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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 23 Indian Social Thinkers
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Indian Social Thinkers
MODULE 4: INDIAN SOCIETY
INTEXT QUESTIONS 23.1
Q.1. Fill in the blanks:
1. The beginnings of social thoughts in India may be traced to the ………………. civilization.
2. The religious books of the Aryans are collectively known as the ……………….. .
Ans. Hinduism or Vedas (or the Vedic Literature).
3. The term yajna means ‘…………………’ .
4. The basic features of Hinduism flow from the works called the …………………. .
5. The founder of Buddhism was born in a ………………. family.
6. ……………… was born in Vaishali.
Ans. Vardhamana Mahavir.
7. The term ……………. is used for the twenty four teachers of Jainism.
8. The concept of non-violence in known as …………… .
9. ChaturVarna means the division of Hindu society into ……………….. .
Ans. Four puranas.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 23.2
Q.1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate word or words:
1. The Code of Manu is called ……………….. .
Ans. (i) Manu-smriti, Manava-dharmashastra, and Manu-smriti.
2. There are ……………… verses in Manu-smriti.
3. The last asrama is called …………………. .
Ans. Digambara, Svetambara.
4. The ………………. was entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring that the social system continued without problems.
Ans. Emperor Ashoka.
5. The earliest systematic treatise in the science of politics is written by ………………….. .
Ans. Saivism deals with the worship of Shiva.
6. The other names of Kautilya were ……………. and ………………. .
Ans. Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Islam.
7. Kautilya was the chief architect of ………………. administration.
8. Arthashastra is divided into ……………… books.
Ans. End of seventh century, 712 A. D.
9. Because economy is an integral aspect of the state administration, therefore some scholoars say that Arthashastra is a text in ………………. .
INTEXT QUESTIONS 23.3
Q.1. Write the answer in one sentence:
(i) Name the six systems of philosophy that accepted the authority of Vedas.
Ans. (a) Nyaya (न्याय).
(b) Vaisheshik (वैशेषिक).
(c) Mimsa (मीमांसा).
(d) Vedant (वेदान्त).
(e) Sankhya (सांख्य).
(f) Yoga (योग).
(ii) To which religion did Emperor Chandragupta Maurya lend his support?
(iii) Names the two sects of Jainism.
Ans. (a) Digambara.
(iv) Who was the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya?
Ans. Emperor Ashoka.
(v) What do you understand by the term Saivism?
Ans. The workship and devotion of Shiva.
(vi) Name the emperor under whose patronage Buddhism flourished in India.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 23.4
Q.1. Which of the following statements is true or false. Write T after the statement that is true and F after the statement that is false.
1. Vaisnava teachers ignored caste distinctions.
2. Ramananda’s disciples came from higher castes only.
3. Dadu was from the priestly caste.
4. Guru Nanak is regarded as the founder of a religion that has come to be known as Sikhism.
5. Dharmadasa was a disciple of Swami Ramakrishna Paramhamsa.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 23.5
Answer each of the following question in one sentence:
1. What is the meaning of the term Buddha?
Ans. The meaning of the term Buddha is enlightened.
2. Whose teachings comprise the body of Buddhism?
Ans. Siddhartha Gautam’s teachings are comprised the body of Buddhism.
3. Give the principles of the Eightfold Path and Buddhist should follow.
Ans. The principles of the Eightfold Path that Buddhist should follow are:
(i) Right views.
(ii) Right attitude.
(iii) Right speech.
(iv) Right conduct.
(v) Right means of livelihood.
(vi) Right efforts or purpose.
(vii) Right mind control, and
(viii) Right meditation.
4. To which century did Kabir belong?
Ans. Fifteenth century.
5. Who was Kabir’s teacher?
Ans. Ramananda was Kabir’s teacher.
6. When was Guru Granth Sahib compiled?
Ans. Guru Granth Sahib was compiled in 1604.
7. Who compiled Guru Granth Sahib?
Ans. Guru Arjun compiled Guru Granth Sahib.
8. In which town did Kabir die?
Ans. Kabir passed away in Magahav.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 23.6
Q. (✔) Tick mark the correct answer and (x) the wrong statement.
1. The worldly name of Swami Vivekananda was Narendranath Dutta.
Ans. (✔) correct.
2. Swami Vivekananda was a Brahmin by birth.
Ans. (x) wrong.
3. Swami Vivekananda did not accept an idea unless there was a proof for it.
Ans. (✔) correct.
4. Ramakrishna Paramhamsa gave the idea of muscular Hinduism’.
Ans. (x) wrong.
5. Keshub Chandra Sen founded the Theosophical Society.
Ans. (x) wrong.
Q.1. Who was the founder of Buddhism? What are the four noble truths of Buddhism? Describe it. (M. Imp.)
Ans. I. Gautam Buddha was the founder of Buddhism.
II. The four noble truths of Buddhism are:
(i) Life is suffering.
(ii) The cause of sufferings rests in desires (trishna, lobha), the emotions of attachment (moha), and ignorance (avidya).
(iii) As the desires cause jealousy, anger, and hatred, thus yielding sorrow, their elimination is a necessary condition for salvation.
(iv) Therefore, one should follow the path leading to the state of desirelessness, because it is the only way to happiness (sukh), which is liberation.
Q.2. Which religions came from outside? Describe them in your own words.
Ans. (i) Christianity.
(ii) Zoroastrianism. and
(iii) Islam, came from outside.
- Christian communities were present in
India as early as second century A. D.
- The followers of Zoroastrianism called Parsis were in India from the tenth century A. D.
- Islam entered from Arabia in eighth century in India.
Q.3. With which ideas does Manu-Smriti deal with? Discuss.
Ans. Manu’s work, the Code of Manu, as it is called in English, is known as Manu-smriti, Manava-dharmashastra, and Manu-samhita. The present text possibly took its form during the Brahmanic revival in the first century B.C.
Manu-smriti consists of 2,685 verses. It is divided into twelve books. The first book carries an introductory section on creation. The second book gives the sources of law. It describes the first of the four ‘vocations’ (asrama) of life, i.e., of the ‘celibate-student’ (brahamachari), and gives an account of his duties. The third and fourth books deal with the second asrama, i.e. of the householder (grahasta), and the duties that should be followed. The occupations of the householder are also detailed out here. The fifth book describes the rules concerning women. The sixth book deals with the last two asrama, namely of forest dwelling (vanaprastha) and renunciation (samnyasa). Books seven, eight, and nine are concerned with the legal system, the sources of law, general political rules, duties of kings, civil and criminal laws, and domestic laws. The tenth book pertains to the origin, development, and rules of caste. It describes rules for the merchant caste (Vaishya), the menial caste (Sudra), and mixed castes. The general laws of morality, the nature of good and evil, gifts and sacrifice, and sins are the subject matter of the eleventh book.
The last book comprising Manu-smriti takes up for discussion the future consequences of good and bad actions, the nature of the soul, the concept of release from the cycle of birth and death (called moksa), and the theory of re-birth.
Q.4. What does Kautalya’s Arthashastra tell? Describe in your own words. (V. Imp.)
Ans. (a) Arthashastra is divided into fifteen books. Books I to V deal with tantra. These books deal with the discipline and training of the king, his duties, the exercise of coercive authority (danda), bureaucratic set up, duties and responsibilities of the heads of various departments, hierarchy of officials, revenue accounts, civil and criminal laws, suppression of anti-social elements and payment of officials, etc. Books VI to XIV deal with drapa. Characteristics of the state; foreign policy; dangers and calamities that may befall the king; natural disasters, such as drought and flood, military campaigns and employment of secret agencies against enemies, are the issues discussed in these books. The last book of Arthashastra contains a glossary of the technical terms used in the science of politics.
(b) Arthashastra is concerned with politics (raja-niti), political philosophy (raja-dharma), and the laws of punishment (danda-niti). But, an important observation is that Arthashastra economic aspects as an integral part of the state and social relations. Because of this, some experts say that Arthashastra is a text in political economy. One of the principal duties of the king is to manage the wealth of the state. The word artha has come to refer to economy and the financial aspects of the state.
(c) Commentators on Arthashastra also say that Kautilya gave almost unlimited powers to the state. For him, each king should be considered as a potential world conqueror (chakravarti). The government regulated the economic life of the country. All the important industrial enterprises were the property of the state, which also owned mines, fisheries, farms, forests, fields and shipyards etc. The state should work directly with the labour of criminals and slaves. The enterprises could also be given to the contractors for running. Police secret agents and spies infiltrated all walks of life. Punishment was the order of the day. Punishment of criminals was rigorous.
Q.5. Why did Kabir become an ideal for lower classes? Discuss.
Ans. Because of his attacks on holy men, Kabir became an ideal of the downtrodden people. He was regarded as a great mystic, whose ideas cut across different religious groups and faiths. When Kabir was dying in a small town called Maghar (near Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh), his Hindu and Muslim followers wanted to take his body for a funeral in accordance with their religion. So, the story goes; Kabir retired in a tent and died, and his body also disappeared. Instead, that place had a heap of flowers, which was divided into two. The Muslims buried their share of flowers of Magahar, whereas the Hindus cremated their share at Kabir Chaura Math in Banaras. Today, members of both communities respect him as the messenger of truth, despite his views in favour of a universal religion.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write the name of the oldest civilization of India (or of the Indian sub-continent).
Ans. The Indus Valley Civilization.
Q.2. Write the estimates period of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Ans. 3000-2000 B.C.
Q.3. Write the name of one famous city of the Indus Valley Civilization and its age of building.
Ans. Mohenjo-daro, About five thousand years ago.
Q.4. Write the names of all four Vedas.
Ans. (i) Rigveda.
(iii) Samveda. and
Q.5. Write the names of any five famous Indian thickness.
Ans. (i) Kautilya or Chanakya.
(iii) Gautam Buddha.
(iv) Vardhman Mahavir.
Q.6. Whose contributions have make to the Indian social thoughts?
Ans. The contributions that Manu, Chanakya, Buddha, Kabir and Vivekananda have made to the Indian social thoughts.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write short paragraph to make clear the meaning of the concept “The age of rethinking”.
Ans. The age of rethinking: The period that followed the early Upanishads saw the emergence of belief in a personal god to be worshipped with devotion (bhakti). This view was opposed to the one of an impersonal God (brahma) to be realized through meditation and knowledge. This age also saw the rise of Buddhism and Jainism.
Q.2. Who was Gautam Buddha? Write a few lines about him.
Ans. Gautam Buddha: He was the founder of Buddhism, was born in a royal family. He lived for eighty years, dying in 487 B.C. He attained enlightenment (i.e., he became the Buddha) at the age of thirty-five. During the years 532-487 B. C. he systematized the fundamental principles of his thought, which came to be known as Buddhism.
Q.3. Who is usually regarded the founder of Jainism? Give a brief description about him.
Ans. Vardhmana Mahavir, usually regarded as the founder of Jainism, was born in Vaishali. He attained supreme knowledge at the age of forty-two. The effective period of his religious life may be placed between 497 and 467 B.C. But Jainism claims to be much older than this period. Jains believe that there were twenty-three ‘teachers’ (tirthankara) before Mahavira, and Mahavira was the last tirthankara. Jains have a rich tradition of tales woven around their twenty four tirthankaras.
Q.4. Write a short note on the “Resurgence of Brahmanism.
Ans. Resurgence of Brahmanism: Historians regard the fourth century AD. as an important turning point in India. From that time, the Brahmanical religion (Hinduism) gradually became dominant. Both Buddhism and Jainism declined. By the twelfth century A.D., Buddhism had almost vanished from India, and Jainism was reduced to the position of a local sect in western and southern India. With the decline of Buddhism and Jainism, the Brahmanical religion gradually rose into prominence.
However, it was not homogeneous. It consisted of different sectarian groups, such as the Saiva, Sakta, and Vaisnava. As we know, Saivism dealt with the worship of Shiva. Saktism was concerned with the worship of the female counterpart of Shiva. Vaishnavism was based on the cult of Vishnu and his incarnations.
Q.5. Write a short note on Sikhism.
Ans. Sikhism: The doctrine of one God was revived in the thoughts of Nanak (1469-1539), who is regarded as the founder of what has later come to be known as Sikhism. Nanak believed in the idea of one true God, without any name. He also believed that there is no intermediate agency between God and his subjects (the people). It discredited all rites and rituals as part of religion. There is no prophet. He put faith in one self-existent creator, whose true nature can not be expressed in words. God can be comprehended not by meditation but by faith and grace. Here, we trace the influence of the Bhakti cult on his thoughts.