NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 8 Preparation of Food

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 8 Preparation of Food Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 8 Preparation of Food and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 8 Preparation of Food Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Home Science Notes Paper 321.

NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 8 Preparation of Food

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Home Science Chapter 8 Preparation of Food, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Home Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Preparation of Food

Chapter: 8




Q. 1. Give one similarity and one difference between:

(i) Stewing and Simmering.

Ans: Stewing and Simmering: Both cooked on slow fire/little water. Stew is covered and simmering is without lid. 

(ii) Peeling and Blanching.

Ans: Peeling and Blanching:

Peeling: Removing skin with a knife. 

Blanching: Removing skin by dipping in hot water and then in cold.

(iii) Shredding and Grating.

Ans: Shredding and Grating: Breaking food in very small pieces. Shredding is with knife, grating with grater.

(iv) Grinding and Mashing.

Ans: Grinding: Breaking food to produce a paste. Grinding is with a grinder, can also be for producing powder.

Mashing: Make food soft and then press to produce paste. 

Q. 2. Give five reasons for cooking.

Ans: (i) Taste.

(ii) safety.

(iii) softening.

(iv) variety.

(v) attractive. and

(vi) flavour.


Q. 1. Name the method of cooking the following: 

(i) Seekh Kabab.

Ans: Spit Roasting.

(ii) Biscuits and cakes. 

Ans: Baking.

(iii) Brown toast.

Ans: Toasting.

(iv) Popcorns

Ans: Pan/pot roasting.

Q. 2. State whether following statements are true or false.

(i) Grilling is a method of cooking by dry heat. T/F

Ans: True.

(ii) Steaming food is possible only by direct method. T/F

Ans: True.

(iii) While baking, food is cooked with the help of hot air. T/F

Ans: True.

(iv) For boiling food, water must boil all the time. T/F

Ans: True.

(v) Simmering is done at low temperature. T/F

Ans: True.

(vi) Toasting means browning the food from all sides. T/F

Ans: True.

(vii) When food is cooked on direct flame it is called roasting. T/F

Ans: True.


Q. 1. Fill in the lanks in the following statements.

(i) When food is cooked between two heated elements the procedure is called ___________.

Ans: toasting.

(ii) When food is cooked in a hot chamber it is called ___________.

Ans: baking.

(iii) When food is cooked by dipping it in hot water it is called ___________.

Ans: boiling.

(iv) When food is cooked by dipping in hot oil it is called ___________.

Ans: deep frying.

(v) When food is cooked by touching the hot greased pan the process is called ___________.

Ans: shallow frying.

(vi) When food is cooked with hot vapour it is called ___________.

Ans: steaming.

(vii) When food is cooked on hot flame it is called ___________.

Ans: grilling.

(viii) When food is cooked by placing it in hot sand/ash it is called ___________.

Ans: roasting.

(ix) When food is cooked by placing it in the hot sun it is called ___________.

Ans: solar cooking.

(x) When food is cooked in sealed container the process is called ___________.

Ans: pressure cooking.

Q. 2. Differentiate between deep frying/shallow frying. 

Ans: Although most foods can be fried using any of the methods, shallow frying and deep frying, the following table indicates the foods most typically prepared with each method. If frying twice, use fresh oil each time; do not use the same oil over again.

Shallow frying Deep frying 
FoodShrimp, chicken and other small pieces of food including vegetables such as potatoes.Shrimp, chicken, cutlets, vegetables such as potatoes, onion rings, eggplant; fritters or doughnuts.
EquipmentHeavy fry pan or electric skilletMedium to heavy weight 8-10″ wide by 4-6″ deep saucepan or electric deep fryer.
Spatula or tongs for turning foodFrying basket; tongs or slotted spoon.
Special frying thermometerSpecial frying thermometer or temperature control
Amount of melted shortening or oilEnough to partially submerged food 1/2-1″Enough to fill a 4-6″ deep saucepan half full, or a deep fryer within 1/2″ of the fill mark
ProcedureHeat shortening/oil to 365-375° F, at medium-high heat; place food in panHeat shortening/oil to 365-375° F, submerge food, cook until golden brown and done
Turn when brown; complete cooking and browning on other sideRemove food from fryer
Drain food on paper towel Serve immediatelyDrain on paper towel Serve immediately

Q. 3. Which method of cooking does a vendor use to prepare a plate of tasty noodles? 

Ans: First a plate of noodles is cooked (boiled). Chowmein in which the noodles are pan-fried and then mixed with stir-fried vegetables, meat and seafood.

Q. 4. List the precautions we need to take while frying food.

Ans: While nutrition is an important consideration when choosing cooking oil or fat, all fats don’t act alike when put on the stove. As with any frying, if the temperature is too high, the food will burn on the outside and be underdone on the inside. If the oil is not hot enough, the fried food will be greasy.

Some precautions while frying food: 

(i) Food should be cut in suitable size and shape.

(ii) Do not put in too many pieces of food at the same time. It will lower the temperature.

(iii) Food should be fried to golden brown colour on both sides by turning over the food if necessary.

Q. 5. Tick the correct answer:

(i) Microwave cooking uses high frequency

(a) Electromagnetic rays.

(b) Electric rays.

(c) Infrared rays.

(d) Ultraviolet rays.

Ans: (a) Electromagnetic rays.

(ii) In solar cooking, food is kept in box which is :

(a) Red.

(b) Black.

(c) White.

(d) Yellow.

Ans: (b) Black.


Tick (✓) the correct answer:

(i) Green leafy vegetables lose (Vitamin C / Iron) while cooking.

Ans: Vitamin C.

(ii) (Peel/wash) the potatoes before boiling.

Ans: Wash.

(iii) Cooking in (open pan/closed pan) saves nutrients.

Ans: Closed pan.

(iv) (Use/throw) the water used for soaking the rice. 

Ans: Use.

(v) Cut the vegetables into (big/very small) pieces to save nutrients.

Ans: Big.


Q. 1. Match the statements of Column A with those in Column B.

(i) Cereal with milk(a) spinach khichri
(ii) Cereal with dal(b) fruit custard 
(iii) Dal and vegetable (c) rice-kheer
(iv) Cereal with vegetable(d) dosa
(v) Dal, cereal, vegetable(e) paushtic namkeen dalia 
(vi) Milk with fruit(f) vegetable cheela


(i) Cereal with milk(c) rice-kheer
(ii) Cereal with dal(d) dosa 
(iii) Dal and vegetable (f) vegetable cheela
(iv) Cereal with vegetable(e) paushtic namkeen dalia
(v) Dal, cereal, vegetable(a) spinach khichri 
(vi) Milk with fruit(b) fruit custard

Q. 2. Name the method of food enrichment used for:

(i) A soft spongy dhokla. 

Ans: Fermentation.

(ii) Iodised salt.

Ans: Fortification.

(iii) Green sprout chat. 

Ans: Germination.

(iv) Vegetable khichdi.

Ans: Combination/ Supplementation.

Q. 3. Name two changes brought by cooking in each of the following foods:

(i) Rice.

Ans: soft and white/swells up.

(ii) Fish.

Ans: soft, less smelly,

(iii) Chappati (Wheat).

Ans: (i) colour-darker.

(ii) texture-crisper.

(iii) taste-sweeter.

(iv) Apple.

Ans: soft and darker.

(v) Split moong dal on boiling.

Ans: soft and thick.


Q. 1. Explain, giving examples, different methods of enhancing the nutritive value of food, both at home and at manufacturing level.

Ans: (i) Combination: Combination supplies balanced amounts of protein, carbohydrate and minerals.

Combination of foods provides variety to the diet and increases the nutritive value of the foods. 

Pulses are major source of proteins for vegetarians but they lack in essential amino acid methionine but cereals provide this amino acid. Likewise cereals also provide proteins but they lack in amino acid lysine. This amino acid is present in pulses. If the two are combined the protein quality of the both is superior to either cereals or pulses taken alone. Some of the cereal- pulse combinations are : idli, dhokla, khichadi, mixing wheat flour with Bengal gram flour, soy flour and wheat flour, cereal, pulse, and vegetable.

1. Pulao and aloo paratha are commonly used food preparation of this combination. Leafy vegetables are good source of vitamin A, calcium and iron for, e.g. spinach paratha, fenugreek paratha, spinach dhal, etc.

2. Milk and wheat, milk and rice, milk and wheat germ also provides good supply of nutrients especially protein, calcium, vitamin E. 

3. Animal protein like meat, fish and egg should be taken along with vegetables to get the maximum of protein, minerals and vitamins.

(ii) Sprouting: In this method the raw grains or beans are soaked in water for 10-12 hours with equal amount of water till almost all the water is absorbed and the seeds swell up to their maximum size. The soaked grains should be tied or covered in a wet muslin cloth and kept in warm place. The cloth should be kept moist till the shoots appear. The sprouted grain may be eaten raw with salt, lemon juice and other vegetables like onion, tomato, cucumber, cabbage, and carrot either raw or cooked. Wheat, green gram, cowpea, soybean, Bengal gram and fenugreek seeds are usually sprouted. 

Germination or sprouting enhances the: 

1. Vitamin C content of the pulses and cereals

2. Niacin content is increased to 60-100%. 

3. Iron gets loosened from its bound form and becomes easily available. 

4. Digestibility of sprouted products is increased because the cell walls carrying carbohydrates and proteins are broken down during the process.

(iii) Parboiling: In parboiling most of the nutrients in the husk are absorbed by the grains. Especially the water-soluble vitamins of the B group. Thiamine and riboflavin are doubled than the polished rice. This method is used mainly for the paddy. The paddy is soaked in water for some time and then it is steamed or boiled. It is milled after drying to remove the brown husks. While cooking parboiled rice, the loss of nutrients is much less than in case of polished rice.

(iv) Fermentation: Fermented food is soft, easy to digest and provides variety in texture. Tiny microorganisms that are naturally present in foods bring about fermentation. Making of curd from milk is a good example of fermentation. Milk

sets into curd due to the presence of the lactobacillus, Lactose is into lactic acid, which is sour in taste. Fermentation increases thiamine, riboflavin and niacin to double the original amamounts.

• Nutrients such as vitamin C, methionine, and folic acid are also increased.

• Iron gets released from its bound form during fermentation and becomes easily absorbable.

(v) Parching: Parching method is used for wheat, maize, rice, bengal gram and peas.

These food items are made moist and suddenly heated. The water escapes by puffing out the grain. Popcorn, puffed rice or wheat are commonly used parched products. They make a good break fast cereal with sugar and milk. Even ladoos can be made with puffed cereal with jaggery. Starch becomes more digestible after parching. Some loss of lysine in the protein does occur because of the high temperature necessary for parching.

(vi) Cooking: Cooking does lose some of the nutrients but some are enhanced after cooking. Biotin a vitamin of the B group is present in fair amounts in egg yolk but the white of the egg contains a substance called avidin, which prevents availability of biotin. Avidin is completely destroyed by cooking and biotin is made available to the body. The wet methods of cooking lead to comparatively greater losses than the dry methods. The tamarind when added in cooking act as vitamin preservative.

Q. 2. Giving suitable examples, write short notes on the following methods of cooking.

(i) Boiling.

Ans: Boiling: Boiling, as it applies to cooking, means cooking foods in boiling water. In populated parts of the world, plain water boils at temperatures from about 200°F to 212°F (95°C to 100°C). Boiling is a method of cooking foods by just immersing them in water at 100″ C and maintaining the water at that temperature till the food is tender. Rice, egg, dhal, meat, roots and tubers are cooked by boiling.


1. Simple method – It does not require special skill and equipment. 

2. Uniform cooking can be achieved.


1. Continuous excessive boiling leads to damage in the structure and texture of food.

2. Loss of heat labile nutrients such as B and C vitamins if the water is discarded. 

3. Time consuming – Boiling takes more time to cook food and fuel may be wasted.

4. Loss of colour – water soluble pigments may be lost.

(ii) Stewing.

Ans: Stewing: It refers to the simmering of food in a pan with a tight fitting lid using small quantities of liquid to cover only half the food. This is a slow method of cooking. The liquid is brought to a boiling point and the heat is reduced to maintain simmering temperatures (82°C-90° C). The food above the liquid is cooked by the steam generated within the pan. Apple, meat along with roots, vegetables and legumes are usually stewed.


1. Loss of nutrients is avoided as water used for cooking is not discarded.

2. Flavour is retained. 


1. The process is time consuming and there is wastage of fuel.

(iii) Simmering.

Ans: Simmering or Stewing: It refers to the simmering of food in a pan with a tight fitting lid using small quantities of liquid to cover only half the food. This is a slow method of cooking. The liquid is brought to a boiling point and the heat is reduced to a maintain simmering temperatures (82°C-90° C). The food above the liquid is cooked by the steam generated within the pan. Apple, meat along with roots, vegetables and legumes are usually stewed.


1. Loss of nutrients is avoided as water used for cooking is not discarded.

2. Flavour is retained.

Demerits: The process is time consuming and there is wastage of fuel.

(iv) Steaming.

Ans: Steaming: It is a method of cooking food in steam generated from vigorously boiling water in a pan. The food to be steamed is placed container and is not in direct contact with the water or liquid. Idli, custard and idiappam in a are made by steaming. Vegetables can also be steamed.


1. Less chance of burning and scorching.

2. Texture of food is better as it becomes light and fluffy.e.g. Idli. 

3. Cooking time is less and fuel wastage is less.

4. Steamed foods like idli and idiappam contain less fat and are easily digested and are good for children, aged and for therapeutic diets.

5. Nutrient loss is minimised.


1. Steaming equipment is required. 

2. This method is limited to the preparation of selected foods.

Q. 3. List all the pre-preparation activities required for cooking the following food items.

(i) Palak-Pakora.

Ans: Palak-Pakora: Palak Pakora is a healthy and nutritious Indian snack.

• 20 Palak leaves.

• 2 Cups besan.

• 1 Chopped onion.

• 2 Green chilies.

• 1 tsp Red chili powder.

• 1 tsp Mango powder.

• Salt to taste.

• Oil for frying.

How to make Palak Pakora:

• Wash palak leaves properly and leave it for drdrying.

• Chop the palak leaves.

• Add water to besan and make a batter of thick consistency

• Add chopped green chilies, red chilli powder, and mango powder, salt and blend it well.

• Fry small portions of mixture in oil till they turn golden brown. 

• Serve spinach pakora hot with green chutney.

(ii) Mooli-Paratha.

Ans: Mooli-Paratha: Ingredients:

For stuffing: 3 Mooli (Radish), Salt to taste, 1/2 tsp Red chilli powder, 1/2 tsp Corainder powder, 2 Green chillies, chopped finely, 2 tbsp Corainder leaves.

For dough: 2 cups Wheat flour, Salt to taste, Water as needed, Oil for frying muli paranthas. 


1. Sieve the wheat flour and salt. Add water and knead to stiff dough. Cover and keep aside. 

2. Peel and grate the radish. Squeeze and drain all the water.

3. Heat the pan and fry the radish to light brown. Add salt, red chilli powder, green chil-lies, corainder leaves and mix well. Allow it to cool.

4. Take some dough and roll into small puri, put 2 tsp of stuffing and cover all the sides. Roll again into a thick, round parantha.

5. Heat a tava and fry the mooli ka paratha both sides to crispy and brown. Put some oil over the paratha.

6. Serve the mooli paratha hot with raita or curry.

(iii) Peas-Pulao.

Ans: Peas-Pulao: Ingredients:

Basmati/Long grain rice – 2 cups (cup = rice cooker cup), Green Peas (frozen/fresh) – 1/2 cup, Bay leaves – 4, Cloves – 5, Cinnamon sticks – 3 medium sized, Onions – half onion julienned, Green chillies – 3 slit lengthwise, Salt to taste.

Soak The Basmati Rice in water for half an hour before cooking. This makes the rice soft and fluffy when cooked. Wash and drain the rice.

Shell peas, Chop onion, Slit green chillies. Wash 2 cups Basmati/Long grain rice. Drain water. Keep aside.

In a shallow open pan, heat 2 tbs oil. Add cumin seeds, bay leaves, cloves, cinnamon sticks, green chillies and green peas. Saute for 10 seconds. Add this to rice. In the same pan, heat 1 tbs oil. Add onions and fry until they turn brown. Add to rice. Add 4 cups water to rice add salt according to taste and cook rice either in rice cooker or on stove. Serve hot with Raita or any gravy. 

Q. 4. List the ingredients of Samosa, explain different types of changes that occurs in each ingredient during the process of cooking.

Ans: The samosas may be baked, shallow-fried or deep-fried; frying appears to be the most popular option.



• 2 cups flour, all-purpose.

• 1/2 teaspoon salt.

• 4 tablespoons vegetable oil.

• 4 tablespoons water.


1. Sift flour into a mixing bowl, add vegetable oil and mix with your hands until a crumbly mixture is achieved. 

2. Add water and mix until you have a soft dough. Now knead the dough for 10 minutes.

3. Form the dough into a ball and coat the outside with vegetable oil. Put the dough into a plastic bag and set it aside for about 30 minutes. 

4. Knead the dough again and divide it into 8 equal portions

5. Form each portion into a ball. Roll the ball out on a floured surface to make a circle approximately 7 inches in diameter.

6. Now cut the circle in half with a sharp knife. 

7. Take one of the half circles and fold it to make a cone. Seal the edge with a little water on your fingers. Press the edges to make the seal tight.

8. Now fill the cone with the stuffing and close the cone by the same method.

9. Fry the samosa in a deep fryer or in 1/2 inch vegetable oil in a pan until golden brown.

10. Serve with dipping sauces and chutneys.

Fat: Deep-fat or immersion frying is an old and popular process. In cooking, fats provide tastes and textures but probably the most significant attribute is the wide range of cooking temperatures that can be provided by using a fat as the principal cooking medium rather than water. Fats can also be blended with cereal flour to make a range of dough and pastries. Crispness is an important characteristic to be controlled in deep-fat fried products. Frying turns the simple dough into delicate filled firm pillows. The dough absorbs a lot of hot fat thus cooking the filling inside as well. The caloric intake increases due to oil absorption. The cream coloured dough on cooking looks crisp golden yellow.

Q. 5. What precautions will you take while making mixed vegetable pulao to avoid loss of nutrients? 

Ans: To retain the nutrients in grains:

1. Rice should not be washed before cooking. Rice is enriched by spraying with vitamins and minerals. When you  wash rice, the enrichment is washed off.

2. Browning uncooked rice before adding water can destroy a lot of the thiamin content.

3. Rinsing cooked grains causes considerable loss of nutrients and is not recommended.

To avoid losing nutrients with:

Water: Soaking food in water dissolves water-soluble vitamins and minerals. Avoid it except when absolutely necessary. If foods, such as vegetables, must be soaked or remain in water during cooking, use as small amount of water as possible and use the leftover cooking liquid in soup or in another product. Or steam vegetables in small batches for best quality.

Heat: food causes nutrient loss, especially vitamin C. Avoid prolonged overcooking.

Light: Milk is an excellent source of riboflavin; but if it is allowed to stand open or is exposed to light, considerable destruction of riboflavin can occur. A light-obstructing container, such as a cardboard carton, can help prevent this. If you are using another type of container, be sure to store it away from light.

pH Balance: Baking soda should not be added to green vegetables to retain color during cooking or to dry peas and beans to decrease cooking time. Baking soda makes the cooking water alkaline, destroying thiamin and vitamin C.

Air: Vitamins A, C, E, K, and the B vitamins-are destroyed by exposure to air. To reduce nutrient loss:

• Cut and cook vegetables in pieces that are as large as possible. 

• Store foods with proper covers.

• Cook vegetables as soon as possible after cutting.

• Cook vegetables until “just tender.”

• Prepare food as close to serving time as possible.

• Serve raw vegetables when possible.

Q. 6. Give at least five dishes, that can be made from left over food, other than the ones listed in the lesson.

Ans: 1. Snack Toast: The left over vegetables can be put between two slices of bread and cooked in a snack toaster or on a tawa. Serve hot with mint chutney/ketchup.

2. Bread Rolls:

(i) Mash up leftover potato, cauliflower, peas, vegetables, etc. 

(ii) Add fresh coriander leaves, chopped green chillies, salt to taste.

(iii) Soak a slice of bread in water, squeeze and enclose the vegetables in it. Shape like a roll.

(iv) Deep fry to a golden brown colour. 

(v) Serve hot with chutney.

3. Pao Bhaji:

(i) Heat a little butter in a karahi.

(ii) Mash up all leftover vegetable and put in karahi.

(iii) Add pao bhaji masala in it or add lemon juice and spices to your taste. Cook for a little while more.

(iv) Heat the pao/bun on a buttered tawa.

(v) Top with the bhaji. 

(vt) Sprinkle with freshly chopped onion, green chillies, tomatoes and serve.

4. Mixed Vegetable Kofta Curry: 

(i) Mash up leftover vegetables.

(ii) Add besan or moong dal powder or even bread (soaked in water and squeezed) to bind. 

(iii) Deep fry like kofta from the above mixture.

(iv) Make the curry the usual way and put the koftas. 

(v) Serve hot with fresh chapatis.

Kadhi: This can be made from leftover dahi pakori.

(i) Heat ghee and saute methi seeds and heeng.

(ii) Add besan batter to make the kadhi.

(iii) Now, add the leftover dahi pakori and a few whole green chillies, season to taste. 

(iv) Simmer till the required consistency is achieved.

(v) Serve hot with boiled rice.

6. Papad Karara:

Do you know what you can do with leftover chapaties? Deep fry, drain and sprinkle some chaat masala on it. This is a very tasty papadi and can be used as a substitute for papad.

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