Class 11 Swadesh Adhyayan Chapter 8 Material Heritage

Class 11 Swadesh Adhyayan Chapter 8 Material Heritage, Class 12 Question Answer to each chapter is provided in the list of AHSEC so that you can easily browse through different chapters and select needs one. Class 11 Swadesh Adhyayan Chapter 8 Material Heritage Question Answer can be of great value to excel in the examination.

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Class 11 Swadesh Adhyayan Chapter 8 Material Heritage Notes covers all the exercise questions in HS 1st Year Swadesh Adhyayan Textbooks Solutions. The Assam Board Class 11 Swadesh Adhyayan Chapter 8 Material Heritage provided here ensures a smooth and easy understanding of all the concepts. Understand the concepts behind every chapter and score well in the board exams.

Material Heritage

Chapter – 8


1. (a) On which hill is the Kamakhya temple situated?

Ans. Nilachal Hill which exists in the western part of Guwahati.

(b) Which island of Assam was called the peacock island by the British?

Ans. Umananda Island.

(c ) Name the Ahom ruler who build the Basistha temple?

Ans. Rajeswar Singha.

(d) What is the most famous art activity of the Day Parvatiya temple?

Ans. Sculptural Art or Craftsman.

(e) Where in Assam do you find the confluence of the three streams Sandhya Lalita and Kanta.

Ans. Sandhyachal hill (Basistha Temple)

(f) Name the hill on which the Hayagriva Madhava temple in located?

Ans. Monikut or Maniparvat hill of Hajo.

(g) On which hill in Hajo is the Pao Mecca situated?

Ans. Garurachal Hills. 

(h) Which is the biggest man made tank in Assam?

Ans. Jaysagar Tank.

(i) Which Ahom ruler built the Dhodar Ali?

Ans. Swargadeo Gadadhar Singha.

2. Write short notes:

(a) Ambubachi Mela. 

(b) Sri Surya Pahar.

(c) Poa Makkha. 

(d) Dargah of Azam Pir.

(e) Malini Than. 

(f) Maidam.

(a) Ambubachi Mela: The Ambubachi Mela is an important annual Hindu Mela held at the Kamakhya Temple in Guwahati. There is a myth that from the 7th to the 10th day of the month of Ahar (third month from the Assamese calendar) around the middle of June when sun transit to the zodiac of June when sun transit to the zodiac of Mithuna and when the Brahmaputra river is in spare ,mother earth, in order to recoup her fertility , goes through a process of menstruation. The presiding goddess of the temple , Devi Kamakhya, the mother Shakti is to considered to be in the same phase, as it considered to be a centre of fertility culf. The Ambhubuchi Mela takes place during this period . The temple remains closed during this period and 1000 of Tantric Baba comes and make their public appearances. During these days some restrictions are observed by the devotees like not cooking not performing Puja etc. 

(b) Sri Surya Pahar: Sri Surya Pahar situated the town of Goalpara the rock sculptures of Sri Surya Pahar are a notable example of pre Ahom sculptures. The main attractions of Sri Surya Pahar are the rock sculptures in the rock cut caves for which the site is well- known. It has been associated with Sun (Surya) worship and the site was thus maned accordingly. Consisting of Seven hills and hillocks,the site is also known as the Satali Pahar. Humorous rock cut sculptures, stupas and shivas -lingam can be found dotting the hills. Some relating to Buddhism and Jainism. A multi roomed brick housing structure has been discovered at the Sri- Surya Pahar. The Shivalingha measuring up to nine feet is the largest one in the site attracts number of tourists here.

(c) Poa Makka: Poa Makka is situated at the top of the Garurachal hills at Haja. It is an important pilgrimage site for the Muslims. Poa Mecca was built by Ghiyasuddin Auliya, a Sufi saint. There are different views regarding the origin of the name ‘Poa Makka’. It is held that the preacher Ghiyasuddin Auliya brought a quarter of earth (Poa) from the scared land of Makkha and mixed it with the earth in this hillock . That is why the place came to be known as Pao Makka . Another view holds that the pilgrims who visit Pao Makka attains one-fourth of spiritual attainment of what could be gained by visiting Makka. In this way the mosque came to known as Poa Makka. Pilgrims belonging to various faiths came to visit the place.

(d) Dargah of Azam Pir: Azan Pir dargah is a sacred pilgrimage site for the believers of Islamic faith. Shah Miran or Milan came to Assam from Bagdhad along with his brother Nabi and other disciples at Hajo and then came to Sibsagar Saraguri Chapori. He built a mosque there and recited azan to call the Muslims living in the area for prayers . Gradually he came to be known as Azam Fakir for his spiritual accomplish merits. Azan Pir also mothered Assamese language with a short period of time and learned about Vaishnavism and the devotional songs and ballads. He started composing a genre of unique devotional songs where the teachings of the Quran were sung in the traditional rhythm of the Assamese song. After his death, Azan Fakir was buried of a place adjacent to the monument. Even today Azan Pir’s Dargah at Saraguri Mouza of Sibsagar districts is considered as a holy place and a place of tourists attractions.

(e) Malini Than: The Malini is an ancient Shaktipith of Arunachal Pradesh adjacent to Assam to Assam. This than is located north of Assam Dhemaji District . The expert craftsmanship of the sculptor is noticeable in this rock cut temple. Hundreds of people visit the ancient Shakti pith Malini than everyday. According to the legend , after kidnapping Rukmini , daughter of King Bhismaka of Vidarbha, Krishna had stopped here is rest and was welcomed by Shiva and Pancholi with flower garlands. Krishna then belowed the name Malini to Parvati and hence this than come to be known as Malini Than. According to another legend, this place was named after a women named Malini who on pursuing Lord Shiva’s love, invoked the wroth of Parvati and was beheaded. This legend exits because remnants of an ancient Shivalingha and a statue of a headless woman have been found here.

(f) Maidam: Word of the Ahom (Tai) language the term Maidam means the burial place of the dead. The dead bodies of Ahom Swargadeos were buried inside the maidams after performing a number of rituals. It is evident that items of daily necessity like golden utensils, food, clothes, jewellery, along with some person to serve the king were buried along with the dead body in the maidams. Maidams are considered as a  distinctive class of Ahom architectural monument. The Ahom rulers had a special guild called Maidamia to look after the maidams. Charaideo, was the main site for building the maidams of the Ahom Kings. Beside charaideo there are still a few maidams in different places of Upper Assam. Some Ahom families still follow the maidam and burial system of the old.

(3) What do you mean by “tangible heritage”?

Ans. The term tangible heritage refers in general to all the material traces such as archaeological sites, historical monuments, artifacts , and objects that were significant to a community, a nation and humanity.

4. Discuss brief the archaeological remains of the Ahom Period.


Write a brief note on the archaeological remains of ancient Assam.

Ans. Our forefather have through their various activities left behind a number of tangible resources. These are our materials culture which are observed in various forms. All these material remains are found scattered in different places and many of the moveable remains are also displayed in the museum. The remains of the ancient temples , monuments etc are spread over Assam are the excellent architecture of the period. Large scale use of bricks are seen in the construction of temples and monuments of Assam belonging to the medieval period, which were prepared with time and mortar. Later on a special indigenous cement called ‘Korla’ was widely used in the construction works. 

The walls of the monuments began to be decorated with the sculptures made of stone brick etc. Most of the remnants of the sculptures existing today can be dated to the Ahom Period. Some of the archaeological remnants of Ancient Assam are the Kamakhya temple, Umananda Mandir, Basistha temple, Poa Makka, Azan Pir Dargah, Dah- Parbotia, Mahabhairav temple, Shiva Daul, Joy Daul, Malini Than , Kareng Ghar, Tolatol Ghar, Rang Ghar, Maidam , Tanks, Namdang Stone bridge, etc.

5. What do you know about the tank architecture of the Ahom Period?

Ans. The tank architecture of the Ahom Kings has some distinct characteristics. The tanks excavated by the Ahom King’s and which were large enough, were called sagor i.e were large enough , were called Sagar i.e sea. The big tanks like Joysagar, Gaurisagar Sivasagar excavated around 250-300 years book have never dried and the same level of water still remains. Moreover the water of these tanks are cleaner and clearer in comparison to the river water. Writing about the architectural technique of the Ahoms, Dr Lila Gogoi had stated in his Buranjiye Porosa Nagor that the royal officers selected land for excavating tanks first by hasting the ground through dicking it. Then on a dark night, some earthen lamps of mustard oil are lit up at that place. If the candles wipes out even when there is oil, they marked the spot by putting a few past. 

Then a bigger lamp filled with more oiled are wicked is put at the pastes and kept under observation if the same happened also to the bigger lamp excavation starts keeping the past, with the bigger lamp in the centre . When the excavation is almost complete the worker out a large pillar of the sal tree called Nagmars. It is state state immediately after after the pillars was polluted water through starts racing through it from the bottom. Then Rah on mercury was poured in the copper pots placed on the solid bottom of the tanks to keep the water clean. Then the tank eventually becomes filled up with clean water. 

6. Write a brief note on the roads of the medieval period.

Ans. The roads and lanes of ancient and middle age in Assam have been not discovered or identified completely till date. There were very few roads and lanes during the period connecting the important places of the state .It is assumed that waterways were primarily used for communications and transportation. The powerful navy of the kings of the ancient Kamarupa Kingdom and of the Ahom era and also the use of various types of boats likeBar nao,  Par nao, Mar nao etc. indicate that during the medieval period rivers an others waterways were largely used for communication, trade and business, warfare etc. The discovery of the ruins of three brick highways of the time of the Kachari Kings connecting Tengani forest to Sisupani, Dhansiri-Diang meeting point and Dimapur proves the existence of a system of roads and lanes in Kachari Kingdom. These roads and lanes show that there were more other roads and lanes in the region. In the Sivasagar district also many roads and lanes built like the Ban Ali, Dhodan Ali, Cheuni Ali, Naga Ali, etc.

7. Write briefly about the rampart and stone bridge ls of the Ahom Period.

Ans. There are a few stone bridges built during the Ahom Period. Those stone bridges built across tributaries of the Dikhou river with many culverts are example of an advanced architectural achievement of this period. It is said that the Ahom started building stone bridge at least since the 10th century. These bridges were constructed by using pieces-nock of different shapes and sizes. Latches were put into the flat stones to keep the structure tough and then they were fastened with high quality morton. Some major stone bridge built during the Ahom Period are the Namdang , Darika, Naphuk and Stone bridge.

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