NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 24 Good Governance, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 24 Good Governance and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 24 Good Governance Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Political Science Notes Paper 317.
NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 24 Good Governance
Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 24 Good Governance, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.1
Q. Fill in the blanks:
1. Governance is concerned with formulation of……… to improve to improve ………….. of life of the people. (strategy / Revenue Collection Scheme; Quality / Family Relations)
Ans. Strategy, quality.
2. Kautilya’s scheme of good governance is based on ……..……. administration. (People caring / Authoritarian and arbitrary).
Ans. People caring.
3. The concept of good governance became popular in administrative discussion with the publication of ………….. (World Bank Report 1989 & 1992 / Mechiavali’s the Prince).
Ans. World Bank Report 1989 & 1992.
4. Governance is good if it based on …………. (People’s consent / Guardian Like behaviour of the civil servants)
Ans. People consent.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.2
Q. Fill in the blanks:
1. Corruption is an …………. use of authority for personal benefits (Legal / Illegal)
2. Corruption is concerned with ………. in public life. (Secrecy / Probity)
3. Corruption can be reduced by …………. (Simplification / Reviving of Rules and Regulations)
4. Population has been stabilised in …………. (Uttar Pradesh / Kerala)
5. Violence is the greatest threat to ………… (Rule of Law / Police)
Ans. Rule of law.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 24.3
Q. Fill in the blanks:
1. Good governance can be secured through …………. (People’s involvement / Civil Service alone)
Ans. People’s involvement.
2. Use of the computer makes the delivery of the services …………… (Costly / Cheap)
3. Madhya Pradesh in India provides a number of services to the people through ………… (Gyandoot Programme / Gyan Darshan)
Ans. Gyandoot Programme.
Q.1. Discuss the meaning and the concept of good governance.
Ans. I. The Meaning of Good Governance:
1. In order to understand the concept of good governance we shall have first to know the meaning of governance. What is governance? It has been defined as the use of power and authority by those in government to provide goods and services to the people, to uphold the common good and fulfil the aspirations and needs of the common men.
2. Governance, therefore, is concerned with power, strategies, policies, plans and projects that aim at improving the substance or quality of life.
3. The people expect their government to proceed with its tasks in a way that maximum results follow with minimum cost or investment.Governance becomes good when the decisions and actions of the government are based on peoples’ consent,legitimacy and accountability.
4. Thus good governance is concerned with high quality in governance. All sections of the society today judge their government by their governance.
5. Earlier coercive state was considered to be most effective instrument of good governance. In ancient and mediaeval India a king, though authoritarian, was supposed to be conscientious and responsive to the needs of the subjects.
II. Concept of the Good Governance:
1. In modern times, good governance implies enlightened citizenship as well as accountable and Constitutional government. Good governance is also a key developmental concept today. The debate only relates to the question of how to bring about development. It is a concept that is inclusive and positive in nature.
2. It is inclusive in so far as it aims at involvement of people in the process of development. Thus development is not merely people-oriented but people centred.
3. It is positive to the extent of building up new levels of skills, knowledge and support for development. Let us now discuss some of the features or characteristics of good.governance.
Q.2. Identify three features of good governance. Explain the importance of accountability in good governance.
Ans. Features of Good Governance:
1. Good governance always maintain law and order.
2. It runs people caring administration.
3. Good governance is always corruption -free and tries to maintain justice and rationality as the basis of its all decisions.
Q.3. Discuss the main hindrances to good governance.
Ans. Hindrances to Good Governance Introduction: Countries at the international and national levels have shown much seriousness about good governance. But how is it that they have not been finding it so easy to provide to all their citizens a just, equal and free social order. What are the factors that are blocking the road to good governance? There are a number of factors responsible for the failure to achieve the desired ends, but the following are the major threats to good governance:
(B) Population Growth.
(C) Culture of Violence,
(A) Corruption: Corruption is an illegal use of authority for personal gains. Corruption is a universal disease causing harm to the people and government almost everywhere in the world. However, in the countries like India it has assumed the shape of a cancer.
(B) Population Growth: Good governance is concerned not merely with effective laws, procedures and practices, it is also concerned with mobilisation and utilisation of country’s social and economic resources in a manner that benefits all the members of the society. However, one finds that development efforts have failed to eliminate poverty, unemployment and illiteracy and to secure to all citizens equitable access to even primary education and health, food, water and a house. From a population of about 35 crores at the time of India’s Independence to more than 100 crores now is a cause of concern.
(C) Culture of Violence:
1. Resort to illegal force is considered to be a law and order problem.But when one looks at it from the point of view of the principles of good governance,it becomes clear that peace and order is the first step to development.
2. Strikes,riots, terror attacks onerant of this harmful culture of violence. The government can focus on economic, social and political development if it is free from the concerns of threat to public safety and security in terms of life and property.
3. Moreover,terrorism is also the greatest threat to the rule of law because terror replaces the law or seeks to subvert the law.
4. Terrorism is a hindrance to progress. No industrialist would be willing to invest in an area, which is affected by violence and terrorist activities. This produces an adverse impact on employment, health, education and the provision of other services to the people in the long run.
5. he social life also comes to a halt and people become almost in house prisoners or suffer from mental agonies of different types if they live under the shadow of violence and terrorism.
6. The issue of human rights also comes to the fore. Terrorists seldom respect the human rights of the common man.
Q.4. Describe measures for good governance, the government of India has taken.
Ans. Measures have been taken by the Indian Government for good governance: One can draw a long list of the measures to realise the goals of good governance.Let us discuss two measures,viz.to ensure people’s participation and the use of computers and information technology efficient,effective,honest,transparent and law abiding system of governance.
I. People’s Participation for Good Governance:
(i) People’s participation is given increasing priority in the scheme of governance. It is recognized that people’s involvement in decision-making and decision implementation would act as:
(a) A check on indifferent and inefficient bureaucracy. In other words people could act as pressure on administration to act and act in time.
(b) Instruments for a responsive and accountable administration.
(c) A medium of development administration and self-government.
(d) A mobiliser and user of local resources for local development.
(ii) The people can perform this role either by becoming a member of any social organisation or interest and pressure groups or welfare organisation or a political party or by becoming a part of bureaucracy and government at national, regional or local levels.
(iii) The governments are seeking to involve people by the democratic decentralisation-the panchayats and municipalities or by association in advisory or consultative committees and institutions.
(iv) People also organise themselves to demand a policy to meet the expectations of the citizens. They organise as group to support a people friendly decision of the government as they also oppose anti-people measures taken by it. One can mention the name of organisations like:Narmada Bachao Andolan, Bachpan Bachao Andolan, Peoples’ Initiative,Helpage India,Common Cause Shiksha Bachao Andolan etc.in this context. People,thus,can play a significant role as opinion-makers both in favour and against the government and administration.
(v) At times,individuals tend to work for the resolution of conflicts within the society or between the society and the state. Individual can also act as a link between the people and the bureaucracy by supplying the information about the action /reaction of the people and their roles. By such feedback the civil servants can remedy the situation.
(vi) Since the levels of education, information, knowledge of the government, political and the economic status condition people’s participation, a large number of local people remain outside the system of governance. Therefore, our country has made deliberate attempt to include the poorer sections in the process of decision-making and development. Reservation of 33.3% seats for women in the panchayati raj and the urban local government is one such step. There is a provision for reservation of seats for SCs/STs in the proportion to their population in the areas of local government.
Example For instance,if there are 20% Scheduled Castes in a district then 20% seats shall be reserved for them in the Zila Parishad. Similarly, if the number of Scheduled Tribes in 1% in a village then 1% seats shall be reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the Gram Panchayat.Reservation for the backward classes has been left to the state government.
(vii) It may not be wrong, however,to state that there is still a gap between what is provided and what is implemented in the area of the people’s participation in governance, especially in the local governments.It is only a handful of people who appear to be empowered.
II. Role of Computer and Information Technology (IT) As Means of Good Governance:
(a) From the discussion held so far you must have noted that the essence of good governance is of being people-friendly and power-sharing systems on the one hand and being responsive, accessible, moral, transparent and corruption free systems on the other.
(b) The use of computers and information technology is visualised as a very effective tool of good governance. It seeks to improve.
(i) Delivery of services to the people at low.
(ii) Empowerment of people through dissemination of information.
(iii) Openness and transparency in the working of government.
(iv) Innovations and introduction of new ideas and concepts in the performance by the government and the people.
(v) Effective linkages between citizens and the administration.
(vi) Comprehensive monitoring and assessment of the performance of the government.
(c) Computers, thus, can increase people’s reach to the information relating to rules, regulations or procedures or about the welfare and development scheme of the government or about the welfare and development scheme of the government or information about weather and climate that can be used by farmers and citizens.
(d) It is said corruption is the product of face-to-face meeting between the giver and receiver of a decision. Computers can reduce their personal contacts to curb corruption. For example, a farmer can get his land record copy on the computers, a citizen can pay any bill or tax without actually going to the cash counter and suffering the agony of long queue or loosing the earnings of the day.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
Choose the correct answer:
Q.1. Write the full form of the following:
Ans. (a) OECD = The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
(b) UNDP = United Nations Development Programme.
(c) ST = Scheduled Tribes.
(d) SC = Scheduled Castes.
((e) OBC = Other Backward Castes.
(f) MBO = Management by Objective.
Q.2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) Governance is good if it based on ……….. (people’s consent / Guardian like behaviour of civil servants).
Ans. People’s consent.
(b) The concept of good governance became popular in administrative discussion with the publication of …….….. (World Bank Report 1989 and 1992 / Mechiavali’s the Prince).
Ans. World Bank Report 1989 and 1992.
(c) Governance is concerned with to improve of formulation of …………. to improve …………. of life of the people. (Strategy / Revenue Collection Scheme, Quality / Family Relations)
(d) Corruption is an ………….. for personal benefits.use of …………. authority (legal / illegal)
(e) Corruption is connected with……..in public life. (secrecy / probity)
(f) Violence is the greatest threat to ………… (Rule of law / Police)
Ans. Rule of law.
(g) Population has been stabilised in ………… (Uttar Pradesh / Kerala)
(h) Corruption can be reduced by …………. (simplification / reviving of rules and regulations)
(i) Every enlightened citizen expects and aspires that his/her government should be ………….. (good and effective / corrupt and cheat)
Ans. Good and effective.