Philosophical Foundation of Education Unit 3 Indian Schools of Philosophy & their Influences in Education

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Indian Schools of Philosophy & their Influences in Education



1. Who is the founder of yoga philosophy?

Ans: Patanjali. 

Patanjali Yoga philosophy is one of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is a key text of the Yoga school of Hinduism. Patanjali was the founder of Yoga philosophy. 

2. Which is the basic text of yoga philosophy?

Ans: Yoga-sutras.

Yoga, (Sanskrit: “Yoking” or “Union”) one of the six systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy. Its influence has been widespread among many other schools of Indian thought. Its basic text is the Yoga-sutras by Patanjali.

3. Who is the father of yoga? 

Ans: Patanjali.

Yogi and mystic Sadhguru explores the incredible life and capabilities of Patanjali, the father of modern yoga and the author of the celebrated yoga sutras.

4. Is yoga based on Buddhist or Hindu?

Ans: People say that yoga is Hindu, but “Hinduism” is a problematic term, coined by outsiders for everything they saw going on in India. Yoga stems from the Vedas – the Indian holy texts that were composed from around 1900 BC. Besides yoga, three major religions came from those texts-Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.

5. What is yoga in simple words? 

Ans: Yoga is an old discipline from India. It is both spiritual and physical. Yoga uses breathing techniques, exercise and meditation. It helps to improve health and happiness. Yoga is the Sanskrit word for union.

6. How does Patanjali define yoga?

Ans: Yoga is a discipline to improve or develop one’s inherent power in a balanced manner. It offers the means to attain complete self-realization. The literal meaning of the Sanskrit word Yoga is ‘Yoke’. According to Maharishi Patanjali, Yoga is the suppression of modifications of the mind.

7. What yoga consists of?

Ans: Modern yoga has evolved with a focus on exercise, strength, flexibility, and breathing. It can help boost physical and mental well-being. It consists of 26 poses and a sequence of two breathing exercises. 

Hatha yoga: This is a generic term for any type of yoga that teaches physical postures. 

8. What is yoga introduction?

Ans: Yoga is essentially a spiritual discipline based on an extremely subtle science, which focuses on bringing harmony between mind and body. It is an art and scince of healthy living. The word ‘Yoga’ is derived from the Sanskrit root ‘Yuj’, meaning ‘to join’ or ‘to yoke’ or ‘to unite’.

9. Who is the mother of yoga?

Ans: Mirra Alfassa.

Integral yoga, also called supramental yoga, is the yoga-based philosophy and practice of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother (Mirra Alfassa).

10. Who is the first master of yoga?

Ans: The practice of Yoga is believed to have started with the very dawn of civilization. The science of yoga has its origin thousands of years ago, long before the first religions or belief systems were born. In the yogic lore, Shiva is seen as the first yogi or Adiyogi, and the first Guru or Adi Guru.

11. Where did yoga come from?

Ans: The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. There is no consensus on its chronology or specific origin other than that yoga developed in ancient India. Suggested origins are the Indus Valley Civilization and pre-Vedic Eastern states of India, the Vedic period and the srama? a movement.

12. Is Buddha a Hindu god? 

Ans: In Vaishnava Hinduism, the historic Buddha or Gautama Buddha, is considered to be an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. …. Buddha’s portrayal in Hinduism varies. In some texts such as the Puranas, he is portrayed as an avatar born to mislead those who deny the Vedic knowledge.

13. Is Hinduism older than Buddhism?

Ans: Hinduism is the world’s oldest religion, according to many scholars, with roots and customs dating back more than 4,000 years. Today, with about 900 million followers, Hinduism is the third-largest religion behind Christianity and Islam.

14. How does yoga reduce stress?

Ans: Stress and anxiety are everywhere. If they’re getting the best of you, you might want to hit the mat and give yoga a try. Yoga is a mind-body practice that combines physical poses, controlled breathing, and meditation or relaxation. Yoga may help reduce stress, lower blood pressure and lower your heart rate.

15. What are the 4 types of yoga? 

Ans: Swami Sivananda’s approach to yoga was to combine the four main paths – Karma yoga, Bhakti yoga, Jnana yoga and Raja yoga along with various sub-yogas such as kirtan and Hatha yoga.

16. Is yoga a philosophy?

Ans: The Yoga school’s systematic studies to better oneself physically, mentally and spiritually has influenced all other schools of Indian philosophy. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is a key text of the Yoga school of Hinduism. The metaphysics of Yoga is built on the same dualist foundation as the Samkhya school.

17. What is yoga in Bhagavad Gita?

Ans: The Bhagavad Gita, states Raju, is a great synthesis of the ideas of the impersonal spiritual monism with personal God, of “the yoga of action with the yoga of transcendence of action, and these again with yogas of devotion and knowledge”.

18. What is Citta in yoga?

Ans: Citta (Pali and Sanskrit) is one of three overlapping terms used in the nikayas to refer to the mind, the others being manas and viñña? a. Each is sometimes used in the generic and non-technical sense of “mind” in general, and the three are sometimes used in sequence to refer to one’s mental processes as a whole.

19. What is the meaning of Ashtanga yoga?

Ans: Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga is a style of modern yoga created by K. Pattabhi Jois during the 20th century, often promoted as a modern-day form of classical Indian yoga. The Sanskrit word “Ashtanga” or “eight limbs” is representative of the eightfold path of yoga outlined in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

20. What kind of God is Buddha?

Ans: Buddhists seek to reach a state of nirvana, following the path of the Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, who went on a quest for Enlightenment around the sixth century BC. There is no belief in a personal god. Buddhists believe that nothing is fixed or permanent and that change is always possible.

21. What is mind in Buddhism?

Ans: Mind in Indian Buddhist Philosophy. … While Buddhists share with other Indian philosophers the view that the domain of the mental encompasses a set of interrelated faculties and processes, they do not associate mental phenomena with the activity of a substantial, independent, and enduring self or agent.

22. What is a Chitta? 

Ans: It is a land revenue document maintained by Village Administrative Officer (VAO) and the Taluk office. A chitta provides the relevant detail of the ownership, area, size, etc of the land. The Patta and Chitta were merged into one document with all the relevant details mentioned in the Patta.

23. Who do Buddhist believe created the world?

Ans: This is partly due to the fact that Buddhists do not believe in any God who has created the world. Most other religions consider there to be a designer of the universe who was involved in the process of creation. According to Buddhist teaching, the Buddha refused to answer questions about the origins of the Earth.

24. Who wrote upanishad?

Ans: The various philosophical theories in the early Upanishads have been attributed to famous sages such as Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka Aruni, Shvetaketu, Shandilya, Aitareya, Balaki, Pippalada, and Sanatkumara.

25. What is Citta in Buddhism? 

Ans: Citta (Pali and Sanskrit) is one of three overlapping terms used in the nikayas to refer to the mind, the others being manas and viñña? a. Each is sometimes used in the generic and non-technical sense of “mind” in general, and the three are sometimes used in sequence to refer to one’s mental processes as a whole.

26. Where was Buddhism first practiced?

Ans: The history of Buddhism spans from the 5th century BCE to the present. Buddhism arose in the eastern part of Ancient India, in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha (now in Bihar, India), and is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama. This makes it one of the oldest religions practiced today.

27. Was Siddhartha a real person?

Ans: The word Siddhartha is made up of two words in Sanskrit language, siddha (achieved) + artha (what was searched for), which together means “he who has found meaning (of existence)” or “he who has attained his goals”. In fact, the Buddha’s own name, before his renunciation, was Siddhartha Gautama, Prince of Kapilavastu. 

28. Was Gautam Buddha real? 

Ans: Prince Gautama Buddha was born in Nepal Was the person who began the religion of Buddhism. He lived from about 563 BC to about 483 BC. He is also called Sakyamuni or Tathagat.

29. What is the real name of Buddha? 

Ans: Siddhartha Gautama.

30. What is Advaita Vedanta philosophy?

Ans: Advaita Vedanta is a school in Hinduism. People who believe in Advaita believe that their soul is not different from Brahman. The most famous Hindu philosopher who taught about Advaita Vedanta was Adi Shankara who lived in India more than a thousand years ago. The way he said this to people was “Atman is Brahman.”

31. Who believed in Vedanta philosophy? 

Ans: Vedanta is a philosophy taught by the Vedas, the most ancient scriptures of India. Its basic teaching is that our real nature is divine. God, the underlying reality, exists in every being. Religion is therefore a search for self-knowledge, a search for the God within.

32. What is the Vedanta religion?

Ans: The term Vedanta means in Sanskrit the “conclusion” (anta) of the Vedas, the earliest sacred literature of India. It applies to the Upanishads, which were elaborations of the Vedas, and to the school that arose out of the study (mimamsa) of the Upanishads.

33. Is Advaita Vedanta true?

Ans: According to Advaita Vedanta, liberation can be achieved while living, and is called Jivanmukti. The Atman-knowledge, that is the knowledge of true Self and its relationship to Brahman is central to this liberation in Advaita thought.

34. What do you mean by Vedanta philosophy? 

Ans: Vedanta or Uttara Mima? sa is one of the six (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy. Vedanta literally means “end of the Vedas”, reflecting ideas that emerged from the speculations and philosophies contained in the Upanishads.

35. What is Brahman in Advaita Vedanta?

Ans: Brahman as well the Atman in every human being (and living being) is considered equivalent and the sole reality, the eternal, self-born, unlimited, innately free, blissful Absolute in schools of Hinduism such as the Advaita Vedanta and Yoga.

36. Name the Three Pitakas of buddhism?

Ans: Tripitaka or Three Baskets is a traditional term used for various Buddhist scriptures. It is known as pali Canon in English. The three pitakas are Sutta Pitaka, Vinaya Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka. Sarvastivada is a near complete Tripitaka written in Sanskrit and preserved in Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan.

37. what does pabbajja mean?

Ans: Pabbajja literally means “to go forth” and refers to when a layperson leaves home to live the life of a Buddhist renunciate among a community of bhikkhus (fully ordained monks). This generally involves preliminary ordination as a novice.

38. What is a metaphysical concept?

Ans: Metaphysics is a type of philosophy or study that uses broad concepts to help define reality and our understanding of it. Metaphysical studies generally seek to explain inherent or universal elements of reality which are not easily discovered or experienced in our everyday life.

39. What is the aim of hatha yoga?

Ans: Hatha yoga also aims to create a harmonious balance between the masculine and feminine energy. This is the true purpose of Hatha yoga; therefore it is not necessary to be flexible or to strive to achieve complicated Asanas (physical yoga postures) in order to gain the benefits of yoga.

40. What is Raja Yoga in Hinduism? 

Ans: Raja Yoga is one of the four Yogas of Hinduism (the other being Jnana, Bhakti, and Karma). As a meditative method, Raja Yoga seeks to dissolve these mental barriers in order to further one’s acquaintance with Reality, and control the life-forces of the Universe to better realize the universal Self.

41. What is the importance of yoga in schools? 

Ans: It Boosts Self-Esteem and Confidence: Yoga helps to instill confidence and to bring learning to children on an experiential level. Yoga teaches them to persevere, be patient, and work towards their goals. Yoga also provides tools for practicing compassion, mindfulness, generosity, focus, strength, and flexibility.

42. What is the importance of yoga in student life? 

Ans: Yoga is one of the among them. Students from all around the world have gained benefits by doing yoga. It helps your body to relax and soothes your mind. Also it helps to make your body flexible and improves your concentration power.

43. What is the purpose of inclusion of yoga in curriculum? 

Ans: Yoga poses aimed at balance, flexibility, and stamina, strengthen muscles and connective tissues enabling good posture. The practice of Yoga will bring a positive change in mood and attitude, increased energy levels and the ability to focus on what is required by setting aside distracting thoughts in a student.

44. Mention five fundamental, eternal and real differences are described in Dvaita school? 

Ans: The Five fundamental, eternal and real differences are described in Dvaita school are:

(i) Between the individual souls (or jivatman) and God (Brahmatmesvara or Vishnu).

(ii) (Between matter (inanimate, insentient) and God.

(iii) Between individual souls (jivatman). 

(iv) Between matter and jivatman.

(v) Between various types of matter.


1. Discuss the Characteristics of Indian Philosophy? 

Ans: Darsana is divided into two categories namely-Astika (believer in the Vedas) and Nastika (non-believer in the Vedas). Astika are Nyaya, Vaisheshik, Sakhya, Yoga, Mimamsa, and Vedanta. Nastika are Carvaka, Jainism and Buddhism. Others are a mixture of the ideas of these systems. Although each school of philosophy is unique, they all have some common characteristics.

Some of the important ones are:

Direct experience: All systems of Indian philosophy claim to be derived from the Veda but the Veda itself is a record of the sages who realized the truth within. To solve life’s questions related to nature of life, death, birth, and cosmic or individual existence, they started making rational inquiries and observations. Unable to find satisfactory answers, they discovered various methods of meditation that help one attain higher levels of consciousness in which one may directly experience the truth. Each school originated with an enlightened teacher who described his experiences of the truth and method of attaining it.

Acceptance of authority: Respect for sages and ancient scriptures is a strong tradition in India. When a teacher advocates a new philosophical system, he cites established scriptures or the writings of authorized sages to support his statements. The Astika or orthodox schools always refer to the Veda to support their theories. 

The Nastika or unorthodox schools follow the authority of their founder. Buddha, for example, reiterated many things said in the Veda but did not cite the Veda as the source of his views. Hence, the tendency to rely on the work of a realized teacher is maintained in Buddhism, too.

Harmony among schools: All systems of Indian philosophy have a unique quality of cooperating with one another. During a debate, the intent is not to destroy another’s philosophy but to clarify one’s own theories and thoughts. This has enabled various schools to live in harmony. Indian philosophers realized that every human mind is unique and it must be allowed to follow a philosophy of its choice.

Parallel growth and coexistence of various schools: The various systems of philosophy flourished and grew simultaneously. The reason is that the open-minded approach attracted students of various hues who were impressed with the practical aspects of that system of philosophy. When a particular teacher delivered a message, it was studied and teachings were put into practice by a group of people whom it suited. Thus, was formed a School of Philosophy. Each system continued to coexist because it provided a theoretical and practical philosophy to meet intellectual and emotional needs of the students at different levels of realization.

Open-mindedness: A broad outlook that reflects its unflinching devotion to truth distinguishes Indian philosophy. Each school is open to views of all other schools. It was nothing like there is a best way to achieve self-realization. The established system of philosophical exposition in the Indian tradition involves explaining and criticizing the prior view of the subject, then refuting the view and describing a subsequent view that takes you to a higher level or final theory. Because of a continuous exchange of ideas, the philosophical systems have with time, become more sophisticated and complete.

Support of logic and reasoning: Direct experience is the foundation of Indian philosophy, but reason and logic are the chief tools that enable the system to develop and grow. The theories are presented in a way that a rational mind can easily accept. All systems of Indian philosophy apply the methods of logic to argue their points of view and protect themselves from criticism. This reason only justifies what intuition or experience has already revealed. By virtue of being an important part of our philosophy, logic got ingrained in the Indian mind. Since computer software uses logic extensively, it has helped India gain recognition as a potential global software power.

The Belief of Eternity: Each system of Indian philosophy proclaims that there is an eternal consciousness in man and the realization of this consciousness is the goal of life. Imperfections are a result of ignorance and are on the surface of our personality but what needs to be done is, discovery of Self within, that lies in a perfect state of bliss. Man’s physical existence depends on his karma (actions) but the center of his life is eternal.

The Law of Karma: Every Indian School accepts this law which states that for every effect there is a cause, and for every action, there is a reaction. If a man becomes attached to the fruits of action, then he becomes a victim of his own karma because it is the attachment to the results that motivate him to perform future actions. The fruit has arisen out of the action and action out of the fruit. This cycle is the wheel of karma.

Moral and ethical teachings: Ancient seers realized that there must be some discipline in our lives with relations to family, society, and nation for without law and order, the world becomes disorganized resulting in misery. Eastern philosophers believed that for peace within, there had to be peace outside. Lack of morality and discipline creates misunderstandings in one’s relationship with others and is the cause of emotional problems. Emotions, need to be disciplined and channeled correctly. Disciplines related to the body and mind are generally known as moral and ethical laws. The practical systems of Indian philosophy are based on these laws. These are commitments, not commandments, accepted to create external peace without which there can be no internal tranquility.

Acknowledgement of suffering: Most quests for self-realization start with the reason behind pain and suffering. The goal of each system is to overcome suffering. Buddha began his philosophy by saying there is suffering, next he dictated that there is a cause for it, there is a state in which suffering ceases and finally there is a way to attain freedom from the pain. These statements are called the Four Noble Truths. The pain and suffering is due to our inability to experience the inner self. One suffers because of one’s attachment with worldly objects. The moment we start looking within, freedom from pain gets initiated.

Thoroughness: Because of this broad outlook, there is an extreme thoroughness in Indian systems of philosophy. It is like the river Ganga that originates from a glacier, runs down the hills of Garwhal onto the plains of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Bengal, collecting water from different sources before it reaches the Bay of Bengal and merges itself with the all embracing sea.

Practicality: All systems of Indian philosophy contain a practical aspect called Sadhana. Thus, the theoretical aspects of philosophy can be applied to everyday life. The ancient sages believed that any philosophy that did not enable man to handle the problems of day to day to life was of no use People who have read the Bhagwad Gita would agree that the holy book is not just about religion, but tells us how to handle the crests and troughs of life.

Self-realization, the direct experience of ones inner nature is the goal of all systems of Indian philosophy. Every system prescribed its own way of overcoming pain to achieve the ultimate goal.

2. Discuss about the Six System of Indian Philosophy? 

Ans: The Sanskrit word for philosophy is darsana, which means direct vision. The words symbolize the difference between modern Western philosophy, which mainly relies on intellectual pursuit and Indian philosophy that relies on direct vision of truths and pure Buddhi (reasoning). Darsana is divided into two categories namely Astika (believer in the Vedas) and Nastika (non-believer in the Vedas). Astika are Nyaya, Vaisheshik, Sakhya, Yoga, Mimamsa and Vedanta. Nastika are Carvaka, Jainism and Buddhism. Others are a mixture of the ideas of these systems.

Although each school of philosophy is unique, all of them have certain common characteristics. These are direct experience, acceptance of authority, harmony amongst schools, parallel growth and coexistence of a number of schools, open mindedness, support of logic and reasoning, belief of eternity, law of karma, moral and ethical teachings, acknowledgement of suffering, thoroughness and practicality.

Friends after I finished this piece, asked myself a simple question. Why is it that Indians of those times were so creative? I mean nine schools of philosophy followed by many gurus thereafter. Each Guru analyzed scriptures in a unique way, in a manner that there was something new to learn.

Nyaya: The Nyaya school was founded by sage Gautama. Sixteen major topics were discussed in this system, the most important of which is pramana, the source of valid knowledge. Actually, Nyaya is a school of logic, and all other schools of Indian philosophy use the Nyaya system of logic, in whole or in part, as a foundation for philosophical reasoning and debate. Navya-Nyaya or Neologic, a further development of this school, occurred in the 16th century in Bengal and Mithila.

Vaisesika: Kannada is the founder of this school, which is associated with the Nyaya system. This school discusses seven major topics: substance, quality, action, generality, uniqueness, inherence and non-existence. This school is called Vaisesika because it considers, uniqueness, as an aspect of reality and studies it as a separate category. Under the topic of substance, it deals with the physics and chemistry of the body and the universe. The theory of atomic structure was established by this school. Its practical teaching emphasizes dharma, the code of conduct that leads man to worldly welfare and to the highest goal of life.

Samkhya: Kapila is traditionally cites as the founder of this school, although his Samkhya Sutras have been lost. The Samkhya-karika of IsvaraKrsna, the oldest text on this philosophy, cites the name of Kapila, Asuri and Pancasikha as previous teachers of this school. It is considered to the oldest of the philosophical systems. 

Samkhya is a dualistic philosophy that believes in the coexistent and interdependent realities, conscious Purusha and unconscious Prakrti. Purusha is ever pure, wise and free but it becomes a subject of pain and pleasure when it identifies itself with Prakrti.

Yoga: Yoga and Samskhya are allied systems. Although Yoga philosophy was known even in the Vedic and pre-Vedic periods, it was not formally systematized until it was codified by Patanjali in about 200 BC. The Yoga Sutras contain 196 aphorisms, which are divided into four sections. Yoga studies all aspects of human personality and teaches one how to control the modifications of the mind through practice of meditation and detachment and surrender to higher consciousness. It prescribes a holistic system of practice beginning with the yamas and niyamas (ethical and behavioral codes) and proceeding through the asanas (physical postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), pratyahara (control of senses), dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation) and culminating in samadhi. In this system the individual self is the seeker and pure consciousness is the ultimate reality that he finds within. Practicality is the main feature of this system.

Mimamsa: Jamini was the founder of this system that accepts the Veda as the final authority on all questions. It provides a comprehensive method for interpreting and understanding the underlying meaning of the Veda. It lays great emphasis on rituals, worship and ethical conduct and provides a systematic lifestyle and direction. Mimamsa offers guidelines for practical application of Vedantic theory. This school is foremost in the analysis of sound and mantra.

Vedanta: was taught and practiced by the sages of the Vedas and Upanishads and was handed over through a long line of sages. But Veda Vyasa, who codified these teachings in the Brahma Sutras, is considered its founder. Until the time of Sankara, Vedanta was mainly transmitted through oral tradition but sometime between the 6th and 8th centuries a.d. Sankara reorganized the system of this monistic school of thought. After him numerous teachers wrote commentaries on the Brahma Sutras, interpreting it in various ways and thus establishing various schools within the single system of Vedanta.

The major schools of Vedanta are Advaita (non dualistic), Dvaita (dualistic), Dvaitadvaita (both dualistic and non dualistic), Visistadvaita (qualifies nondualism) and Visuddhadvaita (pure non-dualism). Of these schools Sankara’s Advaita and Ramanuja’s Visistadvaita are the most important. Sankara’s Advaita Vedanta covers all the other systems.

3. Discuss the Educational Implication of Yoga Philosophy? 

Ans: In the current Indian perspective, the role to be played by the education system is facing new challenges. Normally the main aims of education have been the physical, psychological, interpersonal, professional and spiritual refinement of a personality. In modern Indian perspective it is deemed that the system of education should also be helpful in the attainment of the objectives of socialism and democracy mentioned in Indian constitution too. Besides, to attain refinement at the level of thoughts (intellectual development) and feelings (affective aspect), contributing to the development of national character and scientific mentality among the people, at present it is seriously being felt that the aim of education should also include the liberation of mind and soul as well.

Disciplining of body and mind is the core of educational process: 

Education system not only in India but the modern globalizing world also really is in great need of taking help of yoga system. Therefore it is high time to think seriously on inclusion of yoga and yogic values in education system.

Self education (education of self-realization): Yoga renders self education. It is nothing but education of self awareness. Yoga teaches us how to live with wisdom, not with the worldly orientations, present education system should inculcate this yogic value intensively. Yoga system can impart progressive training for the development of self awareness and educate us about the realities of our being and becoming.

Pursuit of the Transcendental state of Psyche: The paramount aim of yoga system is the pursuit of the transcendental state of psyche I.e Nidhidhyasana, assumed as an essential aspect of the ancient Indian system of study and education. Samadhi leads to the Nidhidhyasana state which further escorts the wisdom. The experience of Samadhi is not a very difficult or rare stage. Like other components of yoga it is also attainable. Samadhi is a state of consciousness, which begets energy, awareness and delight to the experiencing being for his/her creative thoughts and actions. Morever, the real creativity is impossible to achieve without attaining Samadhi state. A creative Samadhi is again hard to achieve without adopting high moral values in daily life.

Samadhi (transcendental state) further leads to wisdom. Yoga teaches how to attain wisdom. Knowledge through real vision or wisdom, accomplished by profound meditation, directed to the Samadhi is the real attainment. Learning through mind and senses is a shallow class of knowledge, which leads to complexity. In most of the institutions today, we find that majority of the student are growing with a complexity. Complex living patterns leads to tensions. Methods of peaceful living are not being included in present education system.

Development of General Awareness: The objectives of Yoga, besides causing physical, mental and spiritual unfoldment in an individual, are also the inculcation of social and ecological awareness within oneself. Yoga system emphasizes on awareness of very subtle aspects, hardly attainable subject of single pointed focus. It leads to the awareness of the external environment in its fullest extent and awareness of the external environment in its full depth as well as awareness of internal environment in its full depth as well as awareness of those aspects, which are beyond internal and external attainability.

Promotion of will Power and Perseverance: The path of Yoga is a test as well as the training of will power. Will power is a quality that plays its major role in every creative performance and success.

Management of Mental Health: In the Eight-limbic system of yoga, Patanjali recommended the observance of Yama and Niyama, for the management of conscious emotional conflicts, whereas, as far as the subconscious emotional are concerned he recommended Asana and Pranayama, stability of body, brought about by the practice of Asana may lead to the emotional stability and psychological well-being. Many psychologists on the basis of their experimental results and clinical experiences found that Yoga is an effective instrument of modification of human behavior.

Treatment of Physical Difficulties: From the period of later Upanishads it was duly emphasized that the practice of yogic postures and yogic breathing, in addition to mental and ethical disorders are also able to alleviate physical pains and problems.

Management of Stress Disorders: Stress can be controlled by recommended Yogic techniques. Yoga appears as a system of self-healing, causes remarkable reduction in anxiety and hypertension.

4. What is the role of yoga for improving quality education? 

Ans: Yoga is basically the most important ancient art that aims towards the building up of a healthy mind within a healthy body. For that reason, it is considered to be the harmonizing system which rejuvenates the body, mind as well as the soul. The great saints, therefore, have mentioned yoga to be a universal attribute of mind which enhances the physical, spiritual and mental status of the human body.

The balanced development of these three specifications led the condition where the individual will enhance the positive feeling towards life. On the whole, the yoga in daily life is practiced based on few core principles.

Those are:

(i) It is a kind of technique to control the mind as well as body. 

(ii) It can be the disciplined and well-organized method to attain the goal.

(iii) Yoga reflects the darsana shashtra or the philosophical part of life. Yoga in itself is the goal for the yoga practice. 

(iv) Yoga symbolises some traditional specializations of particular techniques of yoga.

In that context when the education is considered yoga has its various important effects. For that reason, various schools are practicing the yoga. The basic advantages of yoga are it helps in dealing with various difficulties, conflicts, distractions, problems, and dissipation faced by the children.

By that manner, it will reduce the stress within the children during the education. Other than that yoga education for students results into the growth of the child psychology and for that reason, the curriculum of schools have added up yoga in school education. 

Thus the importance of yoga in education can be noticed the increase in rationality, emotional structure and creative output within the children. Striving for the increase in the physical activity within the children along with the cultivation of healthier outcomes laid the school authorities to know about the importance of yoga in school.

As the society includes a broad variety of schools so the best yoga that can be practised within the schools are Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga. The Hatha Yoga School Rishikesh is one of the best places which provide the detailed idea regarding the yoga. More specifically the concept of yoga revolves around the practical aspects of philosophy which indicates the connection of human soul to supreme power. The role of yoga in education as per the spiritual aspect helps the students to perform their daily duties in the day to day lives.

Thus the distinctive features of yoga which will help in establishing a positive impact on children during education are:

(i) It enhances the self-realization or self-awareness within the children.

(ii) It unfolds the physical, mental and spiritual attributes which eventually inculcates the social as well as ecological awareness within children.

(iii) It helps the children for the pursuit of the transcendental state of psyche.

(iv) It promotes uniqueness within the child.

(v) It promotes the perseverance as well as will power within the child.

(vi) It helps in unfolding the creative consciousness.

(vii) It helps in treating the physical difficulties by making the body active.

Yoga provides ease to respiratory system, neuro-endocrine system, cardiovascular system and musculo-skeletal system to enhance the determination within the child.

5. What is the difference between raja yoga, hatha yoga? 

Ans: Raja Yoga: Raja-yoga is a yoga of work exclusively with consciousness, i.e. meditation (and introspection). In raja yoga there are no asanas, and there are only a few popular pranayamas in it (as in Buddhism). It is believed that the Raja-yoga is primarily the last 4 steps of the eight-step Ashtanga Yoga of Patanjali, although in general it is connected with all 8 steps. In the literal translation, “raja yoga” means “queen among the yogas,” which indicates her exceptional highest status among all types of yoga, and not that she is meant only for rajas (kings).

In ancient times, the composition of Raja Yoga also included visualization practices, but at present they are present only in tantra (Shakti teachings), separated by dogmatists from yoga more than 2 thousand years ago. It is raja yoga that is considered classical yoga. The very term “raja yoga” is a retronym, which appeared in the XIV century in connection with the appearance of the doctrine of physical hatha yoga (in the text “Hatha yoga-pradipika”). Before that, yoga was understood as what is now called raja yoga.

The main tool of raja yoga is samyama (sanyama), for which it is first necessary to master meditation. Also very important is the ethical moment of personal (spiritual) growth, expressed in the development of vijnanamaya-koshi prior to the formation of anandamaya-koshi, on which a great emphasis is placed in Buddhism (the development of compassion). Ramana Maharshi, one might say, revolutionized Hinduism, pointing to the great importance of introspection (in the distant perspective of personal evolution).

Hatha Yoga: This practice is rooted in the tradition of ancient India and is based on the principle of opposing energies. In fact, the word hatha is derived from the Sanskrit word “ha” which means the Sun and “tha” that is, the Moon. There are many schools and varieties of hatha yoga, and all of them include asanas or poses. Some asanas act as gentle stretching exercises and increase flexibility, others develop strength and balance. However, the practice of hatha yoga goes beyond physical exercises, because it helps achieve a balance between the body and mind on higher forms of awareness through breathing and relaxation techniques.

Pranayama (breathing) is a component of hatha yoga, which has its advantages. By practicing these exercises, you can more and more control your respiratory system and increase your ability to cope with stressful situations.

Heart Health: This is the next benefit of hatha yoga for your health. Regular practice helps prevent heart disease, reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels in the body, and increase immunity.

Improvement of general health: Hatha Yoga improves your physical and emotional well-being. Initially, a long stay in the asanas was part of the practice of meditation. However, other benefits of asanas, such as increased flexibility and increased bone strength, can now be noted.

Help with chronic diseases: This benefit of hatha yoga is that regular practice can prevent or eliminate symptoms of such diseases as clinical depression, anxiety, asthma, back pain and arthritis. Yoga also helps with insomnia and fighting fatigue.

Stress Relief and Relaxation: Hatha Yoga helps to relax and relieve stress through deep and controlled breathing, as well as the concentration and balance required for yoga postures. Focusing on deep breathing contributes to relaxation and peace of mind. At this point, the level of hormones that the body produces in response to stress decreases and the amount of oxytocin increases, giving you peace of mind and relaxation.

6. Discuss about the Astanga Yoga?

Ans: Ashtanga yoga is a system of yoga recorded by the sage Vamana Rishi in the Yoga Korunta, an ancient manuscript “said to contain lists of many different groupings of asanas, as well as highly original teachings on vinyasa, drishti, bandhas, mudras, and philosophy”. The text of the Yoga Korunta “was imparted to Sri T. Krishnamacharya in the early 1900’s by his Guru Rama Mohan Brahmachari, and was later passed down to Pattabhi Jois during the duration of his studies with Krishnamacharya, beginning in 1927” (“Ashtanga Yoga”).

Ashtanga yoga literally means “eight-limbed yoga,” as outlined by the sage Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras. According to Patanjali, the path of internal purification for revealing the Universal Self consists of the following eight spiritual practices:

(a) Yama [moral codes]

(b) Niyama [self-purification and study]

(c) Asana [posture]

(d) Pranayama [breath control]

(e) Pratyahara [sense control]

(f) Dharana [concentration]

(g) Dhyana [meditation] 

(h) Samadhi [absorption into the Universal]

The first four limbs-yama, niyama, asana, pranayama-are considered external cleansing practices. According to Pattabhi Jois, defects in the external practices are correctable. However, defects in the internal cleansing practices – pratyahara, dharana, dhyana – are not correctable and can be dangerous to the mind unless the correct Ashtanga yoga method is followed. For this reason, Pattabhi Jois emphasizes that the “Ashtanga Yoga method is Patanjali Yoga”.

The definition of yoga is “the controlling of the mind”. The first two steps toward controlling the mind are the perfection of yama and niyama. However, it is “not possible to practice the limbs and sub-limbs of yama and niyama when the body and sense organs are weak and haunted by obstacles”. A person must first take up daily asana practice to make the body strong and healthy. With the body and sense organs thus stabilized, the mind can be steady and controlled. With mind control, one is able to pursue and grasp these first two limbs.

To perform asana correctly in Ashtanga yoga, one must incorporate the use of vinyasa and tristhana. “Vinyasa means breathing and movement system. For each movement, there is one breath. For example, in Surya Namskar there are nine vinyasas. The first vinyasa is inhaling while raising your arms over your head, and putting your hands together; the second is exhaling while bending forward, placing your hands next to your feet, etc. In this way all asanas are assigned a certain number of vinyasas”.

“The purpose of vinyasa is for internal cleansing”. Synchronizing breathing and movement in the asanas heats the blood, cleaning and thinning it so that it may circulate more freely. Improved blood circulation relieves joint pain and removes toxins and disease from the internal organs. The sweat generated from the heat of vinyasa then carries the impurities out of the body.

Tristhana refers to the union of “three places of attention or action: posture, breathing system and looking place. These three are very important for yoga practice, and cover three levels of purification: the body, nervous system and mind.

Posture: “The method for purifying and strengthening the body is called asana”. In Ashtanga yoga, asana is grouped into six series. “The Primary Series detoxifies and aligns the body. The Intermediate Series purifies the nervous system by opening and clearing the energy channels.

Breathing: The breathing technique performed with vinyasa is called ujjayi, which consists of puraka and rechaka. “Both the inhale and exhale should be steady and even, the length of the inhale should be the same length as the exhale”. Over time, the length and intensity of the inhalation and exhalation should increase, such that the increased stretching of the breath initiates the increased stretching of the body.

Looking Place: Dristhi is the gazing point on which one focuses while performing the asana. “There are nine dristhis: the nose, between the eyebrows, navel, thumb, hands, feet, up, right side and left side. Dristhi purifies and stabilizes the functioning of the mind” (“Ashtanga Yoga”). In the practice of asana, when the mind focuses purely on inhalation, exhalation, and the drishti, the resulting deep state of concentration paves the way for the practices of dharana and dhyana, the six and seventh limbs of Ashtanga yoga.

7. Discuss the Educational Implications of Vedanta Philosophy? 

Ans: The educational Implication of Vedanta Philosophy can discuss as under:

Aims of Education: The ultimate aim of education is to prepare the child for the realization of Brahma. Education should make the child able to realize his self in all its aspects to the fullest possible extent so that he identifies and realizes the ultimate reality.

The child can realize Brahma and become one with this ultimate truth through real knowledge obtained by his own efforts. Sankra views education in two ways-one is spiritual which he calls Paravidya and the other is material that is Aparavidya. Spiritual education is true education which gives knowledge of God.

Under the Apara or material education one is imparted the knowledge of means to practise Dharma and at the same time he is also enabled to understand the nature of Adharma i.e., unrighteous actions. In Paravidya one has to be detached and his ultimate goal is to become merged into God Himself.

In Apara Vidya one is naturally attached and involved in material properties and pleasures of the senses. Thus the Apara Vidya has to be shunned if one has to strive for the realization of essential unity between soul and God.

Curriculum: Keeping in view all the three categories of realities, curriculum should consist of Geography, History, Economics, Sociology Science, Commerce, Vocational and Technical subjects. Together with these, for those children who do not evince any interest in getting spiritual knowledge, other subjects as Literature, Psychology, Physics, Biology and Philosophy should also be included in the curriculum.

However it may be noted that he has particularly, emphasized the study of Veda-Upanishad, Gita and Brahmasutra. Along with these one must also study various Mantras, Smritis, Nyaya-Vaisheshik, Sankhyayoga Mimansa Darshan, Buddhism, Jainism, the principles of Vaishanavism. From the practical point of view, a Brahma Jijnasa (search of God) student will acquire proficiency in certain arts for serving the people in general i.e., for parmartha or welfare of others.

In the co-curricular activities are prescribed such items as worship of God, pilgrimages, practice of yoga, satsang etc. From the spiritual point of view the curriculum has to be Brahma Anubhuti oriented i.e., oriented towards the ultimate realization of God.

Methods of Teaching: Sankracharya has laid emphasis on the following three methods of teaching knowledge centered, devotion centered, karma centered. Knowledge centered method includes Real vision and Logical conclusion through logical reasoning. Devotion centered through self-surrender with the ideal which leads towards Salvation. Karma centered includes fasting, penance, charity, abstinance, self purification and self realization.

The supreme method is the knowledge of formless, attribute less, limitless and ultimate reality which is nothing but Brahma. This knowledge will lead the individual towards Salvation (moksha).

Sankra has designed his own methods of teaching in consonance with his conception of education. These are the following: Shravan Vidhi or the method of attentively listening to the teachings of Guru, Manan Vidhi or the method of pondering over what the Guru has said, Nididhyasan vidhi or the method of reaching the point of a definite conclusion, Question answer method is an important technique for helping the students to remove his doubts with the help of a Guru, Tark Vidhi or the method of reasoning, Vyakhya Vidhi or the method of making a terse matter easy to comprehend i.e., exposition, Adhyaropa or Apvad Vidhi i.e., to project out the unreal into the real, Drishtant Vidhi or illustration method, The Katha or story telling method and Upadesh method or lecture method, it is the result of listening method.

Concept of Reality: Sankar Acharya in Vedantic philosophy advocates that nature, life and physical world are not different but manifest themselves in the form of ‘Brahm’. Due to ignorance (Maya) human life and material world appear true and real. According to him Brahma is unlimited, formless and attributeless. But reacting with Maya, it is able to create life and this material cosmos.

The ultimate aim of all human beings is to realize this ultimate Reality or Brahman. Soul and Brahma are one and the same. Hence his theory is known as monoism’ or ‘advaitvad’. Sankra postulates a distinction between Brahman and Iswara. But according to Ramanuja Brahman and Iswara is one. According to Sankra, Brahman is without qualities but according to Ramanuja.

Brahman possesses qualities. He is perfect purusottam having such qualities as Truth, Knowledge and Happiness. According to Sankra the world is Maya or unreal, it has nothing to do with Brahman. On the other hand according to Ramanuja the world is the sport of Iswara and is constituted of its part and thus it is real because nothing created by Iswara is unreal.

Concept of Values: According to some critics, “the Advaitavada of Sankra has no place for ethics as it raises the supreme ideal of life above good and evil.” But this does not mean that there is no place for ethics in his philosophy. The aim of life according to Sankra is beyond what is achieved through life.

Again even after the realisation of the ultimate end the liberated person does not leave society nor become interested in it. The liberated person, essentially established in the Brahman consciousness does only that which is always right as it directly follows from the ultimate good, the Brahman. Sankra has emphasized the importance of Niskama Karma.

Thus, though the right and wrong, the sympathy, pity, forgiveness and other virtues might be relative and of the lower level for the liberated person. The aspirant works for self-purification before being liberated and after liberation works for the purification of those who are still in bondage.

Advaita Vedanta: Advaita Vedanta is the oldest extant sub-school of Vedanta-an orthodox school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice. Advaita Darsana (philosophies, world views, teachings) is one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.

The founder or chief exponent of this school is ADI SHANKARACHARYA Shankaracharya systematized and significantly developed the works of preceding philosophers into a cohesive philosophy. His commentaries to the unifying interpretation of the Prasthana Trayi, Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita and the Brahma Sutras define the parameters of advaita thought. The name Sankaracharya has become a title for the heads of the numerous Advaita institutions in India today, because of the great respect and fame associated with it.

In its philosophical formulation, Advaita Vedanta interprets these texts in a non-dualistic manner for its theories of moksha. It postulates that the true Self-individual soul, Atman (Atman), shorn of avidya-is the same as the highest reality, Brahman. The phenomenal world is described as an illusory appearance that is other than the real as well as the unreal.

Advaitins, the followers of Advaita darsana, therefore, seek Jivanmukti- a liberation, release, or freedom that is achieved in this lifetime – by the realization (vidya) that Atman and Brahman are identical.

Advaita Vedanta is one of the most studied and most influential schools of classical Indian thought. While many scholars describe it as a form of monism, others describe the Advaita philosophy as non-dualistic. Advaita Vedanta texts espouse a spectrum of views from idealism, including illusionism, to realist or nearly realist positions expressed in the early works of Shankara.

Vishishtadvaita: Vishishtadvaita, the philosophy of the Sri Sampradaya, is one of the most popular schools of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. VishishtAdvaita (literally “Advaita with uniqueness; qualifications”) is a non-dualistic school of Vedanta philosophy. It is non-dualism of the qualified whole, in which Brahman alone exists, but is characterized by multiplicity. It can be described as qualified monism or qualified non-dualism or attributive monism. It is a school of Vedanta philosophy which believes in all diversity subsuming to an underlying unity.

The Vishishtadvaitic thought is considered to have existed for a long time, and it is surmised that the earliest works are no longer available. The names of the earliest of these philosophers is only known through Ramanuja’s Veda artha Sangraha. In the line of the philosophers considered to have expounded the VisishtAdvaita system, the prominent ones are Bodhayana, Dramida, Tanka, Guhadeva, Kapardi and Bharuci. Besides these philosophers, Ramanuja’s teacher Yamunacharya is credited with laying the foundation for what culminates as the Sri Bhasya. Bodhayana is considered to have written an extensive vritti (commentary) on the Purva And Uttara Mimamsas. Tanka is attributed with having written commentaries on Chandogya Upanishad and Brahma Sutras.

8. Discuss the concept of Shuddadvaita? 

Ans: Shuddadvaita is the “purely non-dual” philosophy. According to Suddhadvaita, Brahman without maya is the cause for Universe. Maya is not unreal but it is shakti of Brahman. Apparent manifestation or dvaita prapanch is not due to maya or unreal but it is the wish of Brahman/ Krishna instead.

Jagat and Samsara are different. Jagat is manifestation of Brahman and is real. Samsara is due to ignorance/nescience of real nature and is unreal. samsar has Uttpatti origination and Lay destruction; whereas jagat has only Avirbhav manifestation and Tirobhav disappearance. 

Jiva is not different from Brahman as it is a portion/part of Brahman (not reflation). The relation between Brahman and Jiva is like fire and spark. Jiva and world emanate from Brahman and conceal/absorb in Brahman. Jiva is not Brahman as it is in later condition.

It was propounded by Vallabhacharya (1479-1531 CE), the founding philosopher and guru of the Vallabha sampradaya or Pustimarg, a Hindu Vaishnava tradition focused on the worship of Krishna. Vallabhacharya’s pure form philosophy is different from Advaita. Vallabhacharya was a devotional philosopher, who founded the Pushti sect in India. He won the title of ‘acharya’ by traveling and debating Advaita scholars from a young age. In 1493-94, Vallabhacharya is said to have identified an image of Krishna at the Govardhan hill at Braj. This image, now called Shrinathji and located at Nathdwara in Rajasthan, and compositions of eight poets (astachap), including Surdas, are central to the worship by the followers of the sect. ‘According to Vallabha tradition, one night in 1494, Vallabhacharya received the Brahma Sambandh mantra from Krishna himself (hence the name, mukhavatara) at Gokula. The eight-syllable mantra, is passed onto new initiates in Vallabh sampradaya, and the divine name is said to rid the recipient of all impurities of the soul.

Though the tradition originated near Vrindavana in the current Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, in modern times followers of Shuddadvaita are concentrated in the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Shuddhadvaita emphasis/insist on Bhakti and the path is called Pushtimarg. Vallabhacharya says Bhakti is the means of salvation, though Jnana is also useful. Karmas precede knowledge of the Supreme, and are present even when this knowledge is gained. The liberated perform all karmas. The highest goal is not Mukti or liberation, but rather eternal service of Krishna and participation along with His activities in His Divine abode of Vrindavana. Vallabha distinguishes the transcendent consciousness of Brahman as Purushottama. Vallabha lays a great stress on a life of unqualified love and devotion towards God.

9. Discuss the aims of Education during vedic age?

Ans: (a) Citta-Vritti-Nirodh: Education must aim at self-fulfillment and provide freedom from material desires and attachment. 

(b) Education of Mind: Education must provide knowledge for creativity and pursuit of culture and civilization.

(c) Make living worthy: Education should make life worthwhile, purposeful and relevant.

(d) Tamso-ma-Jyotirgamaya: Knowledge should dispel doubts, dogmas and darkness.

(e) Religion centred: Religion dominated every aspect of life all national, personal, social and educative procedures and practices, hence education should be wedded to religion.

(f) Individual-Centred: Education was for individual which was its chief concern. Education should therefore aim at overall development of an individual.

(g) Nature-Oriented: The centres of education were located from the populated and crowded areas, more in natural and sylvan surroundings. Education should make man one with nature.

Educational System: 

Primary: Education was first provided at home then a ceremony (vidya Arambha Sanskar) before beginning education was performed. Education period was upto age of five years.

(i) Child was made to pronounce vedic mantras, knowledge of sandhis (connective rules), elementary grammar, elementary airthmetic.

(ii) After primary education children were sent to Gurukulas and ashramas for higher education.

Higher education: Entry age varied between 8 to 12 for different varnas and completed by the 25th year of age. Upanayan ceremony was performed to enable the child to enter into studentship.

Curriculum: According to Kathoupanishad, the subjects fell into two categories: Para-vidya or (spiritual learning) Apara-vidya or (worldly learning).

Paravidya: Into this study fell the essential study of 4 vedas. Also included vedangas, upanishads, puranas, Pitrya (rules for sacrifices for ancestors), vakovakya (logic),Ekayana (ethics), Devavidya, Brahmavidya etc.

Apara-vidya: This included subjects like History, Ayurveda, Economics, Astrology, Physics, zoology, chemistry, science, kalpavidya, the rashi (science of numbers), bhuta vidya.

Methods of Teaching: Two methods of Teaching were being practiced during vedic period. The first method was Maukhik (oral) and second was based on chintan (thinking or reflection). In the oral method students were to memorize the mantras (vedic hymns) and Richayas (verses of Rigveda).

The process of education passed through three stages of comprehension i.e. Shravan (Hearing), Manan (meditation) and Nidhi-dhyasan (realization and experience).

Methods of teaching was based on apprenticeship and was psychologically sound. Teaching followed some strategies such as simple to complex, activity and skill oriented procedures. Question- Answer technique and illustration. Self-study (Swnadhyaya) was considered more important.


(a) Rules for conduct of both teachers and pupils were listed down.

(b) Rules also for respect due from pupils to teacher were framed.

(c) Rigid rules were laid for conduct of pupils.

(d) Code of dress was observed.

(e) Observation of Brahmacharya or celibacy was compulsory for all pupils.

Teacher: During Vedic period the teacher occupied very important place in the scheme of education. He was the centre of education and without him no education could be conceived of. He was called Guru or Acharya and he was respected as a god by the student as well as the society. Even the king did not enjoy so much respect as the teacher enjoyed.

10. Discuss about of Teaching Methods of Vedanta?

Ans: (a) Cause-Effect Method: One of the main methods is the cause effect method, which is called Karana-Karya-Prakriya in Sanskrit. 

In this method, the Self is presented as the cause of everything:

“From which all these elements have come, by which all these are sustained and unto which all these go back, understand that to be Brahman (Self)”.

Brahman, the ’cause’ of the world, is Satya (real), an independent reality. The Universe, presented in scripture in the form of five basic subtle and gross elements, is the ‘effect’ of the cause. 

The Universe being an effect is Mithya (apparently real). The scriptures present the ‘effect’ as neither Satya, that which exists, nor that which does not exist; but as Mithya, that which has a dependent existence.

The individual’s physical body, mind and senses are all within the ‘effect’, and are therefore Mithya (apparently real). But the individual’s real nature is the limitless consciousness that is the reality of everything.

(b) The three States Method: Another important method employed by the Upanishads is the 3 states teaching, called Avastha-Traya-Prakriya in Sanskrit. This method comes from the Mandukya Upanishad.

The three states teaching is the analysis of the three states of experience: waking, dreaming and deep sleep. The purpose of this analysis is to arrive at the true nature of oneself.

The waker and the waking world are absent in both dream and sleep. The dreamer and the dream world are absent in both waking and sleep. In deep sleep both the dreamer and the waker are absent.

If the status of the subject is real, one cannot give up this status at any time. What is intrinsic to an object should be present in the object as long as the object exists. If it is not present, then it is an incidental attribute.

(c) The five Sheaths Method: Another well known method is the 5 Sheaths teaching which is known as Pancha-Kosha-Prakriya in Sanskrit. This method comes from the Taittiriya Upanishad.

Kosha means a cover, a sheath. The 5 sheaths are presented as the covers for the Self. If the Self is invariable in all the situations, there cannot be any cover for the Self. So how can they be covers?

We have to understand that they are only seeming covers. Born of self- ignorance, there are five universal erroneous notions. The cause for each notion is said to be a sheath.

11. What are the significance of ‘Astangik Marg’? Briefly state the educational implication of Buddhist Philosophy?

Ans: Buddhism is one of the most remarkable development of Indian thought. It is an offshoot of later vedic thought. Buddhism is founded on the rejection of certain orthodox Hindu Philosophical concepts. It has many philosophical views with Hinduism, such as belief in Karma, a cause and effect relationship between all that has being done and all that will be done.

Thus Buddha’s enlightenment which he tried to share with all fellow-beings has come to be known as the four Noble Truths.

Four Noble truths are:

(a) There is suffering.

(b) There is cause of suffering.

(c) There is cessation of suffering.

(d) There is a way to cessation of suffering.

Buddhists philosophy of life to get ‘Nirvana’ from suffering is based on the following eight principles:

(i) Right Faith (Samyak Dristi).

(ii) Right Resolve (Samyak Sankalpa).

(iii) Right Speech (Samyak Vakya). 

(iv) Right Action (Samyak Karmanta).

(v) Right Living (Samyak Ajiva).

(vi) Right Thought (Samyak Smriti). 

(vii) Right concentration (Samyak Samadhi).

(viii) Right Effort (Samyak Vyayama).

Cosmopolitan: Buddhist education was free from communal narrowness, there was no favouritism on the basis of caste, creed in the centres.

Total development of personality: Buddhist education laid much emphasis on the physical, mental and spiritual development of the novice, even today the aim of education is integration of personality that can develop the various aspects of the individual which are interlinked.

No corporal punishment: corporal punishments were absolutely forbidden which is also very true in the present scenario of education.

Positivism: Buddhist philosophy is positivistic and has a careful logical systematisation of ideas.

Ethical: It is ethical, the eightfold path to Nirvana makes a universal appeal.

Democratic: it is democratic as it believed in freedom of enquiry. Democratic and republican procedures were followed while running the educational institutions.

Development of good conduct: the entire techniques of Buddhism provide directions to develop good conduct and which is also the essence of a sound system of education. Also its belief in Karma lays stress on the necessity to be constantly on the vigil to maintain one’s conduct in the present life.

Moral Discipline: The Buddha Bhikkhu (monk) took the vows of chastity and of poverty. Character was the basis of moral discipline. 

Emphasis on Manual skills: Training of manual skills like spinning and weaving was emphasized to enable men to earn for living.

Pragmatic: It is pragmatic, everything is in a state of flux as it is only momentary. Change is the rule of the universe. It does not believe in the absolutism. It is witnessed in the present era of globalisation.

Methods of Teaching: the methods of Instruction was oral. Preaching, repetition, exposition, discussion and debates were all used. Buddhist council organised ‘seminars’ to discuss the major issues at length. Learned conferences, meditation, educational Tours.

International impact: Buddhist education helped India to gain international importance. It also developed cultural exchange between India and other countries of the world. international exchange of scholars attracted students and scholars from far off lands.

Value education & Character development: To be moral being one must follow noble path, the eightfold path as preached in Buddhism provides guidance for moral education and peace. The entire techniques of Buddhism provides directions to develop good conduct which is also the essence of sound system of education.

Curricullum: Curricullum included secular as well as religious subjects.

Organisation and Structure of Universities: Universities established during this period are still serving as a guiding force. The organization of Nallanda and Ballabhi university was advanced that it continues to influence the organization and structure of university till present day. The system of determining a minimum age for higher education, providing a set of rule and taking a test for admission are even today guiding the educational structure.

Education as a social Institution: Education as a social institution got its existence as a result of Buddhist system of education.

Imparting education in practical subjects: An important contribution of this period is the imparting of education in various practical subjects, a tradition which has come down to the present day also.

Collective Teaching Methodology: It was in this period that the method of collective teaching and the presence of numerous teachers in single institution was evolved.

12. What is the aims of Education according to Buddhism? 

Ans: The Buddhist educational aims were comprehensive based on knowledge, social development, vocational development, religious development, character development aims which were as follows: 

(a) To follow the moral values of Buddhist religion.

(b) To adopt good conduct and violence.

(c) To achieve the final goal of Nirvana. 

(d) To propagate Buddhism.

(e) To eradicate Vedic karmakanda or ritualism.

(f) To give up caste system.

(g) To take the teachings of Buddhism to the masses.

(h) To leave yajna and sacrifices for achieving knowledge.

(i) To provide education in the language of masses i.e Pali.

(j) To emphasise the progress and development of the society rather than the individual.

(k) To provide education through the new system this was stated by Buddha.

13. Discuss the salient features of Buddhist system of Education in India?

Ans: (a) The chief aim of education was the spread of Buddhist religion and attainment of Nirvana through it.

(b) Education was imparted in Mathas, Viharas and Monasteries and monks were responsible for its organisation and management. Monastic life of the Shramanas and monks had always been exemplary for the Indians so much so that the educational institutions attracted students from distant parts of the world, such as China, Japan, Korea, Java, Burma, Ceylon, Tibet and other countries.

(c) Educational facilities were provided to all on an equal footing. All differences of caste and social status which had taken deep-roots under the Brahmanical education had been removed. The attitude of society towards education was broad and positive. Not only the sacred portals of the institutions were opened to all but also all the students were provided equal opportunities for the development of their character according to their capacity and aptitude.

(d) Along with religious and philosophical aspects of education secular education formed an essential part of it. Besides, rituals were in vogue while imparting education.

(e) There existed harmonious relationship between teacher and the taught. Students had great respect for the teachers and the teachers had tremendous love and affection for the students. They led very disciplined life.

(f) Though educational system was dominated by religion yet there was provision for imparting practical knowledge in Spinning, Weaving, Drawing, and Medicine etc. The medium of instruction was folk language – Pali.

(g) Lecture, questioning and discussion were the main methods of teaching.

(h) The system of education was purely Indian having been evolved by the Indian educationists. So education was closely wedded to the various problems of life and it aimed at finding out concrete solutions thereof.

14. Defined Dukkha and Samsara according to Buddhism? 

Ans: The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which is dukkha, “incapable of satisfying” and painful. This keeps us caught in sa? sara, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth, dukkha and dying again. But there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path.

The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, and unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as “incapable of satisfying.” “the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena”; or “painful.” Dukkha is most commonly translated as “suffering,” but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsatisfactory nature of temporary states and things, including pleasant but temporary experiences. We expect happiness from states and things which are impermanent, and therefore cannot attain real happiness.

In Buddhism, dukkha is one of the three marks of existence, along with impermanence and anatta. Buddhism, like other major Indian religions, asserts that everything is impermanent (anicca), but, unlike them, also asserts that there is no permanent self or soul in living beings (anatta). The ignorance or misperception (avijja) that anything is permanent or that there is self in any being is considered a wrong understanding, and the primary source of clinging and dukkha.

Dukkha arises when we crave (Pali: tanha) and cling to these changing phenomena. The clinging and craving produces karma, which ties us to samsara, the round of death and rebirth. Craving includes kama-tanha, craving for sense-pleasures; bhava-tanha, craving to continue the cycle of life and death, including rebirth; and vibhava-tanha, craving to not experience the world and painful feelings. 

15. Defined Karma in Buddhism?

Ans: In Buddhism, karma (from Sanskrit: “action, work”) drives samsara – the endless cycle of suffering and rebirth for each being. Good, skilful deeds (Pali: kusala) and bad, unskilful deeds (Pali: akusala) produce “seeds” in the unconscious receptacle (alaya) that mature later either in this life or in a subsequent rebirth. The existence of karma is a core belief in Buddhism, as with all major Indian religions, it implies neither fatalism nor that everything that happens to a person is caused by karma.

A central aspect of Buddhist theory of karma is that intent (cetana) matters and is essential to bring about a consequence or phala “fruit” or vipaka “result”. However, good or bad karma accumulates even if there is no physical action, and just having ill or good thoughts creates karmic seeds; thus, actions of body, speech or mind all lead to karmic seeds. In the Buddhist traditions, life aspects affected by the law of karma in past and current births of a being include the form of rebirth, realm of rebirth, social class, character and major circumstances of a lifetime. It operates like the laws of physics, without external intervention, on every being in all six realms of existence including human beings and gods.

A notable aspect of the karma theory in Buddhism is merit transfer. A person accumulates merit not only through intentions and ethical living, but also is able to gain merit from others by exchanging goods and services, such as through dana (charity to monks or nuns). Further, a person can transfer one’s own good karma to living family members and ancestors.

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