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NIOS Class 12 Sociology Chapter 17 Factors Of Social Change
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Factors Of Social Change
MODULE 3: SOCIAL CHANGE, SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL CONTROL
INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.1
Q.1. Answer in True or False.
(a) With improved medical facilities and sanitary conditions, population increases.
(b) Decline in birth rate would also lower the standard of living.
Ans. (b) False.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.2
Q.1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate word from the bracket:
(a) Traditional society was characterised by ……………… . (mechanised, manual)
(b) Production in industrial society is for ……………….. . (profit, domestic consumption)
(c) Industrialisation has led to the development of ……………… market. (local, world)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.3
Q.1. Answer in 1-2 words:
(a) What was the name of the religion propagated by Akbar?
(b) What is the term used for transmission of customs and practices from one society to another?
(c) What are non-material aspects of culture?
Ans. Religion, Ideology, Beliefs.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.4
Q.1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate word (figure) from the bracket:
(a) Sati was banned in ………………. .(1828, 1829)
(b) Article ………………. of the Indian constitution abolished untouchability. (17,27)
(c) Elections inculcate a sense of …………….. among the citizens. (complacence, responsibility)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.5
Q.1. Answer True or False:
(a) Bourgeois were the owners of the means of production.
(b) Production relationships became more impersonal in the wake of industrial revolution.
(c) Following the industrial revolution, a strong middle class emerged in urban centres.
(d) Green Revolution first started in the states of Bihar and Orissa.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.6
Q.1. Answer in 1-2 sentences:
(a) Define Education.
Ans. Definition of Education: Education is to awaken and develop in the child those physical, intellectual and moral conditions which are required of him, both by society as a whole and by the immediate social environment.
(b) What are the features of formal education?
Ans. Formal Education: Formal education is characterised by:
(i) regular and recognised schools.
(ii) definite and properly spelt out content.
(iii) definite rules and regulations.
(c) How does the school curriculum socialise children?
Ans. School Curriculum and Socialization of Children: Schools, through their curriculum try to sensitise children to real world problems like war, poverty, AIDS and unemployment.
Q.1. Explain the impact of demography on social change.
Ans. 1. Meaning: By demographic factors, we mean the factors that determine the numbers, composition, selection and the hereditary quality of successive generations.
II. Explanation of Demographic Factors of Social Charge:
(i) Change in Population (in number as well as in its composition):
(a) Changes in population, both in numbers and composition, have a far-reaching effect on society. When population increases or decreases, size and composition of a population changes.
(b) Change in the size of a population may bring about a change in the economic life of the people, which may further bring about a change in various other aspects of human like social, cultural and political.
(c) The swift and steady decline of both birth rate and death rate has led to tremendous social transformation. With improved sanitary conditions and medical facilities. India has experienced a dramatic increase in the sphere of population. This phenomenal increase in population has, in turn, given rise to a variety of social problems like unemployment, child labour, growth of slums, increased crime rate and social tensions.
(d) Decline in death rate has led to increased population growth to a century ago. Additionally, availability of better medical facilities has enabled them to be active till old age. This has brought about a perceptible (visible) change in social attitudes and beliefs.
(ii) Population and Standard of living:
(a) When the growth of population threatens the standard of living, it inspires a change in attitude. People are more open and accept the use of contraceptives, one child family norm and in some cases couples decide to adopt a child.
(b) Had we witnessed a corresponding decline in the birth rate, it would have meant a higher standard of living, the emancipation of women from child bearing drudgery, better care for the young and perhaps a healthier society. Of course, then, fewer young people would enter the workforce to support an ageing population.
(iii) Population and level of physical health of the people: There is also a close relationship between the growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of the people. On the increase in the number of mouths to feed, there is chronic malnutrition and other related diseases. These further lead to physical lethargy, incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. All these affect the quality of the population and the social structure and social institutions.
(iv) In Indian’s context Growth of Population and Problems: In the Indian context, we notice that an increase in population has resulted in an increase in unemployment, in poverty, in urbanisation, in the number of slums, and an increase in the burden on infrastructural facilities. These, in turn, have resulted in the absence of adequate facilities, rise in nuclear families and, over time, have altered social relationship in a perceptible manner.
Q.2. How are the industrial societies different from simple societies? (M. Imp.)
Ans. Differences between Industrial Societies Simple Societies: Industrial societies are very complex and distinctly different from the earlier simple societies. In such societies, there is:
(i) Importance of capital instead of labour as against the norm in simple societies.
(ii) Rise of factorise as units of production instead of family.
(iii) Use of steam, electricity and atomic power instead of energy produced by human and animal power.
(iv) Use of machines in place of human and animal labour.
(v) Production is for exchange in the market and for profits and not just for domestic consumption.
(vi) Development of world market instead of local market. and
(vii) improved means of transport and communication and a currency base economy.
Conclusion: Modern technology and man made conditions have changed not only the system and quantity of production but also production relationships. Modern industries relationships have given birth to companies, corporations, share market multinational companies, banks and the union of industrial workers.
Q.3. Explain the role of diffusion as a means of social change.
Ans. I. Meaning of Diffusion: Social change occurs through cultural contact between different societies. Diffusion is an important mechanism of social change. One society adopts the cultural traits of another through prolonged contact as in travel, trade and commerce as also through sudden events like war where new and hitherto secret technologies reveal themselves.
II. The Role of diffusion as a means of Social Change:
(i) Cultural mores as well as new technology are borrowed and adopted when societies, find that they fill a vacuum or answer a felt need. Borrowing of cultural traits from an advanced society is commonly seen in developing countries and societies as they try to become moder. Diffusion of cultural traits also takes place through personal contacts and interaction between members of two or more cultures. This can be seen in the changes that crept in Indian society due to sustained contacts with Greeks, Muslims and the British. Indian music and architecture was greatly influenced by Islam.
(ii) New schools like khayal developed due to the influenced Persian music and new instruments like tabla and sitar. In architecture, the Indo-Saracenic style appeared with spacious interiors, massive domes, arches and minarets. Sufism was highly influenced by the mysticism of Hindus, while the monotheistic ideas of Islam influenced Hindu society, particularly some leaders of the Bhakti movement like Kabir.
(iii) Diffusion also takes place through mass media as it transmits and diffuses information to a large number of people. It has accelerated the process of change by spreading the elements of individual cultures to people far away and thus resulted in a form of cultural modernisation. This synthesis results in a new form of culture, which has elements of both the traditional and the modern. Folk songs and western music have combined to create a new style of popular music.
(iv) It is, however, interesting to note that while cultural diffusion quickly changed the material life of people, non-material aspects like religion, ideology and beliefs are slow to a change.
(v) This phenomenon is known as “cultural Iag”. When non-material culture does not adjust itself readily to the material changes, it results in a lag between the two. The problem of adjustment in modern societies can be explained concept by this where the material aspects of life change at a much quicker pace than the non-material aspects of culture. All societies need to manage this culture. Societies where the non-material aspects of culture guide material changes towards peace and social harmony are likely to see more progress than others.
Q.4. Highlight the role of elections in social change. (M. Imp.)
Ans. Role of Elections in Social Change: Besides law, the right to vote and the role of elections are also important factors of social change. The right to vote stimulates interest in public affairs and is an important means of imparting education to masses. The parties and the leaders take this opportunity to educate the electorate on important political, economic and social issues. Besides this, it inculcates a sense of self-respect and responsibility among the citizens.
(i) Elections themselves throw up variety of issues, which highlight the problems, goals and objectives concerning the socio-economic conditions of the village, state and the country at large.
(ii) Elections are a form of political communication between the government and the governed. They are a means by which the rulers become sensitive to the demands of the people. This two way awareness and communication between the electorate and the elected leads to social change.
Q.5. Discuss the socio-economic consequences of industrialisation. (Most Imp.)
Ans. Socio-Economic Consequences of Industrialisation: The industrial revolution which started in Europe in the late 17th century slowly found its way across the globe. The pace may have been varied in different parts of the world, but the end results were quite similar. The following changes were noticeable and had a degree of permanence attached to them:
(a) Economic Consequences:
(i) Production moved out of households to factories.
(ii) Capital acquired a greater role in the production process.
(iii) The occupational structure of the workforce changed from largely agrarian to an increasingly larger industrial workforce.
(iv) People from all strata of society took to industrial activity.
(v) Women moved out of homes in large numbers and entered the workforce.
(vi) Barriers of religion, belief, etc., crumbled as the demand for labour increased.
(vii) Urbanisation took place at an accelerated pace.
(viii) It triggered changes in other spheres like mass transport and communication too, thus radically altering the existing social structure.
(b) Social Consequences: All these changes had a dramatic impact on social relationships and brought about a lasting social change.
(i) Emancipation of women was a logical conclusion of this process. Within the family, the role of women changed with their economic independence.
(ii) Similarly, production relationships changed from one amongst kinsmen to a largely impersonal relationship between the “employer” and the “employee” where skills and not loyalty became the prime criterion for employment.
(iii) Caste structure weakened, at least in urban centres and workers of different castes and religions became increasingly comfortable working with each other. Interestingly, on another plane, in the absence of close family network, state and caste associations grew and the social change witnessed was the net outcome of these two opposing processes.
(iv) Urbanisation, in its wake, brought about other changes. Relationships became more impersonal as transactions acquired commercial character. The provision of facilities like hospitals, schools, smaller houses meant that the dependence on family decreased. This was also triggered by the revolutionary changes in mass transport system, which enabled people to move to far-flung places where employment opportunities existed.
(v) Finally, the large influx of wage earners and self-employed to urban centres gave rise to a large and powerful middle class in society. This class not only impacted the existing social relationships but also influenced political discourse favouring the ideas of meritocracy and egalitarianism.
Q.6. How did the Revolution to social change in India? (V.Imp.)
Ans. The Green Revolution’s role in bringing social change in India:
(a) Back ground of Green Revolution: As population rise, consequently the demand for food grew, India found itself depending upon food imports to feed its teeming millions. The situation warranted a close look at increasing agricultural productivity and the answer that finally helped India to become self-sufficient in food has been termed the “Green Revolution”, which is a name given to the dramatic changes brought about in the field of agriculture.
(b) Impact of the Green Revolution: We shall now examine the impact of the “Green Revolution” on social relationships and analyse law the social change it brought about.
Green Revolution started in India in the late 1960s in selected regions of the country. The focus at this stage was on what and the strategy adopted was to combine the use of capital and technology to boots from yields. Thus credit, machines, high yield seeds, irrigation and fertilisers become crucial inputs, almost is critical as the and itself. Large forms were favoured as they lent themselves easily to mechanised farming. The results were stunning as from yields surpassed expectations and the country soon moved from a net importer of food grains to one which maintained a buffer stock.
While the output was significantly higher than earlier, the outcome was not necessarily a positive one for all states and for all sections of society at large.
(i) The increasing importance of large tracts of farmland and of capital gave a distinct advantage to that section of society, which had access to them. Relationships, based on land, gave way to an employer-employee relationship, commonly seen in industrial activities.
(ii) Since land reforms had been unevenly implemented in various parts of the country, the Green Revolution was confined to the selected states where it was initiated. This, in turn, triggered large-scale seasonal migration from states like Orissa, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh to Punjab and Haryana-the cradle of the Green Revolution. In social terms, the karta of these families in Orissa, Bihar and U.P. were now absent from their villages for a large part of the year. This had a great impact on the family relationship.
(iii) Additionally, another significant outcome was a widening of inequality across states in general and among the “landed” and the “landless” in particular. Finally, the middle castes who had gained access to land in the wake of land reforms became the biggest beneficiaries of these changes and slowly emerged as a dominant force in Indian politics.
Q.7. Discuss the role of education in bringing about social change. (Most Imp.)
Ans. The Role of education in bringing about social change: Education plays an important role in social change. While, on the one hand, it is responsible for handing down traditions, culture, knowledge and skills from one generation to another; on the other, it acts as an agent of social change. New ideas and values are initiated by it and become the goals for the young generation to pursue and achieve.
One of the sociologists has defined education as “the influence exercised by the adult generation upon those who are not yet ready for adult life’. Its objective is to awaken and develop in the child those physical, intellectual and moral conditions, which are required of him, both by society as a whole and by the immediate social environment.
Society thus achieves two goals through education:
(i) To socialise, shape and develop the individual according to the social needs. and
(ii) To fulfil society’s needs concerning human resources such as training for the specialised skills in industry and technology of the modern economy.
II. Formal and Informal Education:
Before we explain the role of education as a factor of social change, it is important to understand the two main types of education system-formal and informal.
Education which is imparted in a well-defined institutional setting, if formal and that which an individual acquires in the course of his daily activities and interactions in the family and in society at large is informal.
Informal education dominates in societies, which are deficient in proper schools or where a formal schooling system is as yet undeveloped. In tribal and agrarian societies this is apparent. In such societies, children learn the language, traditional practices, fables, folk songs, music and productive skills like cattle rearing and sowing etc., through observation and interaction with their kinsmen.
Even in advanced societies, children receive informal education along with the formal learning they undertake in schools. For example, manners, etiquette and social skills are learnt by observations of behaviour of family members and those in the immediate surrounding.
Formal education characterises modern education as we know it today. Its chief components are
(i) Regular and recognised schools.
(ii) Definite and properly spelt out content. and
(iii) Definite rules and regulations.
We now focus on the role of education as a factor of social change. The impact of education on different aspects of social life can be examined by studying the following:
(i) Socialisation and social control.
(ii) Development of human resources and stratification. and
(iii) Political education.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Mention only the names of two main categories, grouping various factors responsible for social change.
Ans. Social change occurs due to various factors. Some of these factors are:
(a) endogenous (i.e. internal to the society concerned). and
Q.2. Mention the names of cultural factors.
Ans. Names of cultural factors are main:
(v) Inventions. and
Q.3. Tell the relation between culture and inventions and discoveries.
Ans. Culture provides the bare for inventions and discoveries.
4. Fill in the blanks with suitable word / words or term / terms.
(i) ……………… change is a permanent features of all societies at all times.
(ii) …………….. factors, such as technological progress, demographic changes, cultural diffusion, economic and education, alter structural relationships in a society and bring about ……………… …………………. .
Ans. Various, social,change.
(iii) Changes in population, both in numbers and composition, have a far-reaching effect on ……………….. …………………. and are a main …………………. of the social change that we observe.
Ans. Social, Relationship, Cause.
(iv) ……………… changes society by changing our …………….. to which we, in turn adapt. This change is usually in the material environment and the adjustments.