NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 28 India And Iis Neighbours: China, Pakistan And Sri Lanka

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NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 28 India And Iis Neighbours: China, Pakistan And Sri Lanka

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India And Iis Neighbours: China, Pakistan And Sri Lanka

Chapter: 28




1. China became a communist country in the year ………. (1947, 1949, 1962).

Ans. 1949.

2. Bandung Conference of Afro-Asian countries was held in the year ………… (1945, 1949, 1955).

Ans. 1955.

3. ………….. serves as the boundary line between India and China in the eastern sector. (Huang Hua border, McMohan Line, IndoChina border).

Ans. McMohan Line.

4. China liberalised its economy in …………… (early 1970s, late 1970s, early 1990s) 

Ans. Late 1970s.

5. …………… the President of China visited India in the year 1996. (Chou-Enlai, Mao zedong, Jiang Zemin) 

Ans. Jiang Zemin.


State whether the following statements are True or False:

1. The two-nations theory was accepted by Indian National Congress. (True/False)

Ans. False.

2. Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir demanded assistance from both India and Pakistan but only India responded. (True/False)

Ans. False.

3. Pakistan occupied Kashmir is known as Azad Kashmir in Pakistan. (True/False) 

Ans. True.

4. The people of East Pakistan declared themselves independent in April 1971. (True/False)

Ans. True.

5. The Simla Agreement was signed between India and Bangladesh in 1972. (True/False)

Ans. False.

6. Kargil war happened immediately after the nuclear test of India in May 1972. (True/False)

Ans. False.


Answer the following:

1. When did Sri Lanka gain her independence?

Ans. February 4,1948.

2. Name the two categories of Tamil speaking people in Sri Lanka.

Ans. Indian Tamils and Ceyclonese Tamils.

3. Regarding which island did India surrender her claims to Sri Lanka in 1974?

Ans. Kacchativu island.

4. In what year did India send IPKF to Sri Lanka?

Ans. 1987.


Q.1. Discuss the causes of 1962 war between India and China.

Ans. The Causes of 1962 war between India and China:

1. Marking of Boundary and China’s Attack: The 1950 were marked by the boundary dispute between India and China, the flash point of which unfortunately caused a war between the two countries in 1962. China first started to claim large parts of Indian territory in North East Frontier Agency (NEFA, now Arunachal Pradesh) and Ladakh by publishing maps in which these were shown as included in China.

2. Occupation of a large India’s area by China: China continued extending its borders and also constructed a 110 mile long road across Aksai China area (Ladakh) of India in 1956-57. In 1959, China put claim to some 51,000 sq. miles of Indian territory and also denied the validity of McMohan line.

3. Tibet Issue: By this time Tibet had been fully integrated into China; it was in a strong position at the India-China border with Chinese troops posted all along. While the two countries were in dispute over the McMohan line issue.

4. Chinese activities in NEFA and Ladakh: China launched a massive attack upon India in October 1962, in the NEFA as well as the Ladakh sector. After overrunning large areas of Indian territory, China announced a unilateral cease-fire after occupying huge territory of India 200 sq. miles in the North Eastern sector and 15,000 sq. miles in Ladakh.

Q.2. Explain normalisation of the relations between India and China since the 1990s.

Ans. Normalisation of relations between India and China:

(i) After the end of War between India and China in 1962. The both countries had stained relations upto 1975. The both countries resumed diplomatic relations in 1976 by exchanging ambassadors.

(ii) The efforts of normalisation of SinoIndian relations received a boost when Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s paid a successful five day visit to China in 1988. The two countries pledged to settle the border dispute through dialogue.

(iii) Several high level visits followed including visit by Ex-Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in 2003.

(iv) The two countries agreed to keep the border dispute apart, and develop friendly relations in other fields. Until the border dispute is resolved, both countries agreed to maintain peace and tranquillity on the Line of Actual Control (LAC).

(v) Nevertheless, there was suddenly a brief setback in the mutual ties of the two after the nuclear explosions by India during 1998. These were followed by sharp Chinese reaction and its leading role in getting the resolutions condemning the tests in UN and similar for a, passed. These tests by India were seen as neutralising Chinese prominence in the region.

(vi) One could see a clear shift in the Chinese attitude towards India. The fact that erstwhile USSR had mended fences with China, there were no more apprehensions from the South. Moreover, China’s post-1979 economic transformation demanded big markets for its massive production under economic liberalisation.

(vii) President Jiang Zemin’s visit to India in 1996 witnessed a major consolidation of this progress. This was first ever visit of China’s head of State to India. China’s withdrawal of support to Naga and Mizo rebels; meaningful silence on the status of Sikkim (China considered Sikkim’s status as that of an independent state) and a neutral stand on Kashmir issue could be seen as positive shift in Chinese attitude towards India.

(viii) But the Chinese posture of neutrality during the Indo-Pak military showdown in Kashmir, Kargil sector in 1999 exhibited China’s inclination to toe a softer and friendly line with India. In fact, Chinese refusal to interfere in the conflict forced Pakistan for cessation of hostilities with India.

(ix) However, Ex-Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee’s 2003 visit to China is a renewed effort in the promotion of close and cordial ties between the two neighbours. The border agreement has recognized the Nathula Pass in Sikkim as a border pass, implying that China no more considers Sikkim as an independent state.

(x) Another positive breakthrough was the Joint Declaration that underlined the need to explore a framework of a boundary settlement at political level of bilateral relations. This is an acknowledgement that the key issue in resolving the dispute is political. This is seen as Beijing’s readiness to give up its policy of delaying dialogue.

(xi) India’s National Security Advisor and Chinese Vice Minister have been appointed for holding the tasks.

(xii) The developments at the diplomatic and political levels have been supplemented by fresh initiatives at the economic level to strengthen bilateral relations. The border trade between India and China has crossed $ 10 billion quickly.

Q.3. “Kashmir is the root cause of all problems between India and Pakistan.” Do you agree?

Ans. Indo-Pakistan relation and Kashmir issue:

(i) From August 1947 to 1948: At the time of partition Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) was one of those several princely states, the fate of which was left uncertain in 1947. Pakistan desired that Kashmir with Muslim majority population should join Muslim country, Pakistan. But the popular leader of National Conference opposed Pakistan’s ideology. Maharaja Hari Singh did not take a decision until Pakistan sent armed intruders into the Kashmir valley in October 1947. Seeking Indian help to repulse the Pakistani intruders Maharaja signed the ‘Instrument of Accession’ making Jammu and Kashmir a part of Indian Union.

(ii) Assurance of Nehru to ruler of J&K: On this occasion, as a true democrat, Prime Minister Nehru assured that after Pakistani aggression was cleared, the future status of the state would be decided on the basis of wishes of the people of Kashmir on the future question of accession.

(iii) Kashmir issue in UN and PoK: Since India did not want an open clash with Pakistan, it referred the matter to the United Nations. Indian forces saved Srinagar from the invaders, pushed back the Pakistanis from the Kashmir Valley. But the whole of Kashmir could not be recaptured, at it would have meant direct and difficult was between the two new nations. India sought United Nations help in 1948. A cease-fire came to be implemented on January 1, 1949. It left a large part of Jammu and Kashmir (nearly 2/5 of the State) under Pakistan’s possession, which we call Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK).

(iv) UN effort in 1950-1953: In 1950s the UN mediators put forward several plans to resolve the dispute, but they failed to bridge the differences between the two countries.

(v) Kashmir issue from 1954 to 1965: The problem of Kashmir is still pending. Plebiscite was to be conducted only after Pakistan withdrew its forces from the occupied territory, as per the UN resolution of 1948, Pakistan refused to comply. Hence, India pleaded that the wishes of the people were ascertained in 1954 in the form the direct election to the Constituent Assembly which satisfied the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. The mediation come to an end. Pakistan was desperate to capture Kashmir. Thinking that India’s army was weak after defeat in the war with China in 1962, Pakistan tried through a war to take Kashmir in 1965. But Indian forces defeated the Pakistanis designs.

(vi) Simla pact and Indo-Pak relations including Kashmir Issue: In order to normalise relations India invited Pakistan for an agreement, the result of which was the Simla Pact of 1972. This Simla agreement however bears important significance as the two countries agreed to seek the settlement of all bilateral problems, including Kashmir, mutually without the intervention of any third party. Thus under the Simla Pact, the Kashmir issue cannot be raised in international or any other forum, although Pakistan has not hesitate to ignore the sprit of the agreement.

(vii) PoW: The Simla agreement also talked about the return of Prisoners of War (PoW). Though Pakistan’s territory in India’s possession was returned, a new cease-fire line (in place of the old cease-fire line of 1948-49) was drawn, which is known as the LoC.

(viii) Encouragement to terrorist by Pakistan against India: Pakistan found ways other than open war to destabilise India by encouraging and assisting terrorism in Punjab, and the State-sponsored militancy in Jammu and Kashmir since the mid-1980s. Pakistan still continues to encourage terrorist and separatist tendencies in Kashmir, operating majorly from terrorist training camps situated in Pok.

(ix) Kashmir Issue and relation between India and Pakistan from May 1999: The sanctity of the LoC that came to be agreed upon between India and Pakistan under the Simla Agreement of 1972, was violated by Pakistan in May 1999 as a part of a big plan.

This was done when the Pakistani forces infiltrated into India, after crossing the line of control in Kargil, Drass and Batelik sectors of J&K. Indian army once again gave a befitting defeat in a war that continued for about 60 days.

(x) UN and Kashmir Problem: The purpose of Pakistani operation in Kargil was to create a crisis with a threat of nuclear war, which would in turn ensure intervention by the United States in its favour on Kashmir dispute. Neither United States nor China came to Pakistani’s help. In fact, Pakistan was handed a diplomatic and military defeat.

(xi) Nuclear Test and efforts towards improvement of relations: Indo-Pakistan relations acquired an entirely new dimension in the context of nuclear tests by both India and Pakistan in May 1998. The relations between the two neighbours hit a new low. India has been facing a nuclear threat arising out of China’s clandestine support to build up of the nuclear weapon capability of Pakistan since the mid seventies. No doubt, Pakistan’s nuclear policy is targeted against India.

(xii) The extreme bitterness and tension between India and Pakistan in the aftermath of the nuclear tests of May 1998 did bring with it an increasing realisation on both sides that things could not continue in the same manner indefinitely. That, some meeting ground between the two neighbours has to be found. Thus, foreign secretary level talks started, and a direct bus service between Delhi and Lahore was proposed by. Prime Minister Vajpayee’s.

(xiii) Bus diplomacy and relation between India and Pakistan: Bus Diplomacy in 1998 marked a tremendous goodwill between the two countries. The Lahore Declaration signed at the time underlined the need for resolving all outstanding issues, including that of Kashmir, through peaceful means. While India agreed to bring Kashmir onto the agreed agenda along with other areas of mutual benefits, Pakistan conceded to bilateralism. The reference to the ‘composite and integrated’ dialogue process implied that the two would not be a hostage to any single issue.

(xiv) Kargil War and afterward events: Despite the great tension caused by the Kargil war and the terrorist attack against our Parliament (December 2001) the unconditional dialogue has been resumed. The emphasis in these talks is to promote people to people contacts across LoC, and also improve economic ties between India and Pakistan Change of government in India has not meant any deviation from our commitment to peaceful and prosperous co-existence with Pakistan.

Q.4. Trace the causes of the separatist problem in Sri Lanka. Also discuss the steps taken by India to help resolve this problem.

Ans. I. Discussion of the causes of the separation problem in Sri Lanka:

(i) Jaffna Province of Sri Lanka has large concentration of Tamil population. The problem became serious when Tamilians began demanding a national homeland or “Eelam” in northern Sri Lanka. It is important to understand that there are essentially two categories of Tamilians in Sri Lanka.

(ii) The Ceylon Tamils whose forefathers had migrated to Sri Lanka centuries ago. They are estimated to be one million. The second category is of Indian Tamils whose forefathers were taken by the Britishers as plantation workers in the 19th century. They are another one million, many of them without citizenship. The problem of their status dominated early India-Sri Lanka relations. The conflict with Ceylon Tamils came later.

(iii) The Sinhalese fear Tamil domination, which is the principal reason behind the ethnic conflict. The difference between the two communities was exploited by British rulers in order to check the growing Sinhalese nationalism. The Tamils were allowed to enter the administration structure and thus gradually took control of the trade and profession.

(iv) Scarce economic resources and opportunities plus the majority pressure from its own people forced the Government of Sri Lanka to pass Series of steps to reducing the importance of Tamils- Indian and the Ceylonees.

(v) The representation of Tamilians in public service in 1948 was 30 percent, but by 1975 it had fallen to mere 5 percent. Sinhalese were encouraged to settle down in Tamil dominated in large numbers. areas

(vi) The citizenship law of 1948 and 1949 had deprived about 10 lakh Indian Tamils of political rights. The Tamil youth who had lost faith in non-violence organised themselves into Liberation Tigers. The aim of these ‘Tigers’ is a sovereign Tamil State of Eelam.

(vii) The issue of Tamilians, and the policy pursued by government cast a dark shadow on Indo-Sri Lanka relations. India from time to time complained against the discriminatory policy of the Ceylon Government.

(viii) The agreement of 1964 sought to solve the problem of about stateless persons (Indian Tamils) in Sri Lanka. About 3 lakhs of these people were to be granted Sri Lankan citizenship and about 6 lakh 25 thousand persons were to be given citizenship of India. These people were given 15 years time to shift to India in instalments.

(ix) Later in 1974, the fate of the rest 1 lakh 50 thousand stateless persons was decided. It was agreed between the two countries that half of them were to be given citizenship of Sri Lanka and rest would become Indian nationals. Thus, the issue of stateless persons was sorted out peacefully between the two countries.

(x) A territorial dispute arose between India and Sri Lanka over the ownership of one mile long and only 300 yard wide small island known as Kacchativu, in 1968. In 1974 under the agreement signed between the two countries, India accepted Sri Lankan ownership of the island.

II. History of Tamil Separatism and impact on India:

(a) The ethnic problem between Tamils and Sinhalese had a long history. It assumed serious proportions in 1983. As the gulf between the communities developed, militancy, separatist organisations became active.

(b) Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) demanded separate homeland for Tamils in 1988 Tamil Eelam. A reign of terror was unleashed against the agitating Tamils in 1983. .

(c) During 1983-86, about 2 lakh Tamils were rendered homeless. Racial riots worst in the history made thousands of Tamils refugees in India.

III. Steps taken by India to resolve separatism problem:

1. India offered to help resolve the crisis but it was interpreted as “Indian intervention in Sri Lanka” on behalf of the Tamils. When the situation became grim India and Sri Lanka signed an agreement in 1987.

2. India offered military assistance under the Accord. Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was sent to Sri Lanka to help restore normalcy in the country. The deployment of IPKF was also an extension of India’s policy of reminding Sri Lanka and outside powers that if their involvement inside the region were to have an anti-Indian orientation, New Delhi would not remain a mute spectator.

3. Though the accord of 1987 was a triumph of Indian diplomacy, it proved to be costly for India. India lost about 12,000 soldiers, and it costed Rs. 2 crore a day on IPKF in the height of its involvement.

4. The worst part was that the Tamils turned against IPKF and a fighting broke out between the two. Rajiv Gandhi, the architect of India-Sri Lanka Accord of 1987 was assassinated in 1991 at the behest of LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) leader, Velupillai Prabhakaran.

5. India encouraged Sri Lanka to invite the peace process between Tamils and Sinhalese. In 1998 Sri Lanka invited Norway to work out a peaceful solution to the ethnic problem.

6. India stands for unity of Sri Lanka. The greatest milestone of this process was the ceasefire agreement of 2002 between LTTE and Sri Lanka and the revival of the dialogue between the two.

7. From India’s long-term point of view, Norway recognized India’s legitimate interests in Sri Lanka and stated that it has no desire to come in the way of any Indian initiative to end the conflict in the region.


A. Fill in the blanks:

(i) ………… was separated in August 1947 and became India’s immediate neighbour.

Ans. Pakistan.

(ii) …………. and ………… are the two greats  of Asia.

Ans. India,China.

(iii) China became the People’s Republic of China in ……………

Ans. 1949.

(iv) China occupied Tibet in …………..

Ans. 1950.

(v) Banded Conferences of Afro-Asian countries was held in the year …………….

Ans. 1955.

B. True or False:

(i) In 1959 China gave willingly nearly 51,000 sq. miles of her territory to India.

Ans. False.

(ii) Rajiv Gandhi was Prime Minister of India 1988.

Ans. True.

(iii) Ex. Prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited in China 2003.

Ans. True.

(iv) Sri Lanka was earlier known as ceylon till 1972.

Ans. True.

I. Choose the correct answers:

Q.1. Which country is not India’s immediate neighbours?

(a) USA. 

(b) Pakistan.

(c) Nepal. 

(d) China.

Ans. (a) USA.  

Q.2. Point out that neighbour country of India whose name has been changed: 

(a) Bhutan. 

(b) Burma. 

(c) Sri Lanka. 

(d) Bangladesh. 

Ans. (b) Burma (now called Myanmar). 

Q.3. Which country is also called Sino?

(a) Sri Lanka.  

(b) Nepal. 

(c) China.

(d) Pakistan.

Ans. (c) China.

Q.4. The Communist revolution took place in China in ……………. year.

(a) 1946.

(b) 1947.

(d) 1949.

(c) 1948.

Ans. (d)1949.

Q.5. The second name of Formosa is 

(a) Taiwan. 

(b) Talibana.

(c) Tehrana.

(d) Turkistana.

Ans. (a) Taiwan.

Q.6. In which year Nehru’s China policy received the first jolt in the year …………….

(a) 1950.

(b) 1951. 

(c) 1952.

(d) 1953.

Ans. (a) 1950.

Q.7. Bandung Conference of Afro-Asian countries was held in the year ……………

(a) 1945.

(b) 1955.

(c) 1949.

(d) 1959.

Ans. (b) 1955.

Q.8. Which boarder/line serves as the boundary line between India and China in the eastern sector?

(a) Huang Hua border. 

(b) Mc Mohan Line. 

(c) Man Mohan Kumar Mangalam Line. 

(d) Indo-China Boarder. 

Ans. (b) Mc Mohan Line which year-decade China.

Q.9. In which year-decade China  liberalised its economy?

(a) Early 1970s. 

(b) Late 1970s.

(c) Early 1990s.  

(d) Late 2000s.

Ans. (b) Late 1970s

Q.10. What was the name of the President of China who visited India in the year 1996?

(a) Chou-Enlai. 

(b) Mao Tse Tung.

(c) Jiang Zemin.

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (c) Jiang Zemin.

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