Biography of Maithili Sharan Gupt – Rashtrakavi of modern India

Rashtrakavi Maithili Sharan Gupt was a famous poet of Hindi literature. Maithili Sharan Gupt was one of the most important poets in the history of Hindi literature and intense dialects. The “Bharati” work written by him during India’s freedom struggle proved to be very influential. Inspired by this work, Mahatma Gandhi conferred the title of Rashtrakavi on him and August 3 was celebrated as Poet’s Day on his birth anniversary.

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Protection of purity, morality, and traditional human relationships were the first qualities of Maithili Sharan Gupt’s poetry. Gupt’s reputation proved to be quite influential during the Indian freedom struggle in India. This is why Mahatma Gandhiji honored him with the title of Rashtrakavi. Maithili Sharan Gupt is a proponent of Indian culture, a pioneer of nationalism, and a strong nurturer of healthy traditions. He is a representative poet of Indian Sanskrit. He has had the privilege of being a member of Rajya Sabha twice. Guptji was in fact the symbol of the country’s highest values and the true Rashtrakavi of modern India.

Biography of Maithili Sharan Gupt

Biography of Maithili Sharan Gupt

NameMaithili Sharan Gupt[1]
Date of Birth3 August 1886
Place of BirthChirgaon, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh
Father’s NameSeth Ramacharan Gupt
Mother’s NameKashibai
OccupationAuthor, Poet
Death12 December, 1964
AwardsPadma Bhushan (1954)

Early Life and Education of Maithili Sharan Gupt

Rashtrakavi Maithili Sharan Gupt was born in Chirgaon in Jhansi district in 1886. His father’s name was Seth Ramacharan Gupta and his mother’s name was Kashibai. His father Ram Charan Guptaji was a devotee and he was also a poetic devotee. Both these qualities were acquired by Maithili Sharan Gupt as ancestral property. Maithili Sharan Gupt earned the blessings of being a bigger poet than his father with one of his main works from his father. His father had a special love for Hindi literature, and Guptji had a full influence on his father. His primary education was from Chirgaon and his secondary education was from McDonnell High School (Jhansi). He is considered one of the pioneers of Khari Boli (plain dialect) poetry and wrote in Khari Boli dialect, at a time when most Hindi poets favored the use of Braj Bhasha dialect. Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi was his mentor. When he came in contact with Acharya Mahavir Prasad Dwivediji, his command, advice and loving advice gave him great improvement in his work. He was honored with the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India.

Also Read: Biography of Kedarnath Agarwal

Literary life of Maithili Sharan Gupt

In the life of Maithili Sharan Gupt, there was a strong respect for the feeling of nationality. That is why all his work is full of national ideals. The early teachings of Rashtra Kavi Gupt were completed in his own village. After he left his education at the age of 9, he acquired knowledge of many languages.

Gupt was directed by Munshi Azmeriji and started writing his first poem in Braz Bhasha at the age of 12 under the name ‘Kanakalata.’ Gupt entered the world of Hindi literature by editing poems in various magazines, including Saraswati. In 1910 his first major work “Raang mein Bhang” was published by Indian Press. He has a special place in Hindi literature. Patriotism is the main tune of Gupt’s poetry. His poetry has a clear vision of today’s problems and ideas. Kavi Gupt takes the story of his poems from today’s life and not from ancient history or mythology. It comes only with the aim of giving past glory stories humanitarian and moral inspiration for life today. His heart is filled with sympathy and compassion for women.

He translated ‘Meghnath Badh’ or ‘Brajangana’ into Bengali poetry books. In 1912 and 1913, a book of “Bharat Bharati” poem full of feelings of nationalism was also published. Here Gupt showed the love of the country and conducted a thorough test to find a solution to alleviate the plight of the present country. The main poetry books of the Sanskrit language “Swapnavasvadata”, epic Saket, Urmila, etc. were also published.

Most of his poems are seen from the time of Ramayana, Mahabharata, and Buddhist stories and the lives of famous religious leaders, and at the same time, we can see the depiction of famous people of that time in his poems. We have also seen the description of Urmila, Lakshman’s wife of Ramayana, in his famous work Saket.

Language Style

Rashtra Kavi Maithili Sharan Gupt has an important contribution to literalizing the dialect of Hindi literature. The intensity of the tone in the words of Gupta and the beauty of the words used are amazing. He was also adept at presenting important issues in beautiful and simple language. The use of folklore and phrases in the language has brought them to life. Kavi Gupta was basically a manager, but along with management, he has achieved a lot of success in Muktak, Geeta, Geetinatya, Natak, etc. Simplicity and music prevail in his language style.


His works are based on patriotic themes, among other poets such as Ramdhari Singh Dinkar and Makhanlal Chaturvedi. His poetry is characterized by non-rhyming couplets in Khadi Boli. Although the couplet structure is non-rhyming, the prominent use of alliteration lends a rhythmic backdrop due to the rhythmic alliterations between vowels and consonants. He was a religious man, and this can be seen in his works.

Compositions of Maithili Sharan Gupt

Some of his major works are as follows: Saket (1931), Rang mein Bhang (1905), Matrubhumi, Bharat-Bharati (1912), Jayadrath Vadh (1910), Vikat Bhat, Gurukul, Panchavati (1925), Yashodhara (1932), Dvapar (1936), Anagh (1928) etc.

Maithili Sharan Gupt was introduced as a representative poet

Some of the features of Maithili Sharan Gupt’s poems make him a representative of the combination era and a Rashtrakavi (national poet). Full of his national consciousness, he was a supporter of Gandhianism and a proponent of Gandhianism and convenor of the age religion, and loyal to Arya culture. Literature is a mirror of society.

Literature at that time is created according to the social situation of that time. Gupt’s literature is of high order. He has written literature for ages. He has a strong faith in ancient Indian social traditions and moral boundaries.

Despite being a dictator, he is a thinker who believes in humans. They wanted to adapt to the old environment. So despite being based on ancient plots, his poems are full of new perspectives and age-like messages. He is also known as a true age-representative poet.

Political Career of Maithili Sharan Gupt

After India gained independence in 1947, he was also made an honorary member of the Rajya Sabha, where he used poetry to put his opinions before the other members, He remained a member of the Rajya Sabha till his death in 1964. He was awarded Padma Bhushan in 1954.


Maithili Sharan Gupt was deeply influenced by Gandhiji, so he participated in the national movement and also travelled to jail. He was also a true national poet. His writings are considered to be an invaluable assets to Hindi literature. In the great book Bharati, he expresses his pride and pride for the people and the country of India. He died on December 12, 1964.


1. When and where was Maithili Sharan Gupt was born?

Ans: Maithili Sharan Gupt was born on 3 August 1886 at Chirgaon, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh.

2. When was Saket published?

Ans: Saket was published in the year 1931.

3. What is the publishing year of “Rang mein Bhang”?

Ans:  The poem “Rang mein Bhang” was published in 1905.

4. Who had given the title of Rashtrakavi to Maithili Sharan Gupt?

Ans: Mahatma Gandhi.

5. What was the language style of Maithili Sharan Gupt?

Ans: Rashtra Kavi Gupt has made an important contribution to literalizing vertical dialect in Hindi literature. The intensity of the tone in the words of Gupt and the beauty of the words used are amazing. He was also adept at presenting important issues in beautiful and simple language. The use of folklore and phrases in their language has brought them to life. Guptji was basically a manager, but along with management, he also achieved a lot of success in Muktak, Geeta, Geetnatya, Natak, etc. There is a dynamic, simplicity, and music prevailing in his language style.

6. When did Maithili Sharan Gupt die?

Ans: He died on December 12, 1964.

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