greenhouse effect and global warming.

Green House Effect is very important for life to exist on earth, but its increase is feared to cause adverse global climatic changes.

The UNEP has rightly chosen the slogan ‘Global Warming: Global Warming’ to alert the people on the World Environment Day, June 5, 1989. Different scientists have made a forecast that changes the earth’s mean temperature would increase between 1° –  5°C by 2050 if input of green houses gases continues to rise at the present rate. With the increase in global temperature sea water will expand. Heating will meet the polar icecaps. One metre rise in sea level will inundate low lying areas of cities like Shanghai, Cairo, Bangkok, Sydney, Venice etc. North America would be warmer and drier. However, it is estimated that Indian’s annual monsoon rains may even cease together.

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