NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 21 Social Deviance

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 21 Social Deviance, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 21 Social Deviance and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 21 Social Deviance Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Sociology Notes Paper 331.

NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 21 Social Deviance

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 21 Social Deviance, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Social Deviance

Chapter: 21



Q.1. Tick True and False for the following:

(i) Crime has social sanction. (True/False)

Ans. False.

(ii) Crime is anti-social behaviour. (True/ False)

Ans. True.

(iii) Crime is a means for the fulfillment of suppressed desire. (True/False) 

Ans. True.

(iv) Crime results due to conflict between what society expects and what individuals want. (True/False)

Ans. True.

(v) Criminals are not born, they are made. (True/False)

Ans. True.


Q.1. Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the brackets: 

(i) Truancy is such a behaviour which ……………… social sanction. (has / has not) 

Ans. Has not.

(ii) Truants are involved in ……………… activities. (social/anti-social)

Ans. Anti-social.

(iii) Truancy is ……………… for education development. (harmless/harmful)

Ans. Harmful.

(iv) Truancy …………….. the ground for vagrancy and delinquency. (builds up/destroys) 

Ans. Builds up.

(v) Truants ………………… school regularly. (attend/not attended)

Ans. Not attended.


Q.1. Choose correct one from the following:

1. Vagrancy is related to 

(a) Earning money.

(b) Attaining education.

(c) Enhancing position.

(d) Social disease.

Ans. (d) Social disease.

II. Vagrancy has 

(a) Positive sanction.

(b) Support of administration.

(c) Favour of people.

(d) Negative sanction of society. 

Ans. (d) Negative sanction of society. 

III. Vagrants are involved in

(a) Upliftment of society.

(b) Development of education.

(c) Social reconstruction.

(d) Anti-social behaviour.

Ans. (d) Anti-social behaviour.

IV. Vagrants share

(a) Familial responsibility.

(b) Social duties.

(c) Religious duties.

(d) Not responsibility in society. 

Ans. (d) Not responsibility in society. 

V. Vagrants survive on

(a) Child labour.

(b) Small work.

(c) Rag picking.

(d) Beggary and illegal tax collection.

Ans. (d) Beggary and illegal tax collection.


Q.1. Tick Yes or No for the following:

(i) Juvenile delinquency is anti-social behaviour committed by children (Yes/No).

Ans. Yes.

(ii) From social view point juvenile delinquency is disobedience of norms and values by children (Yes/No)

Ans. Yes.

(iii) From legal view point, juvenile delinquency is crime committed by children in the eyes of law (Yes/No)

Ans. Yes.

(iv) Juvenile delinquents are rehabilitated and reformed (Yes/No)

Ans. Yes.

(v) No child is delinquent by birth (Yes/No)

Ans. Yes.


Q. 1. Match the following:

(a) Alcoholism is(a) personality, family and social disorganisation.
(b) Taking local bear is allowed(b) but the rich drink foreign made good quality of liquor.
(c) Persons habituated of drinking liquor(c) prevalent in almost every society. 
(d) The poor drink low quality liquor(d) on social gathering, ceremonies and festivals.
(e) Alcoholism leads to(e) drunkenness


(a) Alcoholism is(c) prevalent in almost every society.
(b) Taking local bear is allowed(d) on social gathering, ceremonies and of festivals.
(c) Persons habituated of drinking liquor(e) drunkenness.
(d) The poor drink low quality liquor(b) but the rich drink foreign made good quality of liquor.
(e) Alcoholism leads(a) personality, family and social disorganisation.


Q.1. Match the following:

(a) Drug application is(a) takes place on large scale in our country.
(b) Tobacco, Ganja, Bhang, Charas and Opium(b) are modern drugs.
(c) Heroine, Smack, Mendrex and L.S.D.(c) mental retard-ness.
(d) Smuggling of drugs(d) are traditional drugs.
(e) Drug addiction causes(e) habitual taking of drug.


(a) Drug application is(e) habitual taking of drug.
(b) Tobacco, Ganja, Bhang, Charas and opium(d) are traditional drugs.
(c) Heroine, Smack, Mendrex  and L.S.D.(b) are modern drugs.
(d) Smuggling of drugs(a) takes place on large scale in our country. 
(e) Drug addiction causes(c) mental retard-ness.


Q.1. What is social deviance? (Most Imp.) 

Ans. Social Deviance: The term social deviance includes those behaviours which do not show conformity with norms and values of society. These behaviours are levelled as anti-social and do not have social sanction.

Q.2. What do you mean by crime? Name five causes of crime. (Most Imp.)

Ans. I. Meaning: The behaviours which are not in accordance with norms, expectations and values as well as law established by state are called crimes. These behaviours do not have social sanction. They are labelled as anti-social.

II. Causes: Criminals are offenders of crime. Therefore, they are punished, crimes are committed due to following causes:-

(i) Social causes.

(ii) Economic causes. 

(iii) Political causes.

(iv) Religious causes.

(v) Natural. and

(vi) Psychological causes.

It is also related to population explosion, industrialisation and modernisation. In our society, all castes do not enjoy equal status. At the time of division of property between brothers, conflict develops between them. This may lead to crime. Unequal distribution of resources is also related to criminal behaviour in society. There is criminalisation of politics and politicisation of criminals and crimes. Communal riot is directly related to different types of crime, like loot, dacoity, arson, murder and rape etc. Persons with perverted personality fulfill their desire through crime. Abnormal individuals crime. Urbanisation, industrialisation and modernisation have given birth to loot, dacoity, murder and sex crime. Study of pornographic books also prompts criminal behaviour. Corruption in judicial and punishing agencies has increased the incidence of crime.

Q.3. What do you mean by truancy? Name five causes of truancy.

Ans. I. Meaning of Truancy: The behaviour which forces a child to leave school without information to school and parents is called truancy. Truancy ultimately provides ground for delinquency, gambling, alcoholism and drug addiction.

II. Causes of Truancy: Some major causes of truancy are poverty, low position in society, poor family condition, unattractive looks, inferiority complex, quarrel with classmates, bad association, improper behaviour of parents and teachers, inability of understand and fear of examination etc.

Children of poor families think that they can not adjust with the children of rich families. Such thinking develops inferiority complex and they start missing the school. Some children fall in bad company. They leave school to see pictures, visit markets, and behave like vagrants.

Q.4. What is Vagrancy? Name five causes of Vagrancy. (Very Imp.)

Ans. Meaning and causes of Vagrancy: Vagrancy is a social pathological behaviour found in some children who wander here and there without any reason. They create problems for other members of society by their anti-social behaviour.

In this behaviour, children wander here and there without any aim. They walk aimlessly on roads. They pass vulgar remarks on passers-by, especially girls. They may abuse any person without any reason. They can also come in conflict with any persons. They do not have relations with their families. They do not have fear of being beaten, put in jail and even death.


(i) Wrong Nature: Vagrants do not share any responsibility for family, community and society. Rather they create problems in the society by their abnormal behaviour. They are a burden on society.

(ii) Habit of wandering: Vagrants are found in cinema hall, railway station, bus stand, park, slum areas, market centres, school and college gates, vegetable market, crowdy places, puja pandals, religious processións and political processions etc.

(iii) Lack of sources of Income: Vagrants do not have any direct source of income. They survive on theft, dacoits, beggary, gambling, and prostitution, pick pocketing, and extortion.

(iv) Vagrancy is attributed to family background, behaviour of parents, bad company, caste system, low place in society and rude behaviour of kin, etc.

Q.5. What is delinquency? Write its nature. Name five causes of delinquency.

Ans. I. Meaning: The crime committed by children is called juvenile delinquency. Juvenile delinquency can be seen from social and legal view points. From the social viewpoints, disrespect shown by a child towards norms, values, customs and traditions of the society can be called juvenile delinquency. But from the legal view-point, breaking of laws established by state by a child is called juvenile delinquency. Children involved in juvenile delinquency are called. juvenile delinquents.

II. Nature: Juvenile delinquency is a social pathological behaviour in which a child commits crime. It is a social disease which creates social disorganisation in the society.

Both crime and juvenile delinquency are anti-social behaviour. Both lead to social and individual disturbance. There is a difference between the two concepts. Crime is committed by adults whereas juvenile delinquency is committed by children. In our country crime done by children in the age 7-17 years is called juvenile delinquency. Juvenile delinquents are reformed and rehabilitated, whereas adult criminals are punished.

III. Causes: 1. No child is delinquent by birth. But the behaviour of society makes him delinquent. Ill-treatment by parents, step-parents, kin, neighbours and community members makes a child delinquent. Poverty and lack of basic amenities also lead to juvenile delinquency.

2. Denial of share in paternal property also makes a child delinquent. Misbehaviour of class mates and teachers also cause juvenile delinquency. Physical deformity is also responsible for the occurrence of juvenile delinquency. Industrialisation, urbanisation and modernisation have enhanced the incidence of juvenile delinquency in our country.

Q.6. What is alcoholism? Name four evil effects of it. 

Ans. I. Meaning of Alcoholism: Simple meaning of alcoholism is taking liquor as an addict. Drinking is as old as civilization. There is hardly any country, community, or age in which drinking does not prevail.

There are societies in which taking local beer is allowed, e.g., tribal societies. Tribals prepare Haria (rice beer). Men, women and children share haria’ on festive and ceremonial occasions. They also prepare Mahua liquor. In Hindu culture, men are allowed to drink Bhang and Mahua liquor. Now-a-days, taking liquor on the occasion of marriage ceremonies, parties gathering etc. has become a modern fashion. The poor drink toddy and low quality liquor where as the rick drink foreign made good quality of wine like whisky, rum and scotch. Drinking may be necessary for the people in cold regions. They take liquor before dinner regularly. In army, foreign diplomacy, doctors, top lawyers, industrialists and bureaucracy, taking liquor is accepted behaviour. Consumption of liquor on festive ceremonies, festivals, marriage and party etc. is taken as symbol of status and wealth.

II. Evil effects of Alcoholism: 

(i) Alcoholism as social deviance does not have social sanction. It has negative sanctions of society. It is taken as a bad habit which leads to personality disorganisation, family disorganisation and social disorganisation. 

(ii) When an individual becomes habituated to drinking liquor, he is called a drunkard. He loses respect not only in his family but in the whole society.

(iii) He does not take care of his children. He beats his wife to get her ornaments. He sells ornaments for drinking. They meet premature death.

(iv) They sell their land and property for it. They leave their children, wives and other family members to their fate. Rather, they create problems of different kinds.

(v) Drunkards are also involved in theft, dacoity, loot, sex crime, manhandling, murder and suicide.

Q.7. What is drug addiction? Name four evil effects of it.

Ans. I. Meaning of drug addiction: Habitual taking of drug is called drug addiction. There are two types of drugs to which people of our country are addicted. These are-traditional drug and modern drug. Tobacco, Ganja, Bhang, Charas and opium are traditional drugs. Heroine morphemes, Hashish, Smack, mandrax and L.S.D. are modern drugs.
II. Evil effects of drug addiction: Drug addiction is harmful in many ways. It makes a person mentally weak. It also leads to premature death. It is responsible for personality, family and social disorganisation. It also creates problems related to administration. There has also been a close relation between drug addiction and crime. Drug addicted people commit crimes like suicide, quarrel, sex crime and murder etc.

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