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NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 India’s Foreign Policy
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India’s Foreign Policy
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 26.1
Q.1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) …………. was the main architect of India’s foreign policy.
Ans. Jawahar Lal Nehru.
(b) The Afro-Asian Conference, 1955 was held at ………….
(c) The first NAM Conference was held at …………. in the year …………
(d) The Panchsheel agreement was signed between ………….. and …………..
(e) India hosted NAM Summit in ………….
Ans. New Delhi.
2. Tick (✔) the correct answer:
(a) Non-alignment and neutrality can be treated as same. (True/False).
(b) India opposed the policy of apartheid as practised by the government of South Africa. (True/False).
(c) Nehru along with Tito and Nasser played a major role in the founding of NAM. (True/False).
NTEXT QUESTIONS 26.2
Q.1. Tick (✔) the correct answer:
(a) International relations in the post cold war period is based upon the bipolar model. (True/False)
(b) Kashmir issue became the biggest foreign policy problem for India in 1990s. (True/False)
(c) India’s foreign policy after Cold War wants to neglect Arab countries and embrace Israel. (True/False)
(d) India is trying to forge a coalition of countries to counter terrorism. (True/False)
INTEXT QUESTIONS 26.3
Q.1. India has always stood for:
(a) a nuclear weapons free world.
(b) a world where every country has nuclear weapons.
(c) a world where nuclear weapons are selectively held by few countries.
Ans. (a) a nuclear weapons free world.
Q.2. What do the following abbreviations stand for:
Ans. (a) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty,
(b) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 26.4
Q.1. The first peacekeeping nation with Indian troops was sent to:
Ans. (b) Sinai.
Q.2. Which of the following statement is false?
(a) India is one of the second largest troops contributors to UN peacekeeping.
(b) Peacekeeping was confined to cold war years.
(c) India’s role was significant in protecting the Congo from separation.
Ans. (c) India’s role was significant in protecting the Congo from separation.
Q.3. India’s contribution to peacekeeping included:
(a) only troops.
(b) only non-military staff.
(c) both military and civilian staff.
Ans. (c) both military and civilian staff.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 26.5
Q.1. Which of the following is not a permanent member of the Security Council.
(b) Great Britain.
Ans. (c) India.
Q.2. Which of the following statement is false?
(a) Cold War is over.
(b) Soviet Union has disintegrated.
(c) Globalisation is a reality.
(d) United Nations has been dissolved.
Ans. (d) United Nation has been dissolved.
Q.1. Discuss the basic tenets of India’s foreign policy.
Ans. Basic tenets of India’s foreign policy:
(a) The main characteristics feature of India’s Foreign Policy is the policy of Nonalignment. In fact, India was the first country who initiated the policy of non-alignment which was adopted by most of the countries of Asia and Africa. Pt. Nehru, said as-far-as possible, we don’t want to associate with any of the power blocs. India signed an important treaty with Russia in 1971 to make its relations all the more friendly. For this agreement, the critics started condemning the India’s Foreign Policy.
(b) Non-alignment doesn’t mean that India cannot have friendly relations with other countries. The Janata Government after assuming office in 1977 stressed the policy of non-alignment which is still the list policy for India and in recognition of this fact there is no intention in official or non-official circles to deviate from it.
2. Friendly Relations with Other Countries: To maintain friendly relations with all the countries of the world, especially the neighbouring countries is another basis principle of India’s Foreign Policy. Due to this policy only, India is having very good and friendly relations with almost all the countries of the world and even with the super powers. India has friendly relations with all its neighbours.
3. Opposition to the Policy of Race and Colour Discrimination: Another basic principle of India’s Foreign Policy is this that it has always raised voice against the policy of caste and colour discrimination. India has always favoured the abolition of caste system and it has tried to remove caste-ridden policies from the world also. India has consistently raised the question of the treatment of the people of Indian origin in the Union of South Africa and severely condemned the policy 01 racial segregation followed by the Government of South Africa.
4. Opposition to imperialism and Colonialism: Since India itself remained a victim of British imperialism, it has always opposed imperialism and colonialism. India regards imperialism to be injurious to world peace as it leads to war. So, Indian leaders by visiting other countries and delivering speeches in the U.N. have tried to liberate the slave countries from the clutches of the imperialistic powers. Whenever imperialism tried to dominate, India strongly opposed it. When Holland, after the Second World War, tried to power Indonesia, India protested against
(5) Faith in the of Principles Panchsheel: Panchsheel means five principles. It is the fundamental basis of India’s foreign policy. The word “Panchsheel” was first used on 29th April, 1954, by Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru. These are the principles, which is practised would result in the establishment of world-peace and tranquillity. These principles are as follows:
(i) The nations should respect each other’s territorial unity and sovereignty.
(ii) No nation should attack another nation.
(iii) No nation should interfere in the internal affairs of another nation.
(iv) All the countries of the world should be considered equal irrespective of all distinctions.
(v) All the countries should live peacefully
6. Faith in U.N.O.: India is one of the founder members of the U.N.O. and has full faith in its role. It stands for giving full cooperation to this organisation in its efforts for settling disputes among nations by peaceful means and establishing friendly relations among them.
7. Disarmament: Disarmament means that the production of deadly war weapons should not be stopped but those countries who are having stockpiles of these should destroy them. India strongly supports disarmament and is opposed to the production of such weapons. U.S.A. and Russia and many other countries of the world are manufacturing atom-bombs, hydrogen bonds and other destructive weapons of war. This mad race for inventing deadly war weapons can lead to the Third World War which might destroy the whole mankind since the defence of the nation is of paramount importance and no country can close its eyes to neighbours getting there deadly weapons, by whatever India has been forced to divert means, its funds to produce deterrents, though it is pledged to no-first-use of the same.
8. Promotion of World Peace: Promotion of world peace is one of the main aims of our foreign policy. India believes that all international disputes should be settled by peaceful means through negotiations and not by force.
Q. 2. Discuss the relevance of the Policy of non-alignment.
Ans. The relevance of the policy of nonalignment:
(i) To maintain National Independence: Non-alignment has been regarded as the most important feature of India’s foreign policy. Nonalignment aimed to maintain national in dependence in foreign affairs by not joining any military alliance formed by the USA and Soviet Union in the aftermath of the Second World War. Non-alignment was neither neutrality norton involvement or isolationism. It was a dynamic concept which meant not committing to any military bloc but taking an independent stand on international issues according to the merits of each case.
(ii) To win many supporters for the process of development: The policy of nonalignment won many supporters in the developing countries as it provided an opportunity to them for protecting their sovereignty as also retaining their freedom of action during the tension ridden cold war period.
(iii) To bring Asian and African countries on a common platform: India played an important role in forging the nonaligned movement (NAM). The concept of NAM emerged through a gradual process. Jawahar Lal Nehru took the initiative to convene the Asian Relations Conference in New Delhi in 1947.
(iv) Later on a Conference of 29 countries of Asia and Africa was held in Bandung (Indonesia) in 1955. This was the first gathering of its kind which pledged to work together for colonial liberation, peace, cultural, economic and political cooperation. Bandung to Belgrade in 1961 where the first NAM conference was held was a logical process to project an alternative to cold war bloc politics and assertion of newly independent countries of their independent and sovereign rights.
(v) To avoid the situation of tension created by Cold War: A Cold War was intense rivalry between USA and Soviet Union without fighting a direct war to attract allies in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It started soon after the Second World War and continued for forty five years. These two big countries became two opposite poles known as East and West. The world politics revolved around these two poles. Thus the world became bipolar.
(vi) To strengthen special relationship with Tito and Nasser: Among the non aligned, Nehru had evolved special relationship with President Tito of Yugoslavia and Nasser of Egypt. These three are regarded as the founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement. The non-aligned movement was a group of the newly independent states who refused to accept the dictates of the former colonial masters and decided to act according to their own judgement on issues of international concern. Non-aligned movement is anti-imperialist and in approach. India as the prime architect of non-alignment and as one of the leading members of the nonaligned movement has taken an active part in its growth.
(vii) To provide equal opportunity to all member countries to participate in global: The Non-Aligned Movement is providing all member states, regardless of size and importance, an opportunity to participate in global decision making and world politics. India hosted the Seventh NAM Summit at New Delhi in 1983. India hoped NAM take up the cause of development, disarmament and the Palestine question.
(viii) After the end of Cold War the relevance of NAM: Since NAM was a product of the cold war scenario and the bipolar world, many scholars have questioned the relevance of NAM after the end of cold war and demise of the Soviet Union. However, even in the present scenario NAM has a significant role to play.
(a) First, with the disintegration of Soviet Union, the world faces threat from unipolar world. The NAM can act as a check against US dominance.
(b) Secondly the developed (North) and developing (South) world are divided over several economic issues. The NAM remains a very relevant forum for third world countries to engage of the developed nations in a productive dialogue.
(c) Moreover, the NAM can prove to be powerful instrument for South-South cooperation. Such a thing is essential if the third world countries are to increase their bargaining power vis-a-vis the developed world. India continues to take active part in the non-aligned movement even after the end of cold war.
(d) Finally, the developing countries united under the forum of NAM have to fight for the reform of UN and change it according to the requirements of 21st century.
Q.3. How for India’s claim for a permanent seat in the Security Council justified?
Ans. I. Role and permanent membership of U.N.: The efficiency of peace maintenance in the world depends on the effectiveness of the Security Council but the council has suffered in this legend due to its outdated, unchanged membership. Presently the permanent membership of the Security Council is confined to US, Russia, Great Britain, France and China. However, such composition of the Security Council does not take into account the current global power configuration which has changed since the days when these countries were inducted as permanent members.
II. India’s claim for a permanent seat in Security Council and Justification:
(i) India is the second most populous country in the world comprising almost one fifth of the world population.
(ii) India is also the world’s largest democracy.
(iii) India has participated in virtually all of the initiatives of the U.N.
(iv) It’s role in the UN’s peacekeeping efforts is a long and substantial one.
(v) India has emerged as a potential economic power in the world.
(vi) India has also made regular financial contributions to the UN and never faltered on its payments.
(vii) Since India has emerged as the fourth fastest growing economy and also because of the leadership it has provided in all international fora, its contribution to UN peacekeeping, its track record in espousing the cause of the third world, India has strong case for a permanent seat in the Security Council we are getting support from many friendly countries. A final decision on the matter is likely to take some time, because of its complexity.
All above mentioned factors justifies India’s claim to a permanent seat in the Security Council.
Q.4. What are the challenges that confront India after the end of cold war and disintegration of Soviet Union?
Ans. The challenges that confront India after the end of cold war and disintegration of Soviet Union:
(i) Background: The end of cold war in 1989 has brought about significant changes in the international scene and hence new policy problems for the various states in the developing world including India. The new situation is maked by greater uncertainty and complexity.
(ii) End of Cold war and disintegration of USSR: For India, disintegration of the Soviet Union has meant uncertainty on several aspects viz. supply of weapons system, supply of spare parts, diplomatic support on Kashmir and other politico strategic issues in and outside the United Nations and as a counter weight to US in South Asia. During the last one decade and a half international politics has undergone major changes. The cold war has ended, the world has become unipolar, a number of states have disintegrated, cold war military blocs have lost their significance, some such blocs have dissolved and new regional economic blocs are shaping up.
(iii) Rise of globalisation and emerging challenges: Globalisation has given rise to new set of problems such as terrorism, money laundering, proliferation of weapons, global warming etc. These problems are not endemic to any region but affect all the countries to some extent or the other. This has forced many nation states which were hitherto enemies to cooperate with each other to solve problems which are universal in nature. In this changed international scenario it has become imperative for UN to restructure and reform itself if it is to effectively respond to emerging challenges.
(iv) Terriorism in Jammu and Kashmir: Militancy in Kashmir has emerged as the foremost challenge to our foreign policy. Pakistan and the Western countries blamed India for violating human rights and denied of right to self determination. Gradually, India brought the situation under control. Because of the Kashmir dispute, India’s relations with Pakistan sharply deteriorated. India accused Pakistan of fanning terrorists through cross border terrorism in Kashmir and other parts of our country.
(v) Nuclear test and reactions of Pakistan: The escaping knowns and suspicions were largely responsible for our devision to conduct nuclear weapon tests in 1998, followed by Pakistan’s tests. Pakistan reported to further mischief by suspiciously sending its soldiers into Kargil in order to cut off the Kashmir valley from the rest of India. India handled the challenge firmly and effectively. Now engaging Pakistan in a constructive and composite dialogue process remains a challenge to India’s foreign policy. Because there is a great deal of push from the United States.
(vi) Spread of terrorism in other parts and challenges before India’s foreign policy: Spread of terrorism to corners beyond Kashmir is a challenge as well as opportunity for our foreign policy now a days. India is interested in forgiving anti-terrorism coalition with as many countries as possible.
(vii) Challenges with friendship: Keeping old friendship and looking for new friendships is another challenge for our foreign policy after the cold war has ended. For example, India is interested in strengthening its relations without damaging its relations with Arabian countries. Similarly, India’s foreign policy is tackling new tasks like deepening economic and security cooperation with the United States, while at the same time opposing unilateral actions against Iraq and Yugoslavia.
(viii) Economic aspects of foreign Policy: Finally, India is realising the growing importance of economic aspect of foreign policy. Hence it is trying to establishing a new basis for its relations with neighbouring countries in South Asia, China and the South East Asian countries.
Q.5. Write short note on:
(a) Panchsheel agreement.
(b) India’s contribution to UN efforts for disarmament.
(c) India’s participation in UN peacekeeping.
Ans. (a) Panchsheel agreement: Our first Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru was a believer in world peace. He understood the linkage between peace for development and survival of mankind. He had seen the destruction caused by the two world wars and therefore realised that for the progress of a nation a long spell of peace was needed. In its absence social and economic priorities relating to development tend to get pushed to the background. The production of nuclear weapons strengthened Nehru’s faith in the peaceful philosophy even more. Hence, he gave utmost importance to world peace in his policy planning.
India’s desired peaceful and friendly relations with all countries, particularly the big powers and the neighbouring nations, while signing an agreement with China, on April 28, 1954, India advocated adherence to five guiding principles known as Panchsheel for the conduct of bilateral relations. It includes the following:
1. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
2. Mutual non-aggression.
3. Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
4. Equality and mutual benefit.
5. Peaceful coexistence.
The Panchsheel agreement enumerates best the principles of peaceful co-existence with neighbours. It is an important component of India’s foreign policy.
(b) UN contribution for disarmament and India’s role in this field:
1. Since the first day of its birth United Nation has contributed to world peace is by taking up the cause of disarmament India has also contributed immensely to UN’s disarmament efforts.
Disarmament a limitation, reduction and possible elimination of dangerous (like nuclear) weapons.
2. Since independence India has consistently pursued the objective of global disarmament based on the principles of non-discrimination. Given the destructive capacity of nuclear weapons, India has always believed that a world free of nuclear weapons would enhance both global security. Thus India has always advocated that highest priority be given to nuclear disarmament as a first step towards general and complete disarmament.
3. India has contributed to UN significantly on disarmament in terms of ideas, resolutions, initiatives and bridging differences in action plans. In 1948, India had proposed limiting the use of atomic energy to peaceful purposes and elimination of nuclear weapons from national arsenals. In 1950 India suggested formation of a UN Peace Fund created through peaceful reduction of arms and directing the amount thus released towards development purposes.
4. In 1954, India advocated the cause for a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty. India was the first to become party to partial Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Hence India strongly and consistents refused to join the Treaty.
5. In 1964, India took the initiative to place the item “non-proliferation of weapons” on UN agenda. However, the purpose was defeated by the (1968) carried that a large numbering of countries from going nuclear, without firm restrictions on the few nuclear weapon countries activities Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. Although our country alleged to the oppose to problem.
6. In 1984, India launched a Six-Nation Five Continent Peace Initiative along with Argentina, Greece, Mexico, Sweden and Tanzania. For years later (in a joint declaration issued on the occasion of visit of President Gorbachev of Soviet Union, Rajiv Gandhi made a forceful plea for the elimination of nuclear weapons. The Delhi declaration enumerated ten principles for building a nuclear weapon free world).
7. In 1988 Rajiv Gandhi proposed an Action Plan for ushering in a nuclear weapon free and non-violent world order. The Action Plan envisaged a binding commitment by all nations to the elimination of nuclear weapons in stages by 2010. India is also an original signatory to the Chemical Weapons Convention, having signed it on Jan. 14, 1993 and was among first 65 countries to have ratified the treaty.
8. In 1993 India sponsored a resolution on comprehensive test ban along with the US within the overall framework of advancing towards nuclear disarmament. India was distressed when final version of the CTBT was rushed through without consensus. And it failed to address the security reasons of India. Hence it bravely stood against the steadlity fashion in which some tests use Canned while sophisticated nuclear tests were not in a way.
9. India’s conduct of nuclear tests in 1998 could we linked to the unfair framework of CTBT.Though many initially misunderstood India’s tests as a negative development for disarmament. India pledged to continue to work for inaugural and non-discriminaly nuclear disarmament.
(c) India’s participation in UN Peace Keeping:
1. History of India’s participation: India’s history of participation in UN peacekeeping operations is a long one. The India’s contribution has been described as excellent by many political observers. UN. India’s contribution has been acknowledged by members of the international communities.
Peacekeeping stands for prevention, containment and termination of hostilities between or within states through the non offensive activities of multinational forces of soldiers, police and civilian people sent unto the authority of the United Nations with the concerned. consent of the countries Peacekeeping nations changed in its scope and nature changed according to needs of a conflict situation.
2. Role in different peacekeeping operations: India has taken part in 35 a large number of UN peacekeeping operations in four continents. Its most significant contribution has been to peace and stability in Africa and Asia. Presently India is ranked as the largest troop contributors to UN.
3. India’s contribution in UNEF: The saga of India’s role in UN peace keeping began with the establishment of the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) in the Gaza strip and the Sinai in 1956 after Israeli war against Egypt ended. The Congo in Africa benefited significantly from troop India’s contributed to keep unity and integrity of that history in 1960s.
4. After the end of Cold War: After the end of cold war, India’s contribution to UN peacekeeping remains significant equally, if not more, military personal at the request of the United Nations Secretary General to Angola, Cambodia, Somalia, El Salvador, Sierra Leone, etc. Many of these countres were victims of chaos caused by civil wars. No government machinery collapsed or was discredited. India sent not just troops, but police, doctors, engineers and administrators.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
I. Choose the correct answers:
Q.1. Panchsheel between India and China was signed on:
(a) 1 April, 1954.
(b) 28 April, 1954.
(c) 28 April, 1950.
(d) 1 April, 1950.
Ans.(b) 28 April, 1954.
Q.2. The first conference of NAM was in 1955 in:
(a) New Delhi.
(c) New York.
Ans. (b) Bandung.
Q.3. India’s contribution to peace-keeping included:
(a) both military and civilian staff.
(b) only troops.
(c) only non-military staff.
Ans. (a) both military and civilian staff.
Q.4. The first peace-keeping nation with Indian troops was sent to:
Ans. (a) Sinai.
5. Which of the following statements is false?
(a) India’s role was significant in protecting the Congo from separation.
(b) Peace-keeping was confined to cold war fears.
(c) India is one of the second largest troop contributors to UN peace-keeping.
Ans. (a) India’s role was significant in protecting the Congo from separation.
Q.6. Which of the following statement is false?
(a) United Nations has been dissolved.
(b) Cold War is over.
(c) Soviet Union has disintegrated.
(d) Globalisation is a reality.
Ans. (a) United Nations has been dissolved.
7. Which of the following is not a permanent member of the Security Council?
(c) Great Britain.
Ans. (a) India.
II. Fill in the blanks:
(a) India hosted NAM Summit in …………
Ans. New Delhi.
(b) …………. was the main architect of India’s foreign policy.
Ans. Jawaharlal Nehru.
(c) The first NAM Conference was held at ………… in the year ………….
Ans. Belgrade, 1961.
(d) The Afro-Asian conference,1955 was held at …………..
(e) The Panchsheel agreement was signed between ………….. and ………….
Ans. India and China.
III. Write True or False against the following sentences correctly:
1. Non-alignment and neutrality can be treated as same. (True/False)
2. India opposed the policy of apartheid as practised by the government of South Africa. (True/False)
3. Jawaharlal Nehru along with Tito and Nasser played a major role in the founding of NAM. (True/False)
4. International relations in the post cold war period is based upon the bipolen model.(True/False)
5. Kashmir issue became the biggest foreign policy problem for India in 1990s. (True/False)
6. India’s foreign policy after cold war wants to neglect Arab Countries and embrace. (True/False)
7. India is trying to forge a coalition of countries to counter terrorism. (True/False)