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Class 11 History Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution
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The Industrial Revolution
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q.1. How did Britain involved in works from 1793 to 1815 affect British industries?
Ans :- From 1793 to 1815 Britain was engaged in works in Europe, North America and India.
( i ) These wars were a drain on her resources and capital that was borrowed was used to fight wars rather than invested.
( ii ) Workers were transferred out of factories and farms to the army.
( iii ) Food prices rose sharply where by poor had little money left for buying consumers goods.
( iv ) Under the continental systems Napoleon imposed a blockade on English goods. Europeans countries were prohibited to trade with Britain. But there was a break down of the continental system by organized smuggling and counter measures if British naval blockade.
( v ) The underestimated colonies and especially the comm ercial connection with India helped British industries. In India., British industries found a vast market capable of absorbing the goods that Britain could most cheaply and efficiently produce is the earth, phase of the industrial revolution cotton farms and cloths. It was probably the greatest single impetus to mechanization of production. In return Britain imported food and raw materials to feed and employ her fast growing population.
( vi ) Once the circuit of manufacture and trade had been established. It spun the wheels of industry faster leading to ever more specializations of labour. Contrary to the general held belief between these war years, Britain foreign export trade trebled. A tended to be more and more reritime, and overseas trade. Her trade with other countries oiled the wheels of her industry.
Q.2. What were the relative advantages of canal and railway transportation?
Ans :- The relation advantages of canal and railway transportation were :-
( i ) Canal enabled easy and cheap transport of coal to cities. Since coal way a bulky and weighty item transport by road was much slower and more expensive. E.g. worsley canal which linked coalmines at worsley with Manchester.
( ii ) Led to fall in prices of coal, evens when demand increased for industrial energy, for heating and lighting homes.
( iii ) Usually built by big land owners, canals helped increase value of mines, quarries, or forests on their lands due to increased accessibility.
( iv ) Confluence of canals created marketing centers in new towns, e.g city of Birmingham’s owed its growth to its position at the heart of a land system convicting London, Bristol channel and the mersey and Humber rivers.
Railways :- Unlike canals which suffered from problems like slow movement due to congestion of vessels on certain stretches, frost, flood or drought which limited their use.
( i ) Railways were available through out the year as means of transportation.
( ii ) They were both cheap and fast to carry passengers and goods.
( iii ) They helped boost productions in the coal and irons industry.
( iv ) Provided employment to a large number of workers.
( v ) Boosted activity is the constructions and public works industries.
( vi ) By 1850 most of England had been connected by railways.
Q.3. What were the interesting features of the inventions of this b period?
Ans :- Interesting features of inventions of the period were :-
( i ) Individuals who brought about these changes few of then were trained scientists.
( ii ) Advances were more a product of determination, interest, intuitiveness, curiosity or evens luck than scientific knowledge of the people. e.g. Richard Ask wright of the water frame, fame, was barbar, canal builder Games Brindle was almost illiterate and the road builder John Metcalf, who personally surveyed surfaces for roads and planned them was blind.
( iii ) These people were helped is their endeavours curiosities, persistence by the fact, that unlike other European countries they had access to dozens of scientific journals and papers of scientific societies, for the time (1760-1800) was marked by thirst for knowledge.
( iv ) Availability of raw materials affected the nature of inventions. Inventions followed is coal, iron and cottons industries in of these Britain had access to abundant raw materials, e.g. the cycle of inventions in the cotton industry sought to maintain a balance betweens tasks of spinning and weaving.
( v ) By contrast in the sphere of steam power/engines, Thomas Savery, Thomas new comer and Games watt all had some knowledge relevant to their inventions. E.g. Thomas new comer was a blacksmith and locksmith, and James watt had a mechanical bent mind.
|Chapter 1||From The Beginning be of Time|
|Chapter 2||Writing & City Life|
|Chapter 3||An Empire Across Three Continents|
|Chapter 4||The Central Islamic Lands|
|Chapter 5||Nomadic Empires|
|Chapter 6||The Three Orders|
|Chapter 7||Changing Cultural Traditions|
|Chapter 8||Confrontation of Cultures|
|Chapter 9||The Industrial Revolution|
|Chapter 10||Displacing Indigenous People|
|Chapter 11||Paths to Modernization|
Q.4. Indicate how the supply of raw materials affected the natures of British Industrials stations?
Ans :- More them 26,000 inventions were recorded is the 18th century but these which revolutionised the British industry were the ones where Britain and easy access to raw materials. e.g. iron coal, cotton. For apart from technology raw materials are important to feed the industry.
Britain 200s lucky in possessing excellent looking coal and high grade iron ore in the same basins or even the same seams. These basins were also close to ports. There were five coastal coal fields which could deliver their products straight into ships. The iron industry came to be concentrated in specific regions as integrator units of coal mining and iron smelting.
A series of inventions by Abraham Darby’s grandfather, father and son, and Henry Corts pudding race and rolling mill made it possible to produce a range of iron products because of its durability soon replaced wood for everyday items and machinery.
Still another example relates to industrializations of cotton spinning and weaving. From the 17th century the country had been importing bales of cotton cloth from India at great cost. But one East India Company established political control over parts of India becoming colony of Britain but large markets were also available for cheap machine made cloth. Thus, looking at the examples of iron, coal and cottons, one can say nature of British industrialization was to large extent affected by supply of raw materials.
ANSWER IN A SHORT ESSAY
Q.5. How were the likes of different classes of British women affected by the industrial revolution?
Ans :- Industrial Revolution had a varied impact on different classes of on British women.
( i ) It made life a women of upper and middle class families more comfortable. These women had more time for leisure, entertainment, pursuance of intellectual activities like reading and writing of novels but were faced with increasing levels of isolation.
( ii ) Many upper class woman reflected on hypoc acy of social norms and solid prejudice against women.
( iii ) Women of lower classes who earlier were actively involved in domestic work and farms work sought employment in factories.
( iv ) Earnings of lower class woman were necessary to supplement men’s meager wages.
( v ) Woman gained increased financial independence and self esteem.
( vi ) Gains were offset by humiliating terms of work.
( vii ) Ties bėtween members of household loosened.
Q.6. Compare the effect of the coming of the railways in different contrives in the world.
Ans :- The impact/effect of the coming of the railways in different countries of the world varied greatly. It has to be viewed from the point that the world at this time (19th century) was divided into imperialist powers i.e., Britain, France, Holland, Portugal, Spain and Japan and countries which were directly or indirectly dominated by imperial powers, were either colonies (India) or semi colonies (China) or settler colonies (Australia).
The effect of the railways is imperial countries was positive. The railways apart from revolutionising transport spearheaded the industrial revolutions in these countries. Railways provided better, cheaper, faster, easy all-weather friendly mode of transportation unified areas of the nations, had a multiplier effect on other industries. They used large amounts of coal and iron, boosted activity in the construction and public works department, provided employment, accelerated trade and commerce and the process of capitalism e.g. Britain. On the other hand, the coming of the railways in India resulted in further colonization and underdevelopment of the economy.
They ushered in commercial not industrial revolution as they enabled the colonizers to better tap the hitherto untapped markets in the interior or the country for both the finished goods and raw materials and foodstuffs to feed their hungry machines and operatives. While railway constructions in Britain encouraged steel and machine industry and capital investment in India these backward and forward linkages were reaped by Britain and not India. It was the British steel manufactures i.e. of rail engines and wages and other machinery that benefited and British capitalists that gained. Thus, expansion of railways in India should be seen as a kind of subsidy to British industries or as Tilak put “it was like decorating another’s wife”.
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