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Philosophical Foundation of Education Unit 2 Role of Philosophy In Education
Philosophical Foundation of Education Unit 2 Role of Philosophy In Education Notes cover all the exercise questions in UGC Syllabus. Philosophical Foundation of Education Unit 2 Role of Philosophy In Education provided here ensures a smooth and easy understanding of all the concepts. Understand the concepts behind every Unit and score well in the board exams.
Role of Philosophy In Education
PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION
|VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTIONS & ANSWERS|
1. Fill in the blanks:
(i) Philosophy is an ___________ quest after truth.
(ii) Education is a _________ side of philosophy.
(iii) The term philosophy consists of Greek words _________ and __________.
Ans: ‘philos’ and ‘sophia”.
(iv) Philosophy is theory and education is __________.
(v) The Great _________ are the great educationists.
(vi) The term ‘Epistemology’ consists of two Greek words _________ and _________.
Ans: ‘episteme’ and ‘logos”.
(vii) Philos’ means _________ and ‘sophia’ means _________.
Ans: ‘Love and ‘Wisdom’.
2. “Education and philosophy are two sides of a coin.” – Who said this?
3. What is philosophy?
Ans: Philosophy is an eternal quest after truth.
4. Give a definitions of philosophy?
Ans: According to Fichte, “Philosophy is the science of knowledge.”
5. What is educational philosophy?
Ans: Educational philosophy is the application of philosophy in the field of education.
6. Mention one characteristic of philosophy.
Ans: Philosophy is a search for reality and truth is the characteristic of philosophy.
7. What is epistemology?
Ans: Epistemology is the study of “Knowledge”. It deals with the process by which we can know that something is true.
8. Mention the categories of epistemology?
Ans: There are two important categories of epistemology – rationalism and empiricism.
9. What is Metaphysics?
Ans: Metaphysics is the study of reality, existence or essence. The term ‘metaphysics’ literally ‘beyond the physical.’
10. Mention one nature of philosophy?
Ans: Philosophy is a critical method of approaching experience.” – is one nature of philosophy.
11. Mention a characteristics of educational philosophy?
Ans: “Educational philosophy is speculative in nature.” – is a characteristics of educational philosophy.
12. Write a functions of educational philosophy.
Ans: The main function of educational philosophy is to determine the aims of education and to provide education according to the needs of our society.
13. Write an importance of philosophy?
Ans: In education, philosophy play a very significant role. It is philosophy which provides aims to education and these aims determine the curriculum, methods of teaching, role of teacher and so on.
14. From which languages the term philosophy derived?
Ans: From Greek words the term philosophy is derived.
SHORT TYPE QUESTION & ‘ANSWERS’
1. What is philosophy?
Ans: Philosophy is an eternal quest after truth. It is a continuous process from the day man has started thinking “one who thinks, philosophies.” Philosophy means going deep, searching the roots, trying to bring truth. Philosophy includes knowledge as well as wisdom. Philosophy is a science of critical and reflective thinking.
Etymologically, the term philosophy consists of two Greek words ‘philos’ and ‘sophia.’ ‘Philos’ means ‘love’ and ‘sophia’ means ‘wisdom’. So, philosophy means love of wisdom. It is an systematic and scientific process of investigation.
2. Give two definitions of philosophy?
Ans: The two definitions of philosophy are as follows:
(i) According to Fichte, “Philosophy is the science of knowledge.”
(ii) According to Kant, “Philosophy is the science and criticism of cognition.”
3. Write about the etymological meaning of philosophy in Indian context.
Ans: In Sanskrit the synonym of philosophy is “Darshan.” “Darshan” means seeing and viewing. It actually means knowledge through which we can see truth. Philosophy means love for truth, search for truth and trying to attain truth. Philosophy refers to a certain way to thinking.
4. Mention five nature of philosophy?
Ans: The five nature of philosophy are as follows:
(i) Philosophy is a critical method of approaching experience.
(ii) Philosophy is a comprehensive synthetic science.
(iii) Philosophy is a way of life.
(iv) Philosophy is a search for truth and reality.
(v) Philosophy as analysis.
5. Mention the importance of philosophy.
Ans: The importance of philosophy are as:
(i) Helps us to be reasonable: Learning to be reasonable is of utmost importance because we all have to make choices and accomplish goals. Learning to be more reasonable can be aided by an understanding of good argumentation, formal logic, informal logic, reading philosophical arguments, practice philosophical debate etc.
(ii) Helps us to be moral: Morality is of the utmost importance because our decisions can have a powerful impact on ourselves and ‘others. A reasonable understanding of morality is known as “moral philosophy” and “ethic.”
(iii) More enjoyable: The knowledge we attain through philosophy is also enjoyable and perhaps even “good for its own sake.”
6. Write five characteristics of philosophy.
Ans: The five characteristics of philosophy are mentioned below:
(i) Philosophy is a search for reality and truth.
(ii) Philosophy is based on enquiry.
(iii) Philosophy is a dynamic and living force.
(iv) Philosophy is an intellectual pursuit.
(v) Philosophy is love of wisdom.
LONG TYPE QUESTION & ANSWERS
1. Discuss the relation between philosophy and education.
Ans: The relationship between education and philosophy is very close and from this close relationship emerges a new branch of study known as philosophy of education or educational philosophy. Educational philosophy is that branch of study which deals with the educational implications of philosophy findings. Seen from the educational point of view, two philosophical aspects stand out as particularly important.
(a) Nature of reality: This includes the study of philosophical doctrines such as monism, dualism and pluralism.
(b) Nature of man: Of what is man made? The common sense view of our culture is that man is dualistic, he is composed of mind and body, spirit and flesh. This division of man into mind and body is related to the larger dichotomy of the world into animate and inanimate categories.
Education and philosophy are like the two sides of a coin. Philosophy is the contemplative side and education is the active side. As Sir John Adams has said, “Education is the dynamic side of philosophy. This being the situation, we can now say that the objective of educational philosophy is to minutely study both sides of the coin and to guide the active side by borrowing appropriate material from its contemplative side. This indeed is the chief function of Educational Philosophy.
Study of philosophy helps one to make a deep realization of life and its work. It makes the aim and objective and ideal of life and work more appropriate, precise and clear in mind. Without philosophy life and its goal is bound to be a game of trial and error, liable to commit mistake in every step and make it difficult to reach the goal. Thus, philosophy must guide and direct one is setting the right ideal to proceed in the right direction.
Education on the other hand is said to be the dynamic and practical aspect of philosophy. Education is instrumental in making the philosophy of life practically work out for the attainment of the reality. In the absence of practical application through education more philosophy of life is nothing more than an idle dream. Thus education is the active side of philosophy. It is significantly said that philosophy is the eye and education is the hand.
On the relative nature of two subject James S. Ross has also maintained the view that philosophy and education are like two sides of a coin. The former is the contemplative side, while the later is the active side.
2. Discuss the importance of philosophy in education.
Ans: The philosophy is the thought and education is the application or practical side. Education is the best means for the propagation of philosophy. Philosophy provides certain ideals, values and principles and education works out those ideas and principles. Philosophy is transmitted from one generation to another by means of education. Some of the aspect of education gets affected by philosophy. Thus the importance of philosophy in education is significant.
(i) Different philosophies of education prescribe different aims of education. Idealism, naturalism, pragmatism, realism etc. some distinctive philosophies and accordingly they recommends distinctive aims of education.
(ii) It is philosophy which decides why a particular subject and activity should be included in the curriculum. Different curriculum pattern are being formulated by philosophy of different thinkers.
(iii) Every school of philosophy has its own methods of teaching. As philosophy is a way of thinking and a way of working, so these two helps us in deciding the actual operation of methods of teaching.
(iv) Philosophy also determines the nature and form of discipline. The present social, political, economic and philosophical thinking of a particular country is determine by philosophy.
(v) Philosophy has a great influence on the teacher also. As the teacher is a philosopher of his own philosophy, so he influence the personality of the child very much.
From the above discussion, it is evident that every aspect of education has a philosophical base. In the absence of philosophical thoughts, education becomes irrelevant, meaningless, lifeless and colorless. Fichte has rightly remarked that “the art of education will never attain complete clearness without philosophy”.
3. Discuss the influence of philosophy on different aspects of education.
Ans: There are five general aspects of education i.e. aims of education. curriculum, methods of education, discipline and teacher. The impact of philosophy has been felt in all those aspects.
(i) Philosophy and aims of education: The social and political scenario of a country undergoes change from time to time and it is always the broad philosophy of education which decides the aims and objectives to be achieved through education. Whenever confronted with conflicting ideologies like, whether education should emphasise on development of intellectual ability or development of morality and character, whether education should be useful or ornamental etc. it is always philosophy of education which provides the required guidelines. The aims of education is related with the aim of life and the aim of life is always dependent on the philosophy that the individual has at a particular time. Thus, we cannot do without a philosophical foundation of education.
(ii) Philosophy and curriculum: It is philosophy which also decides what subjects and activities to be included in the curriculum for realising a particular aims of education. So far as physical development is concerned, physical activities like games, sports, exercise should be included in the curriculum. For development of morality and spirituality, good literature, philosophy, ethics should be included. Instead, curriculum should also consist of subjects like productive work, craft work, vocational efficiency, knowledge of future life situation etc.
(iii) Philosophy and methods of education: There is close relationship between philosophy and methodology of teaching. Different schools of philosophy have laid down their own methods of teaching. The naturalists emphasise on the child centered method of education where maximum freedom is given to the child for learning. The idealists recommended discussion method, rote learning and a cordial atmosphere. The pragmatists advocate project and problem solving methods of teaching in which the pupils are engaged is a useful activity of their own choice and interest.
(iv) Philosophy and Discipline: Different philosophies differ in their concept of discipline. In ancient India, discipline was laid on a strict type of discipline. In medieval age also, a very harsh and strict type of discipline was advocated and practiced. Idealists are in favor of strict self discipline and impressionistic discipline.
(v) Philosophy and Teacher: Teacher is the main pirate in educational process. Teacher’s philosophy of life impresses his students. Idealists, advocate that he should be a friend, philosopher and guide. The naturalists insist that the teacher should never interfere with the free activities of children. In naturalism, he is the ‘director’. Pragmatists have made the teacher a sympathetic guide and provider of opportunity.
Thus, it is clear that philosophy, life and education are intimately related with each others. Philosophy and education are two sides of the same coin. While philosophy is the contemplative side, education represents the dynamic side.
4. Write briefly about the intimate relationship between philosophy and education.
Ans: Philosophy is a major concern of education. The intimate relationship between philosophy and education are discussed below:
(i) Philosophy provides a way, to be followed by education: Education means modification of child’s native behavior. But the main problem so that in which direction modification should be carried out and what should be the standards, values to strive for philosophy can easily points out the ways to be followed by the words, education is laboratory in which philosophic theories and speculations are tested and made concrete.
(ii) Education is the best means for the propagation of philosophy: A philosopher is a constant seeker of truth. After a good deal of deliberation and lays down certain aims, ideals and values, he tries to live with these ideals, values and propagate the knowledge to others. Education is the best medium to convey the ideas and message to the world. Philosophers and psychologists like Plato, Aristotle, Pestalozzi, Forebel, Gandhi, Tagore in their educational scheme like Kindergarten system, Shantiniketan, Basic education etc. reflected their educational philosophy.
(iii) All great philosophers of the world have also been great educators: The philosophers from vedic Rishi, Day ananda, Gandhi, Gopabandhu, Tagore, Satya Sai the philosophers from Socrates to modern times in west have been the great teachers and educators of the humanity. They reflected their educational view in their educational schemes.
(iv) Philosophy determines all aspects of education: All problems of education are ultimately the problems of philosophy. All educational questions are ultimately the questions of philosophy. It is philosophy that provides aims to education. These aims determine the curriculum, the methods, of teaching, the problems of school organization school, discipline and also the role of education are influenced the typical nature of philosophy.
In conclusion, we can say that philosophy and education are intimately linked with one another. They are complementary to each other. The education cannot be thought without of philosophy.
5. Write briefly about the scope of Education Philosophy.
Ans: The scope of philosophy of education is confined to the field of education. Thus, it is philosophy in the field of education. The scope of philosophy of education is concerned with the problems of education.
These problems mainly include:
(i) Interpretation of human nature, the world and the universe and their relation with man.
(ii) Interpretation of aims and ideals of education.
(iii) The relationship of various components of the system of education.
(iv) Relationship of education and various areas of national life (economic system, political order, social progress, cultural reconstructions etc).
(v) Theory of knowledge and its relationship to education. The above mentioned problems constitute the scope of philosophy of education and explain its nature.
Thus, the scope of philosophy of education includes following:
(a) Aims and Ideals of Education Philosophy ducation critically evaluates the different aims and ideals of education. These aims and ideals have been prorogated by various philosophers in different times. They are character building, man making, harmonious human development, preparation for adult life, development of citizenship, utilization of leisure, training for civic life, training for international living, achieving social and national integration, scientific and technological development, education for all, equalizing educational opportunities, strengthening democratic political order and human source development.
These and other aims of education presented by educational thinkers in different times and climes are scrutinized and evaluated. Thus, philosophy of education critically evaluates different aims and ideals of education to arrive at.
(b) Interpretation of Human Nature: A philosophical picture of human nature is a result of the synthesis of the facts borrowed from all the human science with the values discussed in different normative, sciences. The philosophical picture, therefore, is more broad as compared to the picture of man drawn by biology, sociology, psychology, economics and anthropology and other human science.
(c) Educational Values: Value is typically a philosophical subject since it is more abstract, integral and universal. Philosophy-of education not only critically evaluates the values but also systematizes them in a hierarchy. Educational values are’ determined by philosophical values. Educational values propagated by different philosophers have been derived from their own world, view and their outlook on the purpose of human life. Therefore, a scrutiny of the world views, outlook, beliefs is the specific function of philosophy and it is necessary for the philosophical treatment of the values.
(d) Theory of Knowledge: Education is related to knowledge. It is determined by the source, limits, criteria and means of knowledge. The discussion of all these falls within the jurisdiction of epistemology, one of the branches of philosophy, therefore, an important area of the functioning of philosophy of education is related to theory of knowledge.
(e) Relationship of education and various area of national life and various components of the system of education: One of the most important contributions of the philosophy of education to the cause of education is the provision of criteria for deciding the relationship of state and education, economic system and education, curriculum, school organization and management, discipline etc. These problems have led to the evaluation of different philosophies of education. The criteria of judgment everywhere are determined by philosophy, therefore, philosophy of education provides the criteria for critical evaluation and judgment in these fields.
6. Discuss the Function of Educational Philosophy?
Ans: The function of educational philosophy is to investigate comparison of the influences (a) of the competitive philosophies in the process of life and (b) of the possibility of educational processes and character development in order to find the desired educational management to foster the most constructive character for the youth and old. In addition, the function of educational philosophy is also to help pedagogical purposes which include four interrelated aspects, namely the functions of analysis, evaluation, speculative, and integrative. The same thing also was disclosed by Brameld that the function of educational philosophy is as a tool of analysis, criticism, synthesis and evaluation.
Brubacher in detail stated that the functions of educational philosophy are as follows:
(a) Speculative Function: Function of Education is trying to understand the whole issue of education and to formulate it in a basic description as a scientific data complement. Philosophy of education also tries to understand the whole issue of education and its relationship with other factors that affect education.
(b) Normative Function: The function of educational philosophy is as direction, guidance for the realization of education. This principle is summed up in educational purpose, which is to build an ideal society and establish norms aspired. Educational philosophy provides norms and consideration for the normative and scientific realities to form culture.
(c) Criticism Function: Function of educational philosophy is to provide basis of rational critical definition in considering and interpreting the scientific data. For example is measurement data of evaluation analysis, both personality and achievement. Criticism function also means analysis and comparative on something to get a conclusion.
In this case, philosophy of education can set achievement classification appropriately with objective data (figures, statistics). In addition, philosophy of education is able to set assumptions or more reasonable hypothesis. Philosophy should be competent to overcome the weaknesses found by the scientific field and complete them with the data and arguments which do not come from scientific data.
(d) Theory to Practice Function: All ideas, conceptions, analysis, and conclusions of educational philosophy serve as theory. This theory is the basis for the implementation/educational practice. Philosophy provides general principles for a practice.
(e) Integrative Function: Educational philosophy has integrative function which is based on the understanding that philosophy of education is as spiritual principle or spirit of education.