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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 18 Processes Of Social Change
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Processes Of Social Change
MODULE 3: SOCIAL CHANGE, SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL CONTROL
INTEXT QUESTIONS 18.1
Q.1. Fill in the blanks (choose the right words form the bracket):
1. When an object does not show movement, it is said to be ……………… (mobile, static, flexible).
2. Social change is considered to be ……………… (radical, value-neutral, desirable).
3. Social change means modifications or variation in social …………….social processes and social structure. (action, reaction, inter- actions).
4. Social change is a change in the institutional and normative ……………… of society. (history, economy, structure).
5. Society exists in a ……………… of dynamic influences. (environment, ideology, universe).
INTEXT QUESTIONS 18.2
Tick Mark True or False:
1. The rate of social change is same for all societies. (True/False).
2. Social change is a universal process. (True/False)
3. Social change can take place in a short time and may take centuries to be notice. (True/False)
4. Social change may be good or bad, desirable or undesirable. (True/False)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 18.3
Answer in one sentence:
Q.1. What is social change?
Ans. By social change is meant only such alternations that occur in structure and function of society and in culture of society.
Q.2. Give two characteristics of social change?
Ans. 1. Social change is not uniform.
2. Duration of Social change varies or differs.
Q.3. What is meant by evolution?
Ans. Evolution is a process of progressive differentiation of forms, capabilities, endow-ments, from simple of complex, over a period of time which is irreversible.
Q.4. How does revolution differ from counter-revolution?
Ans. Revolution is a sudden, abrupt, total change that takes place in a social system lead-ing to the emergence of a new social order. Whereas counter-revolution is a restoration of the old traditional systems that had prevailed before the revolution.
Q.5. Give two points of distinction between the term “progress” and “development”.
Ans. Progress is a movement in the desired direction so as to reach a “final goal” which is motivated by positive and rational considerations. Development is a strategy of planned social change in a direction, which is considered desirable by the members of a society in not just one area but all related areas.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 18.4
Write answer in one sentence:
Q.1. Give an example of cyclic pattern of social change.
Ans. Trade advances, falls, business activity rises, booms, then slumps and then starts afresh.
Q.2. What is fluctuating change?
Ans. When change turns to the opposite direction after leading towards progress i.e. it seems to go up and down depending upon favourable or unfavourable circumstances, it is called fluctuating change.
Q.3. Explain the cyclical theory of social change.
Ans. This theory is founded on the belief that Societies have predetermined life by cycle of birth, growth, maturity and decline. Like waves in the ocean the great culture emerge, rise to heights only to subside which otherwise rise in their turn.
Q.4. Explain the functional theory of social change.
Ans. Functional Theory – According to this theory, societies change but they also tend to move towards equilibrium. Any disturbance in the system is easily accommodated within the existing structure. The endogenous and exogenous sources of change take the system from one stage to equilibrium to another stage.
Q.5. List the three theories used by social scientists to explain social change.
Ans. The three main theories used by social scientists to explain social change are:
(a) Evolutionary theory.
(b) Cyclical theory.
(c) Functional theory.
(d) Conflict theory.
Q.1. List the characteristics of social change.
Ans. List of the characteristics of social change is:
1. Social change is not uniform.
2. Social change is Deliberate.
3. Duration of change varies.
4. Social change is value neutral.
Q.2. Differentiate between the terms: evolution and revolution. (V. Imp.)
Ans. Differentiate between Evolution and Revolution.
Evolution: The term evolution means more than just growth. Growth actually implies a change in size or quality in a desired direction. Evolution basically involves a more intrinsic change not only in size but also of structure. It is a process of growth increasing complexity and differentiation of structure and functions of society. It also refers to interdependence among differentiated parts. Thus we see that evolution is an expression of continuity indicating a certain direction of change. It is unilinear indirection, i.e., from simple to complex structure and from small to large whereas change may have many directions. Biological evolution explains change from a simple stage to a complex one as is seen in the case of a living organism. Many sociologists have compared society to a biological organism, thus giving an explanation to social evolution. It is taken to be a process leading to progressive differentiation with increasing capabilities and adaptation to the environment. This can be understood clearly by looking at the way people build their shelters.
Thus we may say that evolution is an irreversible process. The direction can not be reversed from the complex stage to the simple stage.
Revolution: Revolution is a form of sudden and abrupt overthrow of the existing social order and system. It is also characterized by a change that comes about in a short period of time. The system that replaces the existing one is totally different and new. Like in the case of the French Revolution the rule of the Emperor came to an end suddenly. The hungry and poor masses attacked those in power, wiping them out totally. This was replaced by the rule of the common man.
In the recent decades, Mahatma Gandhi was a true revolutionary. He successfully fought against exploitation and overthrew the British rule.
Revolution basically aims at liberating people from an oppressive system. It removes the prime cause of discontentment and thus puts an end to their social, cultural, political and economic suffering. However, the movements that aim at restoration or reinforcement of old, traditional, systems can be termed as counter-revolution. The emphasis on the study of Vedas, for example, aimed at the restoration of traditional values. This was meant to create a positive feeling towards social responsibilities and gender equality.
Q.3. Give at least six points of distinction between “progress” and “development”.
Ans. Distinction between”progress” and “development”:
|1. Progress is a term that sees the present in comparison to the past. It is a relativistic notion.||1. The notion of development is s phenomenon. It refers to a change in the desire direction. It is a strategy of planned social change in a direction that is considered desirable by the members of a society.|
|2. Progress refers not so much to social change as to the direction which human beings delib-rately give to that change.||2. Development is contextual and relative in nature. So, the notion of development may differ from society. This is based on the socio-cultural background, geographical and political situation of the society.|
|3. It indicates the existence of some predetermined, ideal destination or goal. This means that a “final goal” has to be reached. So, a movement in the desired direction has to be undertaken. This movements takes place so as to reach the final goal and can be termed progress.||3. It is composite concept. It includes progress in various other fields like trade, agriculture, industry, health, education and so on.|
|4. The earliest criteria used to determine progress were those related to technical advancement, like money economy and communication system. But it was found that this could not be the sole basis of evaluating progress.||4. Along with difference areas development, the welfare, of weaker sections (poors, lahomers, peasants), women, old people, sick people, handicaps, small children, unemployed and minorities (languages, religions, sects, etc.) are some of the considerations.|
|5. Progress in one area in fact related to and dep-erdent on another area. This leads us to recog-nize change as a complex phenomenon. More so, because every successive stage of human development would be progress.||5. We way say that development is a value loaded concept that takes into account the socio-cultural and economic needs of a given society, region and people.|
|6. The growing complexity of any organisation or elaborate division of labour would show progress. So, progress cannot simply be treated as a movement from simple to complex but one that also involves several dimensions.||6. Several policies are programmes are launches, aimed at the development of rural people, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes,women, urban people, agricultural workers and industrial workers etc.|
Q.4. Elaborate on the most frequently found patterns of social change seen in society.
Ans. Elaboration of the most frequently found patterns of social change seen in society: It is seen that social change follows certain patterns. The widely recognized patterns are as follows:
1. Linear change: This type of change shows a straight-line progression from one stag to another in a linear fashion.
Diagram – Steady growth from few houses to city (on the basis of numbers)
Society gradually moves to an even higher state of civilization in the direction of improvement; thus it advances in a linear fashion. Also what will be invented tomorrow is not only based on what exist today but on the origins of the past inventions. The growth of development in communication such as telephone has followed a linear pattern. It has growth from land-line to cordless telephones and has reached the stage of mobile phones.
2. Cyclical change: Rapid change on a closer look turns out to be a repeating set of activities that form a cyclical pattern like rhythms of nature, cycle of night and day, seasons sowing-reaping-harvesting. Similarly, society has a predetermined life cycle. After going through all the stages it returns to the original stage and the cycle begins a fresh again.
3. Fluctuating Change etc.: When the order of change turns to the opposite direction after leading towards progress, it is called fluctuating change. It other words, the tendency of change in this phase is not consistent but seems to go up and down depending upon favourable or unfavourable circumstances, as is seen in the case of agriculture. Advancement in the field of agriculture gets retarded if there is insufficient monsoon in one season and increases if there is normal monsoons in the next season.
Q.5. Explain in about 125 words the conflict theory of social change.
Ans. The conflict theories of social change: There are three main general theories for social change. These are:
1. Evolution Theory.
2. Cyclical Theory. and
3. Functional Theory.
The last, but not the least is the fourth one. This theory is named as the conflict theory. Here we will explain in about 125 words only the conflict theory (as derived by the question).
Conflict Theory: According to this theory, every pattern of action, belief and interaction tends to generate an opposing reaction. Thus this theory highlights the forces producing instability using social disorganization. It sees unequal distribution of power and authority as the fundamental source of conflict. The groups with power want to preserve the status quo while other groups desire to change it. This conflict between these groups leads to various changes in the structure of society although the nature and depth of conflict and resultant change depends on numerous factors. Every social structure begins as a “thesis” of its current state of existence but its own internal contradictions or antagonisms prompt a challenge to its structure. This challenge is called the “antithesis”. This conflict serolves itself into a “synthesis” of a wholly new social structure carrying some elements from both “thesis” and the “antithesis”. However, this theory does not explain social stability in societies.
Fig: The Mechanism of Socialization
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Write the names of two terms associated with social change.
Ans. 1. Evolution.
Q.2. Define the term “Progress”.
Ans. Progress refers not so much to social change as to the direction which human beings deliberately give to that change. This indicates the existence of some predetermined, ideal destination or goal. This means that a “final goal” has to be reached. So, a movement in the desired direction has to be undertaken. This movement occurs so as to reach the final goal and can be termed progress. In other words, it is change in a certain direction, always towards some desired goals. It can be called a realization of cherished values, which is desirable. It is seen that only relative comparisons can give a fair idea of progress. Therefore, we can say that if social change takes places in a desired direction, it is called progress.
Q.3. Write the meaning of the word/term evolution.
Ans. Evolution basically involves a more intrinsic change not only in size but also of structure. Thus evolution is an expression of continuity indicating a certain direction of change.
Q.4. What is Revolution? Briefly explain.
Ans. Revolution is a form of sudden and abrupt overthrow of the existing social order and system. It is a change that comes about in a short period of time.
Revolution basically aims at liberating people from an oppressive system.
Q.5. Write the names of those patterns which are certain to be followed by social change? (Most Imp.)
Ans. Social change follows certain patterns:
1. They are Linear change.
2. Cyclical change.
3. Fluctuating change.
Q.6. Mention names of four theories of social change. (Most Imp.)
Ans. The four main theories of social change:
1. Evolutionary Theory.
2. Cyclical Theory.
3. Functional Theory.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What is the meaning of “Social Change”? Explain and define it.
Ans. Meaning and Definition of “Social Change”:
1. The term social change comprises two words-social and change. It is imperative to understand their meaning. The social change denotes as difference in anything be it individual, group society or any material object over a period of time. terms social is defined in two different ways. One, in term of society social structure and two in terms of culture.
2. Some sociologist say that by social change is meant only such alterations, which occur in social organizations, that is, in structure and functions of society. The other group of sociologists define in terms of rise and fall of culture. Social change is a part of cultural change which include science, technology and values of social organization.
3. In other words, social change is a term used to describe variation in any respect social processes and social interactions. It can also be described as a mode the either modifies or replaces the “old in the life of a people and in the functioning of a society.”
Q.2. “Human society exists in a universe of dynamic influences.” Explain.
Ans. 1. Human Society exists in a universe of dynamic influences. For instance, change in material equipment and expansion of technology resulted is reshaping of ideologies and values. This, in turn, effects institutional structures as they take on new components thus altering their functioning.
2. The impact of modern social forces is evident in the change of family structure. Joint family system has been a common pattern in India. The head of the family exercises absolute powers over its members and distributes work among them. It is now fast being replaced by the nuclear family wherein family ties and authority of the head are gradually weakening.
3. This change is also illustrative of structural change. Such a change, in turn, brings about change in the role of family members. This is indicative of functional change.
4. However, as a result of competitive economy and spread of education in India we expected a total transition from the caste system to the class system. But it is found that caste is not being replaced completely by class.
5. There is only a marginal change in the role of caste. For example, we find that occupation has become caste free. There is freedom now to take up any occupation. This is no longer decided by one’s position in the caste hierarchy. We find many upper-caste” people taking up jobs that were earlier meant for the lower castes.
Q.3. “Progress depends on two factors,” Explain the statement.
Ans. Progress depends on two factors, the nature of the end and the distance at which we are from it. Progress is usually determined in terms of material advancement, individual enhancement, greater control over human conditions of life, human happiness, order and harmony at societal level. So, when we say that we are progressing we mean that society is flourishing both materially and morally. It is not possible to speak of progress without reference to standard. Standards, as we know, are eminently subjective. This is so because different people may look differently at the same social changes. To some, they may as progress and to some, a decadence. In the case of free mixing of young boys and girls, some people may think of it as progressive, whereas to others, it may seem as a fall in the morality. In other words, it difficult to find clear and definite standards that would be acceptable to all. This, in turn, would lead to a difficulty in formulating definite conceptions of progress that would apply to all times and to all cultures. Since, it is not possible that inventions will stop as man has all the goods that he needs, as man’s wants are unlimited; changes will continue in future also.