NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 22 Society And Environment, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 22 Society And Environment and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 22 Society And Environment Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Sociology Notes Paper 331.
NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 22 Society And Environment
Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 22 Society And Environment, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
Society And Environment
MODULE 3: SOCIAL CHANGE, SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL CONTROL
INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.1
Q.1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from brackets:
(i) The word environment is derived from ……………… word. [Latin, English, French]
(ii) Environment can be divided into …………….. types. [2, 4, 6, 7]
(iii) Physical environment contain ……………. [Biotic, abiotic, both the components]
(iv) Biological components contains ………………. . [Biotic, abiotic, both the components]
(v) The changing relationship between man and environment has been divided in …………….. phases. [6, 8, 4, 5]
INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.2
Tick True (T) or False (F)
1. Biosphere is a life-supporting layer, which surrounds the earth. (T/F)
2. The average thickness of the biosphere is about 50 km. (T/F)
3. Biosphere consists of territorial and aquatic biomes system. (T/F)
4. Group of people living together on a certain territory form a community. (T/F)
5. Environment is stable and dynamic. (T/F)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.3
Tick True (T) or False (F)
1. Man has never interfered with environment. (T/F)
2. Effects of environment on society are always positive. (T/F)
3. Extreme events are not disastrous for human society. (T/F)
4. Education must be broad based to create awareness. About environment effects. (T/F)
Write answer in about 100-250 words
Q.1. What is an environment?
Ans. An Environment: Environment is viewed in different ways and angles by different groups of people and disciplines. It may be safely argued that environment is an inseparable whole and is constituted by the interacting systems of physical, biological and cultural elements which are inter-linked individually as well as collectively in many ways.
Physical elements (space, landform, water bodies, climate, soils, rocks and minerals) determine the variable character of the human habitat, its opportunities as well as its limitations. Biological elements (plants, animals, microorganisms and man) constitute the biosphere; cultural elements (economic, social and political) are essentially man-made features, which go into the making of cultural milieu.
The term ‘environment’ originates from the French word ‘environ’ or ‘environner’ meaning ‘around’, ’round-about’, ‘to surround’ or ‘to encompass’.
Q.2. Describe the stages of relationship between man and environment.
Ans. I. The stages of Relationship between man and environment: The changing relationship of man with the environment from prehistoric to modern times can be divided into the following four periods:
(a) Hunting and food gathering.
(b) Animal domestication and pastoralism.
(c) Plant domestication and agriculture.
II. A brief description of each stage is given below:
(a) Period of hunting and food gathering:
This period is related to the most primitive man when he bad been basically a part of natural environment and was functionally as a ‘biological man’ or ‘physical man’ because his basic requirements were limited to food and shelter. The natural environment satisfied all his wants. The relationship between man and the environment was very friendly. Man was leading a nomadic life. Then a stage came when he learnt to hunt animals. The discovery of ‘fire’, which was accidental, taught man to cook animal flesh before eating. So we can say that the discovery of fire and subsequently, invention of tools and weapons made man capable of exploiting natural resources for his benefit.
(b) Period of Animal Domestication and Pastoralism: With the passage of time, primitive man learnt to domesticate animals for his benefits. In the beginning, he might have domesticated some milch/cattle and animals for meat and slowly his herd of domesticated animals must have increased. Domestication of animals might have given birth of group or community life among early people in order to protect their flock and themselves from wild animals. They still stuck to nomadic way of life, as they had to move from one place to other in search of water, food for themselves and fodder for animals.
(c) Period of Plant Domestication and Agriculture: Domestication of plants for food became a hallmark in the development of human skills of taming and controlling the biotic component of the natural environment system. Domestication of plants initiated primitive type of agriculture and sedentary settled life of people who were nomads. Cultivation of food crops resulted in the formation of social groups and organisations. Now man started settling down in the river valleys due to availability of water and fertile land which came to be known as ‘river-valley civilization’. From here onwards started the journey of man to transform the natural environmental resources around him through improved farming practices resulting in gradual increase in human population.
(d) Period of Science, Technology and Industrialization: (i) The advancement of industrial revolution in late nineteenth century and emergence of science and development of sophisticated technology, embittered and friendly relationship between man and his natural environment.
(ii) The impact of modern technology on natural environment is highly complex and controversial. Highly advanced technologies and scientific techniques led to indiscriminate exploitation of natural environment which have created most of the present day environmental problems.
III. From the days of early primitive man till today, man has venerated nature in different forms (trees, plants, animals, rivers, mountains etc.) Nature worship commands great sancity in most of the communities.
Q.3. What is a biosphere? Name two subsystems of biosphere.
Ans. (i) The Biosphere: Biosphere is a life-supporting layer, which surrounds the earth and makes plant and animal life possible without any protective device. It consists of all the living organisms (the biotic component), energy (energy component) and physical environment (abiotic component). There are continuous interactions between living organisms and physical environment and also among the living organisms themselves. The average thickness of the biosphere or life-supporting layer consists of air, water, soil and rock is about 30 km.
(ii) Names of two sub-system of biosphere are:
(a) upper layer. and
(b) lower layer.
The upper limit of the biosphere is determined by the availability of oxygen, moisture, temperature, and air pressure with increase in height in the atmosphere limits the upper boundary of the biosphere. The lower limits of the biosphere are determined by the availability of required amount of oxygen and light, which can sustain life. Thus, the depth of the biosphere over the land is unto the depth of the deepest roots of the trees or the depth unto which can live the borrowing organisms or the depth at which lie the parent bedrocks. The biosphere extends unto greater depth in the oceans.
Q.4. What is a sociosphere?
Ans. Socio-Sphere: Man is social animal with the inbuilt instinct to be with his groups. Since man is most communicative, his behavioural concerns relate to his fellow beings. Thus man’s attitudes to life and value system are shaped by the size and quality of the group to which he belongs.
Groups of people living together on a certain territory form a community. It comprises a composition of species, a characteristic food network and energy flow pathway. Communities thus form the living components of living components of ecosystem. Over the time, species in each community carve out a special place for themselves. Community is not stable but dynamic, changing regularly over time and space.
Q.5. Explain the effects of environment on human society.
Ans. Effects of Environment on Human Society:
(i) Effects of environment on human society has been emerging as a major challenge for quite sometime. Development was for long associated with under exploitation of natural resources. It was little realised that obsession with under exploitation may result in over-exploitation.
(ii) We seemed to have believed that natural resources are inexhaustible. Environmental process includes those physical processes, which operate on the surface of the earth both internally and externally. Though man began to interfere with the natural processes right from the beginning of sedentary life, it assumed greater in proportion after the industrial revolution.
(iii) The impact of modern technology on environment is varied and highly complex as the transformation or modification of our natural condition and process leads to a series of changes in the biotic and abiotic components of natural environment process.
(iv) We have seen that man, equipped with modern technologies and advanced scientific knowledge, has become an important factor in changing the environmental processes. It has to be realized that disturbances in one of the elements of nature (i.e., air, water, land, flora and fauna) gives rise to an imbalance in others. Natural processes or human factors some times aggravate natural environmental process to cause disaster for human society life (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, cyclones etc.)
(v) They result in heavy loss of life and property. Environmental hazards for human health are as follows:
(i) Air pollution causes respiratory diseases.
(ii) Water pollution causes enteric diseases.
(iii) Solid waste pollution causes vector-borne diseases.
(iv) Toxic waste causes cancer and neurological disorders.