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Class 10 Computer Science Chapter 10 An Introduction To Object Oriented Programming
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AN INTRODUCTION TO OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
Chapter – 10
Key Terms (Basic Concepts)
● Object: An objects is a basic unit of Object – Oriented Programming and represents the real-life entities.
● Class: Class is a blueprint or template from which objects are created.
● Encapsulation: Encapsulation is defined as wrapping up of data and information under a single unit.
● Data hiding: Data hiding is a technique of hiding internal object details, i.e., data members.
● Polymorphism: Polymorphism is the ability of a message to be displayed in more than one form.
● Abstraction: Abstraction means displaying only essential information and hiding the details.
● Inheritance: Inheritance is the procedure in which one class inherits the attributes and methods of another class.
● Function overloading: Function overloading is a feature of object – oriented programming where two or more functions can have the same name but different parameters.
● Operator overloading: Operator overloading is used to overload or redefines most of the operators available in different OOP programs.
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
I. SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS:
(a) What do you mean by programming paradigm?
Ans. A programming paradigm is the classification, style or way of programming. It is an approach to solve problems by using programming languages.
(b) Define object.
Ans. An object is a basic unit of Object – Oriented Programming and represents the real-life entities. An object is a thing in real world which has certain properties and methods.
(c) Define class.
Ans. Class is a blueprint or template from which objects are created. Class is a group of similar objects.
(d) What is encapsulation?
Ans. Encapsulation is defined as wrapping up of data and information under a single unit. In Object -Oriented Programming, Encapsulation is defined as binding together the data and the functions that manipulate them.
(e) What is data hiding?
Ans. Data hiding is a technique of hiding internal object details, i.e., data members. It is an object – oriented programming technique. Data hiding ensures, or we can say guarantees to restrict the data access to class members. It maintains data integrity.
(f) What is polymorphism?
Ans. The word polymorphism means having many forms. In simple words, we can define polymorphism as the ability of a message to be displayed in more than one form.
(g) Name four object-oriented programming languages.
(h) Name two procedure-oriented programming language.
Ans. C, FORTRAN , BASIC, COBOL etc.
(i) Name the first object-oriented language.
Ans. Simula is the first object – oriented programming language.
(j) What is abstraction?
Ans. Abstraction means displaying only essential information and hiding the details. Data abstraction refers to providing only essential information about the data to the outside world, hiding the background details or implementation.
II. LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS:
(a) Mention four characteristics of procedure – oriented programming.
Ans. The characteristics of procedure – oriented programming are –
● This type of programming emphasis on algorithm.
● Large programs are divided into smaller programs known as functions.
● Functions share global data.
● Data values move freely from one function to another.
● It uses top – down approach of programming.
(b) Mention two advantages and two disadvantages of procedure – oriented language.
● The procedural programming languages are relatively much easier to learn.
● The straight forward program organization makes it ideal choice as a general – purpose language.
● The use of standard library functions brings down significant reduction in the overall development cost and time.
● The procedural programming is not suitable for large and complex software.
● It is different to represent the real – world objects.
● It is different to protect the data from inadvertent changes.
● The software maintenance is relatively different for a procedural programming software.
(c) Explain four features of OOP.
Ans. ● Encapsulation.
● Data abstraction.
(d) List four advantages of OOP.
Ans. ● can support large scale and complex software development project.
● It allows the code re-usability.
● Better software maintenance.
● Enhance security.
● Easy code modification.
● Polymorphism offers lot of flexibility in OOPs.
(e) Differentiate between procedure – oriented programming and object – oriented programming are:
Ans. The difference between procedure – oriented programming and object – oriented programming are:
|SI.No||Basis of difference||Procedure Oriented Programming||Object Oriented Programming|
|(i)||Definition||In procedural programming, program is divided into small parts called functions.||In object oriented programming, program is divided into small parts called objects.|
|(ii)||Approach||Procedural programming follows top down approach.||Object oriented programming follows bottom up approach.|
|(iii)||Access Modifiers||There is no access specifier in procedural programming.||Object oriented programming have access specifiers like private, public, protected etc.|
|(iv)||Over Loading||In procedural programming, overloading is not possible.||Overloading is possible in object oriented programming.|
|(v)||Practical Uses||Procedural programming is based on unreal world.||Object oriented programming is based on real world.|
|(vi)||Importance||In procedural programming, function is more important than data.||In object oriented programming, data is more important than function.|
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. What is paradigm?
Ans. Paradigm can also be termed as method to solve some problem or do some tasks.
2. What are the different types of programming paradigm?
Ans. The two most important programming paradigms are Procedure – oriented programming and object – oriented programming.
3. What are the characteristics of OOPs?
Ans. ● Emphasis is on data rather than procedure.
● Programs are divided into objects.
● Functions that operate on data of an object are tied together in the data structure.
● Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions.
● New data and functions can be easily added whenever necessary.
● Bottom – up approach is followed in program design.
4. What is object – oriented programming best for?
Ans. Object -Oriented Programming is an approach that involves defining data structures as objects that can contain data and methods. This approach is well suited to large, complex applications that need to be updated frequently.
5. What is the difference between data abstraction and encapsulation?
Ans. Abstraction is the method of hiding the unwanted information. Whereas encapsulation is a method to hide the data in a single entity or unit along with a method to protect information from outside.
6. What is the main use of class?
Ans. The objects are used to create an instance of a class. Objects can represent a class in an independent form. The basic blueprint, that contains the information of the type of data that can be stored in an object, is given by the class.
7. What is the difference between object and class?
Ans. A class is a group of similar objects. Object is a real -world entity such as book, car, etc.
Class is a logical entity. Object is a physical entity.
8. What is inheritance?
Ans. Inheritance is procedure in which one class inherits the attributes and methods of another class.
The class whose properties and methods are inherited is known as the Parent class.
9. What is procedural oriented programming (POP)?
Ans. Procedure oriented programming is a set of instructions. In other words, it is the use of code in a step-wise procedure to develop applications.
10. What is the difference between top – down programming and bottom – up programming?
Ans. The top-down programming is all about breaking a bigger problem into smaller chunks, whereas bottom-up programming focuses on amalgamating smaller chunks to paint the complete and bigger picture.