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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 24 Unity And Diversity
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Unity And Diversity
MODULE 4: INDIAN SOCIETY
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.1
Q.1. Answer in True or False
1. Indus Valley civilization is partly found in Bangladesh …………… .
2. Highest number of Scheduled Caste is found in Uttar Pradesh ………………. .
3. In India about 600 Scheduled Tribes are found …………… .
4. Highest number of communities in India is found in Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh ……………… .
5. Indus Valley civilization script has already been read ………….. .
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.2
Q.1. How many world religions are found in India?
Q.2. Why Hindus are called a majority community?
Ans. 83% people in India are Hindu.
Q.3. How many languages are found in the eighth schedule of the constitution?
Q.4. How many Varnas are found in India?
Q.5. What is jajmani system?
Ans. Exchange of goods and services between various jatis.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.3
Q.1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the brackets:
1. The Indian rulers did not interfere in the …………… sphere (cultural, religious, psychological).
2. Ashoka conquered …………….. (Pataliputra, Kalinga, Vijay Nagar).
3. The modern educational system in India has the impact of …………….. (Muslim, British, French).
4. The Chola, Chera and the Pandyas belong to ……………. part of India (South, East, West, North).
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.4
Q.1. Match the following:
|(i) Ajmer Sharif||Lucknow|
|(iii) Sindi||Andhra Pradesh|
|(v) Puri||Tamil Nadu|
Ans. (i) Rajasthan.
(iii) Andhra Pradesh.
(iv) Tamil Nadu.
Q.1. What is meant by unity in diversity?
Ans. Despite several diversities in term of religion, language, culture, caste, and communities. India has maintained unity in the past, present as well as will continue to be united in the future.
Q.2. Discuss the diversities found in India in terms of religion.
Ans. The Diversities found in India in terms of Religion:
(i) Religious diversities are found in India. There are eight major religious communities found in India. Population Wise Hindus are found in majority i.e. about 83 per cent followed by Muslims (11.8 per cent), Christians (2.6 per cent), Sikhs (2 per cent), Buddhists (0.7 per cent), Jains (0.4 per cent), Zoroastrians (0.3 per cent) and Jews (0.1 per cent). Besides these eight religions, some tribal communities have their own religion. They have their own deities and rituals. Out of the eight major religions, Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism are indigenous religions, whereas Islam, Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Jew came from outside India. All the eight religions are further subdivided into different sects.
(ii) The Hindus worship a wide range of deities. Broadly, there are four types of worshipers: Vaishnav (worshiper of Vishnu), Shaivite (worshiper of Shiva), Shakta (worshiper of Shakti or mother Goddess in different attributes like Kali, Durga etc.) and Smarta (worshiper of all the above three gods). Besides these, the cults of Gurus and saints are widely prevalent among the Hindus (such as Shivanand, Chinmayanand, Anandmayi etc.). Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj are also a part of Hinduism. In this manner Hinduism provides a broad canvas for all types of believers.
(iii) Muslims are divided into two major groups i.e. Sunni and Shia, out of which Sunnis are found in a majority in India.
(iv) are of two broad denominations: Catholics and Protestants; whereas Buddhism has two divisions: Mahayana and Hinayana which are based on doctrinal differences.
(v) Jains are of two types: Digambara (unclothed) and Swetambara (white robed). Both Buddhism and Jainism came into being as protest against and Brahminical supremacy and the caste systems.
(vi) The Parsis and the Jews in India are very small communities. Parsis live mostly in Maharashtra and Gujarat but have contributed largely into the industrial development of the country (for instance Jamshedji Nasherbanji Tata, the founder of Tata Group of Companies and the Godrej).
(vii) The Jews are mainly found in Maharashtra and Kerala.
(viii) Sikhism is based at Punjab. After partition, Sikhs have spread all over the country and their generous tradition of Gurudwara and langar (free food to all) have become panIndic today (Gurudwaras are found in almost all towns, cities and big villages throughout India).
Q.3. Describe briefly the concept of melting pot.
Ans. After independence unity has been the main focus of the nation building process. The idea of unity is attached to many concepts, out of which one of the “melting-pot.”
Melting pot indicates autonomous cultures jnktapoed in a particular area and have autonomy but melt into a single national culture. In other words, they melt into a composite whole in a “pot” that symbolizes the nation. It means different cultures sink their differences and project a single identity, with a common language (this concept can not be applied to the Indian situation where diversities persist.)
Q.4. Discuss the nature of co-existence of various communities with examples. (V. Imp.)
Ans. Introduction India is a vast country, having a geographical area of 3287263 sq.km. and a population of little more than one billion people. Based on the generous concept of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam (the world is one family), we have a great cultural heritage. This has accommodated and integrated many communities and their ways of life from time to time.
(i) Human settlement in India had begun from early Stone Age and so far it has been the homeland of many communities who have contributed to its rich cultural heritage. India harboured a great civilization, popularly known as the Indus Valley Civilization, which produced a continuum between rural and urban cultures. Further, India produced a universally respected compendium (collection) of knowledge in the form of Vedas, Upanishads and great epics. It provided a suitable atmosphere for a number of religion and religious ideas to flourish, different languages to develop and diverse ideologies to take root. India shelters many religions coming from outside its boundaries. All these, over millennia, interacting with each other have produced a cultural fabric that is unique in its characteristics and exclusively Indian in nature.
(ii) Diversity in India is found in terms of race, religion, language, caste and culture. Sociologists say that Indian unity has been both politico-geographic and cultural in nature. The diversities have remained, but simultaneously provided a mainstream culture. it is estimated that there are 4635 communities found in India. Out of which 751 are scheduled caste communities and 461 are scheduled tribe communities. The highest number of Scheduled castes is found in Uttar Pradesh. Scheduled caste communities are not found in Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Scheduled tribe communities are not found in Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Goa and Pondicherry. There is tremendous diversity of communities in living in all the states.
Q.5. How unity is maintained in India? (M. Imp.)
Ans. (i) Our society has been projected as a traditional society based on spiritualism, giving less importance to materialistic growth. But this has been only the opinion of others. Today things are changing fast and we are marching ahead towards a strong, secular and modern nation. Undoubtedly the Hindu way of life with its tolerance and non-violent attitude shaped the nation to its present form. There have been impact of many external forces and religions like Islam, Christianity and Western society, but the Indian way of life continues.
(ii) Today if we look at tradition, we find certain features are still continuing. They are ritualized way of life, i.e. rituals are observed not in a rigid manner but in a flexible manner. It is not only limited to the Hindu rituals but also extended to the rituals of other communities. The secular doctrine can be found from the fact that all major rituals of all religious have been declared as national holidays. Today Holi, Deepawali, Dussehra, Eid, Eid-ul-zuha, Good Friday, Christmas Day, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Mahavir Jayanti and Budh Poornima etc. are all occasions of celebrations for all of us. Even these can be compared to Republic Day celebrations and Independence Day celebrations.
(iii) The point here is that any flexible and modern Indian is not bothered about the rigidity in observance of ritual, but is more interested in enjoying it with the community.
(iv) Today India finds a place in the world in every aspect including dance, music, movies, sports, philosophy and astrology etc. Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Odissi, Manipuri, Mohini Attam, Kathak and many other folk dances like Bhangra and Garba, etc. have become globalised phenomena.
(v) Yoga and transcendental meditation have a great appeal in the western countries. In fact, Maharishi Yogi has built the first Vedic city in New York. Ayurveda, the science of life and other types of herbal and aromatherapy has influence the world widely. Thus retaining our Indianess we are marching ahead with a modern outlook.
(vi) Our modernity is not simply the imitation of the west but is an integration between the indigenous tradition (like the emotional family bond, spiritualism, alternative medicine) with the modern goal-oriented and rational outlook. As many as six Indians have received Noble Prize. They are Rabindra Nath Tagore, Sir C. V. Raman, S. Chandrashekhar, Mother Teresa, H. G. Khurana and Amartya Sen. Besides this, several Indians have won Booker’s Prize and other International Awards.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Give one example from Indian history that efforts were made for promoting unity in India. (V. Imp.)
Ans. The history shows that various kingdoms hae always promoted and maintained this processes of unity by creating a rich architectural and cultural heritage.
Q.2. Give one example from contemporary India of unity in diversity.
Ans. Today our varieties of cultures and language maintain their identities within the all India framework.
Q.3. “India is being recognized a promising country by the whole world.” Explain the statement in one sentence.
Ans. The whole world has started recognizing the progress of India in various fields, not by imitating the west but by retaining our Indianness.
Q.4. In which year India was divided? Write one of its major cause.
Ans. (i) 1947.
Q.5. Write the names of four Dhams.
Ans. (i) Badrinath in Uttara Khanda in north.
(ii) Dwarka is Gujarat in west.
(iii) Rameswaran in Tamil Nadu in south. and
(iv) Puri in Orissa in east.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. “In medieval times and later on Islam made its inroads into the Indian culture.” Explain with examples.
Ans. (i) Later in the medieval times, Islam made inroads into the Indian culture. Bengal, Lucknow and Hyderabad, besides many other places, provide testimony of integration of Islamic cultures and traditions into the Indian culture.
(ii) Islam does not believe in idol workship. It is a monotheistic and non-hierarchical religion. The impact of Islam on Hindu traditions has been analysed in three stages:
(a) During the Muslim rule.
(b) During the British rule upto 1930. and
(c) Between 1930-1947. In the first phase the Muslim rulers destroyed the Hindu temples and tried to spread Islam and converted the Hindus. This was a period marked by conflict and tension as well as some type of cultural adaptation. For e.g. Sufism influenced the Hindus. Akbar’s Din-e-Ilahi was a mixture of many religions, which promoted national integration.
(iii) During the British rule several reforms are found which largely influenced the Hindus. Islam lost its liberal tendencies and gradually the Islamic tradition was highly polticized.
(iv) Ultimately in the third phase, i.e. during the fag end of freedom movement, sharp divisions were drawn between the two religions, which gave rise to the birth of a separate Islamic nation i.e. Pakistan.
Q.2. What was the impact of the British rule on Indian cultures during the modern period of the Indian history? Discuss.
Ans. (i) In the modern period, British rule brought in the western culture into India. Western institutions like banking system, administration, military organization and modern medicine, etc. brought in several changes.
(ii) The western education system broadened the outlook particularly the rational and secular spirits in the people. The western science and technology, transport and communication influence the people to raise their style of life in terms of material development.
(iii) A sense of entrepreneurship and development paved the way for India ot become an industrialized nation. The democratic form of government, adult suffrage and human rights, etc. gave India opportunities to face the challenges of the world.
(iv) In this manner through out ancient, medieval and modern times cultural unity was of paramount importance.
Q.3. “Various religions have coexisted in India peacefully together for several countries.” Prove the correctness of the statement with example.
Ans. (i) Various religions have coexisted in India peacefully for centuries together. Village studies by prominent sociologists show that in village India the Muslims are a part of the well-knit socio-economic system. The instance of Mool Dwarka can be cited here.
(ii) Example: In Mool Dwarka (in Gujarat), one of the four chief religious centres of Hindus, five graves are found. The Muslim regard them as panch pirs (five saints) and other green chadar (shawl) and the Hindus regard them as panch bir warriors) and offer yellow chadar.