NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 27 India’s Relations With USA And Russia

NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 27 India’s Relations With USA And Russia, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 27 India’s Relations With USA And Russia and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 27 India’s Relations With USA And Russia Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Political Science Notes Paper 317.

NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 27 India’s Relations With USA And Russia

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 27 India’s Relations With USA And Russia, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

India’s Relations With USA And Russia

Chapter: 27



Intext Questions 27.1

Q. Fill in the blanks:

1. Indo-US diplomatic contacts began in ………… (1941/1947) 

Ans. 1941.

2. Which was the military alliances US found in Asia. (SEATO/CENTO) 


3. Name the American President who visited India in 1977. (Jimmy Carter/Richard Nixon)

Ans. Jimmy Carter.

4. The American Congress passed …………. to allow sale of wheat to India. (PL 480/PL 408) 

Ans. Public Law 480.

5. The development assistance from US to India reached a peak in …………. (1962/1965)

Ans. 1962.

Intext Questions 27.2

Q. Tick (✔) the correct answer:

1. The American arms came to India without political conditions. (True/False)

Ans. True.

2. The Bangladesh war of 1971 strained Indo-US relations. (True/False)

Ans. True.

3. During the Clinton administration IndoUS relations improved. (True/False)

Ans. True.

4. USA is against proliferation of nuclear  weapons. (True/False)

Ans. True.

5. USA reacted to India’s nuclear in 1998. (True/False) 

Ans. False.

Intext Questions 27.3

Fill in the blanks:

1. Which steel plant in India was financed by the USSR …………..? (Durgapur, Bhilai, Rourkela).

Ans. Bhilai.

2. In which year Soviet leaders visited for the first time …………? (1955/1957 / 1971).

Ans. 1955.

3. When was the Tashkent Declaration signed ………….? (1966/1971/1974)

Ans. 1966.

4. In which year the Treaty of peace, Friendship and Cooperation with USSR was signed of ………… (1971/1979).

Ans. 1971.

5. The Soviet terrorism policy shifted radically under whose leadership of …………? (Mikhail Gorbachev/Mr. Putin)

Ans. Mikhail Gorbachev.


Q.1. Write a note on the Indo-US political relations during the Cold War.

Ans. 1. The Indo-US political relations during the Cold War: India became and independent country on 15 August, 1947. The Cold War has already started between the US and the Soviet Union. The newly independent India, led by our first Prime Minister, Jawahar Lal Nehru, refused to be drawn into the Cold War politics of competitive military alliances promoted by both the super powers. Nehru choose the policy of “non-alignment”, which aimed to give India the much-needed independence of action in the sphere of foreign policy and relations. America regarded India’s refusal to collaborate as a sign of unfriendliness.

2. Formation of Military Alliances and Indo US relations: The cause of better Indo-US relation received a blow in 1954. The US through Cold war rivalry to India’s doorsteps by forming two military class SEATO and CENTO with Pakistan joined these alliances as a key member. The US military aid Pakistan, given to check the spread of communism, was used against India contrary to initial assurances.

3. China attack on India and US support to India: The October 1962 War between India and China introduced a new element in the Indo-US relations. Within India there were for the first time many voices strongly advocating an alliance with the US against China. Many also wanted a drastic modification of the non-alignment policy. There was perhaps an expectation in the US too that India could now be prepared to head an antiChinese and anti-Communist alliance. When the Chinese invasion scaled up, the Government of India made an urgent appeal to Washington (US) for military supplies. In a speedy response, the US President John F. Kennedy provided India with small arms and equipment. The first batch of arms arrived even before the signing of a deal between the two countries. Further, the US agreed to payment for these arms in rupees.

4. Indo-Pak War 1965 and USA role against India: However, the pro-American goodwill in India evaporated with the US reluctance to openly blame Pakistan for starting the 1965 war against India. In addition to US support to Pakistan, US war on Vietnam contributed to certain coldness in Indo-US relations in 1960s. In the beginning of 1970s, the US rapprochement with China (with Pakistan help) was another turning point.

5. Formation of Bangladesh and proPakistan stand of USA:

(a) The Bangladesh episode created a new crisis in Indo-US relationship too. The US administration (government) took the position that the East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh) revolt was a movement to break up Pakistan and that Pakistan’s brutal attempts to suppress it were justified. During the Bangladesh war (1971) the US moved a anti India resolution in the Security Council and USA froze its economic assistance to India.

(b) The only assistance that continued was food distributed free by voluntary agencies. Not only that; Washington also made military moves. A part of the US Seventh Fleet was ordered into the Bay of Bengal. The nuclear powered aircraft carrier USS Enterprise sailed towards the Bay of Bengal in a show of solidarity with Pakistan army, which could be saved from defeat in Bangladesh. It took some time (a couple of years) for the US to recognize India as the major country in the South Asian region. It was in this spirit of reconciliation, India hosted President Carter’s visit in 1977.

6.The Soviet Union affairs in Afghanistan and Indo-US relations: However, once again another blow struck. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and threw India and United States on opposite sides. Pakistan became the closest ally to facilitate military help to Afghan Mujahideen. No doubt India’s initial sympathies with the Soviet action against Afghanistan harmed relations with America.

Q.2. Describe the Indo-US relations with regard to the nuclear issues.

Ans. The Indo-US relations with regard to the nuclear issues:

1. US besides countries like Canada, helped India established nuclear power stations in 1963. But the cooperation came under clouds in 1970, because of India’s peaceful nuclear explosion at Pokhran in 1974 and India’s refusal to sign Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

2. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act in 1978. This law stipulated that uranium could be exported to those countries which allow all their nuclear plants to be inspected and safeguarded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It must not be forgotten that non-proliferation has been a steadfast goal of the US.

3. Major differences between the two countries over nuclear issues persisted. The US hoped that India would sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) of 1996. But India did not. When it detonated five nuclear bombs in May 1998 again at Pokhran and declared itself a nuclear weapons state, the US imposed military and economic sanctions. Bilateral relation seemed to have reached at lower level. But India stood its ground. For two years, a number of discussions were held them between Jaswant Singh, the Foreign Minister of India and Strobe Talbott, the US deputy secretary of state.

4. Not since the early 1960s had the two countries engaged each other in such a serious and sustained fashion. These discussions transformed the bilateral relationship to a large extent.

5. In 1999 US Congress lifted some of the sanctions against India. This was the first among many such subsequent instances of easing of sanctions by Congress.

6. Recently, there is a growing awareness in the US to recognize India as a responsible country with nuclear weapons.

7. With India opening up its economy in the 1990s, investment by American companies rather than the aid came to be looked up as. more important.

8. The role of the young Indians in the Information Technology (IT), i.e. computer hardware and software. industry added a new dimension to the trade between India and the US.

9. Those IT professionals who settled down in the US became the most successful single ethnic group there. They helped create a different image of India in America.

Q.3. Analyse the Indo-US relations with regard to terrorism.

Ans. Indo-US relations With regard to terrorism: 1.India tried to impress the importance of fighting the menace of terrorism, by highlighting Pakistan’s role in Jammu and Kashmir. But the United States did not show much interest in acting against terrorism till the US cities (New York and Washington) were struck in a big way on 11th September 2001. India offered full cooperation to the US in counter terrorism campaign. However, our plea to US that Pakistan’s support to Taliban in Afghanistan, and Jehadists in Kashmir made it the “epicentre” of international terrorism fell on deaf ears.

2. The US needed Pakistan more than India to contact Al-Qaeda terrorists. So US distinguished “good” terrorists and bad terrorists. They extended sympathy when terrorists attacked Kashmir Assembly and India’s Parliament in October and December 2001 respectively.

3. Anxious to enlist allies in the war against terrorism, USA reverted to Cold War partnership with Pakistan. Once highly critical of the military regime in Pakistan run by General Pervez Musharraf, Washington now welcomed Musharraf as a full-fledged partner in the international coalition against terrorism. The Bush administration lifted the sanctions against Pakistan, pledged to provide generous assistance and gave the Musharraf government a legitimacy it had never before enjoyed. India legitimately feared that Washington would tilt toward Islamabad once more.

4. USA was alarmed that events might go out of control. To show New Delhi that it took seriously India’s accusations about Pakistan’s collusion in these attacks, the administration of President George Bush placed the two Pakistan-based groups India thought responsible for the attacks on the US list of terrorist organisations. While not publicly accepting India’s claim that the Pakistani government itself was involved in terrorist activities, Washington’s words and actions clearly implied that Islamabad could and must, do more to crack down on terrorism.

Q.4. Write a note on Indo-US economic relations.

Ans. Indo-US economic relations:

1. There was a slow start to the economic assistance that India received from the US. India’s food production at the time of independence was insufficient to feed its millions; its industrial and service sector were also quite backward. That is why India was dependent on other countries for bilateral assistance.

2. The first of the many food aid shipments to India from the US started in 1951.

3. In 1954, the US Congress passed a Public Law 480 (PL 480) allowing the sale of surplus American wheat to India. India continued to receive foodgrains from the US under PL 480 till the early 1970s.

4. The story of suspicions in political relationship uses only one side of the coin. During the cold war, despite political differences, India received significant economic and food aid from the US, right from 1950s.

5. In addition to food assistance, the US had provided large bilateral developmental assistance to India. However, you must not forget that this assistance was not available for the development of heavy industry but in the field of agriculture, development of raw materials and minerals. For creating a heavy industrial base, India had to turn to the Soviet Union.

6. The development assistance given by the US reached a peak of around $500 million in 1962.During the Bangladesh war, the US froze its economic aid to India.

7. However,the bilateral assistance started in 1978 after a long gap. But the importance of bilateral aid decreased from the late 1970 onwards because of the substantial increase in multilateral assistance given by the International Development Authority (IDA), the soft-money affiliate of the World Bank. Much of the IDA money was, of course, funded indirectly by the US.

8. In the 1980s, the World Bank lending typically ran into $2 billion (one billion is one hundred crores or one thousand million). So, for India, the US stance towards multilateral financial institution mattered more than the bilateral aid.

9. US had no objection to clearing India’s request for a $5.8 billion loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1981- the largest ever sought by a member country.

Q.5. Highlight the major achievement of Indo-USSR relations during the Cold War.

Ans. Major achievement of Indo-USSR relation during the Cold War:

India’s relations with the USSR (Russia) have been cordial since the day India became independent. Following are the fields of IndoUSSR relation :

1. Political field: In the political field, Russia proved extremely friendly to India whenever there was a war with Pakistan: Russia came to our help. Soon after the Bangladesh war in 1971, India entered into a treaty of friendship and co-operations with Russia for 20 years.

2. Cooperation in the Economic field: Two big steel plants of India-The Bhilai SteelPlant and the Bokaro Steel Plant were set up with the technical assistance and collaboration of Russia. Besides, hundreds of Indian engineers were trained by the erstwhile USSR. Russia also helped us in establishing many heavy industries.

3. Scientific,Technological and Trade cooperation: The Russian Govt.has signed a 15 years agreement on further development of scientific and technological cooperation. Military supplies to India emerged as a prominent symbol of Indo-Soviet friendship. In 1962, just before the India-China war, the MiG (the fighter aircraft) deal was signed despite Chinese protest. The USSR replaced the British as the biggest supplier of fighter aircraft.

4. The Soviet Union hosted a meeting of leaders of India and Pakistan in Tashkent in January 1966 after the 1965 war.

5. In August 1971, the Soviet and the Indian leaders signed the historic Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation, the first of its kind that India had signed. The Treaty provided for immediate mutual consultations in case either country was attacked from outside. This clearly signalled Moscow’s commitment to stand by India on the Bangladesh question.

6. India, in a way,reciprocated with support to the Soviet Union after it invaded Afghanistan in December 1979. India was restrained in its public statements. For India, the Afghanistan issue had been somewhat overshadowed by the virtual military alliance between Pakistan and the US.

7. With the coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985, the Soviet foreign relations ewent through a sea change. The emphasis shifted to the need for mutually beneficial relations with the US and the West. His efforts to build a “Common European Home” undermined the importance of the developing world like India. This along with the Soviet/ Russian rapprochement with China led to a of temporary downturn in Indo-Soviet relations.

Q.6. Analyse the Indo-Russian relations in the post-Cold War phase.

Ans. The Indo-Russian Relations in the Post cold War Phase:

1. The erstwhile USSR disintegrated in December 1991. But it did not affect India’s relations with Russia and most of the other countries of the former Soviet Union. The visit of Russian President Boris Yeltsin to India in. January 1993 further cemented Indo-Russian relations. India is still a key factor for Russia and the friendship between the two countries has stood the test of time. Both the countries signed a New Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation on 28th January, 1993. This treaty replaced the 1971 India. Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation. Both the countries are co-operating in the field of defence, trade and commerce science and technology and culture. Russia has been supplying us spare parts for the Indian defence forces.

2. Our External Affairs Minister Jaswant Singh visited Moscow on June.21,2000 for the first of several high-level India-Russia contacts that set the bilateral tone for the post-Yeltsin era. Mr. Putin’s (Russian President) planned October visit to India will further boost the ties between the two countries.

3. The Indo-Russian relations attained a new high and momentum with the signing of Declaration on Strategic Partnership during the visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin. The Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee’s November 2001 visit resulted in the signing of the Declaration on International Terrorism. This declaration condemned the double standard adopted by the west on terrorism.

4. Although Russia is not a super power any more, its significance for India cannot be underestimated. Being a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN, it has the power of veto. Further, as you already know, Russia is the only important world power that has consistently supported the Indian position on Kashmir and cross-border terrorism. It holds Pakistan responsible for the spread of religious extremism and terrorism in this part of the world.

5. The most recent support for Kashmir came in the form of the joint statement issued at the end of three days visit of Prime Minister Vajpayee to Moscow in November 2003.

6. It called upon Pakistan to prevent infiltration of terrorists across the LoC and at the other points of the border into the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

7. It also asked Pakistan to dismantle the terrorist infrastructure in Pakistan and Pakistan-controlled territory as a condition for purposeful dialogue between the two countries. Among the permanent members of the UN Security Council.

8. Russia is the most prominent and unequivocal supporter of India’s candidature for permanent membership in an expanded Security Council.

9. Russia remains India’s most reliable supplier of inexpensive but high-quality military equipment. Russia supplies more than seventy per cent of India’s defence need including the state-of-the-art weapon systems and the technologies. The major Russian defence export include fighter aircraft (such as MiG-21), main battle tanks (like T-72 MI), helicopters, anti-tank missiles, anti-ship missiles, submarines, nuclear submarine (of Akula-2 class) and aircraft-carrier (such as Gorshkov).

10. In a “landmark deal” in January 2004, India agreed to buy the refurbished Admiral Gorskhov along with 12 MiG-29 fighter-aircraft.The aircraft, carrier will be delivered to India by 2008.

11. Defence co-operation between India and Russian is not limited to procurement but includes production of many of these weapon systems in India (e.g. MiG-27M, Sukhoi-30MK T-72 tanks, etc.). It also covers areas like joint research and development and service to service co-operation. One of the most striking examples) is the of Indo-Russian joint endeavour to develop, manufacture and market the supersonic (flying faster than the speed of sound) Anti-Ship Cruise Missile Systems, Brahms.


I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Indo-US diplomatic contacts began in ………… (1941/1947)


2. Which was/were the military alliance/ alliances US found in Asia? (SEATO/CENTO) 


3. Name the American President who visited India in 1977. (Jimmy Carter/Richard Nixon) 

Ans. Jimmy Carter.

4. The American Congress passed-to allow sale of wheat to India. (PL 480/PL 408) 

Ans. PL 480.

5. The development from US to India reached a peak in ………. (1962/1965)

Ans. 1962.

II. Put Tick mark (✔) against correct answer (True/False).

1. The American arms came to India without political condition. (True/False)

Ans. True.

2. The Bangladesh war of 1971 strained Indo-US relation. (True/False)

Ans. True.

3. During the Cliton administration Indo-US relations improved. (True/False)

Ans. True.

4. USA is against proliferation of nuclear weapons. (True/False)

Ans. True.

5. USA reacted to India’s nuclear tests in 1998. (True/False) 

Ans. False.

III. Multiple Choice Answer Questions:

1. Which steel plant in India was financed by the USSR ………….? 

(a) Durgapur.

(b) Bhilai. 

(c) Rourkela.

(d) Jamshedpur.   

Ans. (b) Bhilai

2. In which year Soviet leaders visited India for the first time ………….? 

(a) 1955. 

(b) 1957.

(c) 1971.

(d) 1950.

Ans. (a) 1955.

3. When was the Tashkent Declaration signed ……….?

(a) 1962. 

(b) 1966. 

(c) 1971.

(d) 1974.

Ans. (b) 1966.

4. In which year the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation with USSR was signed …………..?

(a) 1971. 

(b) 1979. 

(c) 1980.

(d) 1981.

Ans. (a) 1971.

5. The Soviet terrorism policy shifted radically under the leadership of …………… 

(a) Mikhail Gorbachev. 

(b) Mr. Putin. 

(c) Mr. Leni. 

(d) None of above. 

Ans. (a) Mikhail Gorbachev.

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