NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 28 Nutrition and Health

NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 28 Nutrition and Health Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 28 Nutrition and Health Notes and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 28 Nutrition and Health Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Biology Notes Paper 314.

NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 28 Nutrition and Health

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Biology Chapter 28 Nutrition and Health Solutions, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Biology Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Nutrition and Health

Chapter: 28




1. Define nutrition and nutrients.

Ans: Nutrition: It refers to “the sum of the processes by which an organism takes in, metabolises and utilises food substances”.

Nutrients: These are “the substances that help in maintaining proper health and are needed for the survival of an individual in proper amounts”.

2. Name the various nutrients of food. 

Ans: (i) Carbohydrates.

(ii) fats.

(iii) proteins.

(iv) minerals.

(v) vitamins. and 

(vi) water (H₂O).

3. Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients.

Ans: (i) The macronutrients are required in large quantities. Their examples are carbo-hydrates, proteins, fats and water.

(ii) The micronutrients are required in small amounts. Their examples are minerals and vitamins.

4. Name the following:

(i) Two water soluble vitamins.

Ans: Two water soluble vitamins are B and CO

(ii) Two sources of roughage.

Ans: Two sources of roughage are:

(a) leafy vegetables and, Fruits.

(iii) Two sources of proteins.

Ans: Two sources of proteins are:

(a) milk.

(b) fish.

5. If equal amount of sugar and butter are consumed, which one will provide more energy?

Ans: Butter.


1. Define malnutrition. 

Ans: The condition that results by lack of essential nutrients in diet is known as the malnutrition.

2. What is PEM? Name two diseases caused due to PEM.

Ans: PEM: Protein Energy Malnutrition.

Two diseases due to PEM are: 

(a) Marasmus.

(b) Kwashiorkor.

3. A person has low haemoglobin content, tires easily and looks pale. Name the disease he is suffering from. 

Ans: Anaemia.

4. Give two food items which can prevent vitamin D deficiency.

Ans: (i) Cod liver oil.

(ii) egg yolk.


1. List any two causes of obesity.

Ans: (i) Lack of exercise.

(ii) Hormonal imbalance.

2. Suggest two methods to prevent obesity.

Ans: (i) Avoid fried food.

(ii) eat green leafy vegetables.

3. Mention two symptoms of excessive intake of iron.

Ans: (a) Diarrhoea.

(b) epigastric pain.

4. Define hypervitaminosis. Name two vitamins which when taken regularly in diet cause hypervitaminosis.

Ans: The excess presence of vitamins in the body is called hypervitaminosis. Vitamin A and D cause hypervitaminosis.


1. Differentiate between:

(i) Marasmus and Kwashiorkor.

Ans: Difference Between Marasmus and Kwashiorkor.

1. Common in infant of one year of age.Develop when child in we-aned from mother’s milk.
2. Diet does not provide enough energy.

Fig 28.1. (a) Marasmus.
Low protein diet causes Kwashiorkor.

Fig. 28.1. (b) Kwashiorkor

(ii) Rickets and Osteomalacia.

Ans: Difference Between Rickets and Osteomalacia:

1. It is caused by the deficiency of vitamin D in children.It is caused by the deficiency of vitamin D in adults.
2. Bent long bones.Bones become soft.

(iii) Essential and non-essential amino acids.

Ans: Difference Between Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids:

Essential Amino AcidsNon-essential Amino Acids
1. These amino acids can- not be synthesised in the body and hence they must be included in the diet.These are amino acids which can be synthesised in the body.
2. e.g., Leucine, Isoleu- cine, lysine and valine.e.g., Alanine, cystine, gly-cine and histidine.

(iv) Body-building and protective foods.

Ans: Difference Between Body Building and Protective Foods:

Body Building FoodsProtective Foods
1. Their major nutrients are the proteins.Their major nutrients are vitamins and minerals.
2. Examples of such foods are: milk, egg white, legumes, chicken, mutton (meat) etc.Examples of such foods are: roughage, fruits, green leafy vegetables, orange, amla etc.

(v) Water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins.

Ans: Difference Between Water Soluble and Fat Soluble Vitamins.

Water soluble vitaminsFat soluble vitamins
1. They are B and C.They are A, D, E and K.
2. These are soluble in water.These are soluble in fats.

2. Give reasons why do children of 1-5 years develop PEM.

Ans: Infants in the age group of 1-5 years suffer from PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition) because they need more proteins for their development and growth.

3. Why one should include more than one type of proteins in the meals?

Ans: Because it may produce mixture having

all the essential amino acids.

4. What is the importance of water in the diet?

Ans: Importance of water in diet:

(i) Water is necessary for transport and digestion of food.

(ii) For excretion of waste substances. 

(iii) For the maintenance of body temperature.

 (iv) Solvent in reactions in the body.

5. What is a balanced diet? Why does a pregnant woman or a nursing mother needs special diet?

Ans: Balanced Diet: A diet containing all food components in appropriate proportion is known as balanced diet. A pregnant woman needs special diet to feed the developing foetus. A nursing mother requires a special diet for lactation.

6. Why should food contain roughage? Name two sources of roughage in our diet.

Ans: Roughage material serves to facilitate bowl movement and removes constipation.

Sources of roughage. These are corn cob, fruits and vegetables etc.

7. Why is polishing of rice not advisable? If a person always consumes polished rice, what is he likely to suffer from? Give two symptoms.

Ans: Vitamin B is lost during polishing of rice. So consuming of polished rice for long period results in beri-beri.

Symptoms of beri-beri:

(i) Loss of appetite. and 

(ii) Loss of weight etc. 

8. State four important functions of food.

Ans: Four important functions of food are following:

(i) Food yields energy and heat.

(ii) Food builds up new cells for growth and repair.

(iii) It regulates body processes to maintain life.

(iv) It aids in production of useful body compounds.

 9. If a child is not able to see in dim light, which two food stuffs will you advise him to eat? Give reasons.

Ans: Milk and yellow vegetables are advised. They have vitamin A which is essential to maintain rods and cones of retina of human eye.

10. Name two sources rich in:

(i) Vitamin A.

Ans: Cod liver oil, carrots.

(ii) Calcium.

Ans: Milk, beans.

(iii) Iron.

Ans: Liver, green leafy vegetables.

(iv) Vitamin B₁₂.

Ans: Fish, milk.

(v) Starch. 

Ans: Wheat, rice. and

(vi) Glucose.

Ans: Potatoes and maize.

11. What are minerals? Name any two minerals and their sources.

Ans: Minerals: The minerals are the micro and macroelements needed in food required by our body for various functions. 

Two minerals and their sources:

Name of MineralsSources
1. Calcium (Ca)Milk, milk products, fish, beans, meat, broccoli, tapioca, green leafy vegetables.
2. Iron (Fe)Spinach, liver, egg. groundnuts, jaggery, green leafy vegetables.

12. What are deficiency diseases? Name two diseases caused by the deficiency of protein and carbohydrates. Also write the symptoms of these deficiency diseases.

Ans: Deficiency Diseases: They occur due to deficiency of one or more nutrients like proteins/carbohydrates in our diet.

Two deficiency diseases due to proteins and carbohydrates are marasmus and kwashiorkor.

Symptoms of Marasmus: It is common in infant of one year of age. The diet does not provide energy. The symptoms are wasted muscles, thin limbs, growth retarded and pollen bellied.

Symptoms of Kwashiorkor: It is caused by low proteins diet in children upto 5 years of age. The patient has thin limb, ribs prominent, eyes shunken, dry, scaly skin etc.

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