NIOS Class 10 Warehouse Principles & Inventory Management Chapter 2 Warehouse: An Opportunity To Develop

NIOS Class 10 Warehouse Principles & Inventory Management Chapter 2 Warehouse: An Opportunity To Develop Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NIOS Class 10 Warehouse Principles & Inventory Management Chapter 2 Warehouse: An Opportunity To Develop and select need one. NIOS Class 10 Warehouse Principles & Inventory Management Chapter 2 Warehouse: An Opportunity To Develop Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 10 Warehouse Principles & Inventory Management Notes Paper 259.

NIOS Class 10 Warehouse Principles & Inventory Management Chapter 2 Warehouse: An Opportunity To Develop

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Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 10 Warehouse Principles & Inventory Management Chapter 2 Warehouse: An Opportunity To Develop, NIOS Secondary Course Warehouse Principles & Inventory Management Solutions for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Warehouse: An Opportunity To Develop

Chapter: 2

Intext Questions 2.1

(i) Who is the user of the warehouse? 

(a) Manufacturers. 

(b) Retailers. 

(c) Wholesalers. 

(d) All the above. 

Ans: (d) All the above.

(ii) __________are experts in marketing, sales, merchandise inventory and knowing their customers. 

Ans: Retailers.

(iii) __________ purchase in bulk from either wholesalers or directly from the manufacturers or from traders. 

Ans: Retailers.

(iv) Breaking bulk is the function of ___________.

Ans: Wholesaling and retailing.

Intext Questions 2.2

(i) List out any four issues in warehousing. 

Ans: (a) Insufficient warehouse management.

(b) Slow picking from workers.

(c) Inaccurate inventory systems.

(d) Inefficient warehouse layout.

(ii) _____________ eliminate strenuous manual labour and allow your loads to leave with higher security. 

Ans: Stretch wrap machines.

(iii) Hopper is basically a ____________. 

Ans: Large funnel. 

(iv) ____________are ideal for cold storage warehouse operations. 

Ans: Freezer spacer removers.

(v) A machine that has a rotating scoop at one end of a conveyor system is stackers (True/False).

Ans: False.

Intext Questions 2.3

(i) What is the full form of FBA? 

(a) Field Benefit Administration. 

(b) FulfilmentBy X company. 

(c) Functional BehaviourAssessment. 

(d) Full Body Armour. 

Ans: (b) FulfilmentBy X company.

(ii) _______________ is better suited for niche brands with very specific product offerings or established merchants with an existing supply chain as an additional channel. 

Ans: Fulfilment by Merchant (FBM).

(iii) A small industrial vehicle with power operated forked platform attached at the front and that can be raised or lowered for insertion under a cargo to lift or move it is ______________. 

Ans: Fork lift.

(iv) FBM is better suited for ______________ with very specific product offering. 

Ans: Niche products.

Terminal Exercise

1. Write a short note on manufacturers. 

Ans: Manufacturers are a part of the supply chain that have multiple functions like procurement, production, marketing, packaging etc., The manufacturers use the warehouse for storage of raw materials, work in progress, finished goods, packaging materials. They also use warehouses for various activities in the form of perishables like curing, maturing, and cold storage to maintain the quality of the products.

2. Who is a retailer?

Ans: Retailers are the expert in knowing their customers and they do marketing and sales. They purchase in bulk from either wholesalers or directly from the manufacturers or from traders. 

3. What do you mean by wholesalers?

Ans: Wholesalers are part of the supply chain where they purchase bulk from the manufacturers and break them into small units and sell it to the customers or pass them to the retail outlets. They hold a licence in the warehouse and carry out their activities accordingly. They will also have facilities to pack their goods and do value addition in the premises of the warehouse for which they will be charged accordingly.

4. Explain about pallet inverters. 

Ans: Nearly every warehouse facility uses pallets in one form or another. Inverters rotate 180 degrees to make pallet exchanges quick and effortless. There is a wide selection of pallet inverters available to help control costs, reduce product damage and prevent worker injuries. 

5. What are pallet dispensers?

Ans: Dispensers are also crucial for material handling. Industrial pallet dispensers have an overhead gantry and allow high stacking that is safe and efficient. Workers do not have to manually pick pallets one by one. Industrial pallet dispensers issue pallets automatically. This increases pick rates and reduces employee turnover by eliminating stressful and hazardous working conditions.

6. What is the solution for vertical reach difficulties faced by workers in warehouses?

Ans: The solution for vertical reach difficulties includes, Lifting tables, and work assist platforms provide the workforce with the exact angle required to access the contents within boxes and bins. These lifts make it possible for workers to maintain good posture, move around freely and easily change positions. Spring-loaded mechanical lift tables offer the perfect height positioning of pallets and boxes automatically.

7. Explain how to manage inaccurate inventory counts. 

Ans: To increase the competitive advantage, incorporate warehouse operations that are proficient in managing inventory and maintaining accurate inventory records. 

Several ways of efficient and accurate warehouse inventory management processes include: 

(i) Keep a well-organised warehouse: Ensure to have easy-to-read maps of your warehouse in convenient areas along with clear signage and item descriptions. 

(ii) Create proper inventory naming and labelling: Name and label each item with detailed descriptions to allow for quick and easy identification. 

(iii) Follow efficient storage and receipt procedures: Include step-by-step procedures for physical interaction, safety guidelines, material handling and reporting. 

(iv) Utilise cycle counting: Cycle counting is the process of checks by which the physical count of the products is verified with the inventory records. This audit can be planned to be carried out in regular time frequency weekly or daily or fortnightly for each group of items one at a time. Cycle counting when carried over a longer period of time covers all the SKUs or different materials stocked and provides an ongoing assessment and causes fewer disruptions to daily operations. 

(v) Limit and track inventory access: Provide inventory data access to only select, properly-trained individuals. 

(vi) Use equipment and technology to your advantage: Improve workflow by custom-engineering new or existing products and incorporating custom automation needs. 

8. What are the different ways to improve picking operations?

Ans: Here are several strategies to enhance picking operations:

(i) Optimised Layout: Maximise the space by installing the tallest storage system and appropriate material handling equipment to utilise space up to the ceiling. This can significantly increase the storage capacity without requiring additional square footage.

(ii) ABC Analysis: Goods with high picking frequency are placed at A locations, goods with medium picking frequency are placed at B locations, and goods with low picking frequency are placed in C locations. The locations are categorised in the warehouse according to picking, storing, and ergonomic height.

(iii) Inventory Management Software: Automated tracking within the software minimises the risk of misplaced stock by providing real-time visibility into inventory levels.

(iv) Batch Picking: In batch picking, a single picker picks a batch of orders at the same time. The goal is to create an optimal pick path that prevents pickers from visiting the same item location multiple times when fulfilling multiple orders.

(v) Zone Picking: Zone picking, sometimes referred to as pick and pass, is one of several basic methods used in warehouses to pick products to fulfil orders. Zone picking divides a warehouse into distinct sections, or zones, where individual order pickers are stationed.

(vi) Voice Picking: Voice picking, also commonly known as voice-directed warehousing (VDW), pick by voice, and speech-based picking, is a paperless, hands-free, and eyes-free system that employs easy-to-understand voice prompts to direct warehouse operators to picking locations, and to instruct them in picking tasks.

9. Write about the important features to be considered when designing and laying out the warehouse.

Ans: The important features to be considered when designing and laying out the warehouse are: 

(i) Space Utilisation: Warehouse space utilisation is the ratio of the occupied storage space to the total storage space in your warehouse. You can express it as a percentage or a decimal number.

(ii) Aisles and Pathways: Warehouse aisles are the pathways between storage racks or shelves, where workers and equipment move around. The width, length, and orientation of aisles depend on several factors, such as the size and shape of the warehouse, the type and quantity of inventory, the picking method, and the equipment used.

(iii) Receiving and Shipping Areas: Unless the primary type of warehouse is for cross-docking, the receiving area should be located as close to the storage area as possible. This helps minimise the distance goods have to travel for put-away. In a cross-docking setup, however, shipping and receiving should be located near each other.

(iv) Cross-Docking Facilities: Cross-docking is a method for distributing products more efficiently without needing to store them in warehouses for long periods of time. Incoming goods are received and sorted at a cross-docking facility and then loaded directly onto outgoing trucks for shipment.

(v) Storage Systems: warehouse storage systems are a major capital investment that, depending on the design and the way they fit into your warehouse floor plan and processes, can either help or hurt your throughput. Because there are several different categories of warehouse storage systems on the market today, it’s key to get acquainted with the options before being sold on one that might not complement your layout or support your need for flexibility.

10. Write about issues in warehousing. 

Ans: There are some issues in warehousing. Even though warehouses offer several advantages there are also some issues to be managed to increase productivity.

(i) Vertical reach difficulties for workers: Warehouse issues can include the adjustments needed for height: requiring workers to bend or overextend themselves to complete tasks at height is not ideal. Along with a slowdown in production, this can lead to an increased risk of worker injury, including back injuries and muscular strains. 

(ii) Insufficient warehouse arrangement: Narrow passages make it difficult to navigate or lead to unintentional damage to materials and products. Having more space to manoeuvre will improve productivity.

(iii) Slow picking from workers: A vital component of the supply chain process in any warehouse is order picking, the activity by which goods are removed from a warehousing system to fulfil a number of independent orders. An estimated 50 percent of labour resources in warehouses are involved in picking, packing and shipping. Reduced labour productivity during picking is an issue which increases the operating costs.

(iv) Inaccurate inventory counts: Inaccurate inventory can cause several different warehouse management issues, including increased costs, lost revenue, low productivity, improper stock levels and obsolete inventory. Sustaining accurate inventory management processes, such as basic record maintenance and proper documentation, are crucial for organisational success, including the ability to deliver excellent customer service and accurate product shipping lead times, decrease operating costs and ensure correct financial documentation. 

(v) Inefficient warehouse layout: For the ideal warehousing operation, the right amount of space at the site and that includes more than the floor area. You need vertical height and unobstructed space for material handling equipment. Docks and loading bay areas must be properly laid out. Ample room for turnaround and parking is required. Security and safety are important. So is energy efficiency. 

(vi) Material handling & moving inefficiencies: If more of the manpower gets engaged in manual carrying of items from one location to another within a building of the warehouse then it may be time to evaluate a better, smarter option.

(vii) Unsanitary material handling tools: When working with the food and pharmaceutical industries, sanitation and cleanliness are crucial factors. Wooden pallets are a major source of contaminants and will eventually break down and wear out over time. Contamination of the products and materials could result in costly warehousing issues which could be avoided by implementing a more cost-effective and sustainable choice. 

(viii) Warehouse space at maximum capacity: If the facility has experienced continued growth and is at or near full capacity, there might be a struggle to think of ways to incorporate more space. 

(ix) Unsafe worker practises: A safe workplace benefits everyone. Work goes smoothly and lawsuits and downtime are avoided. One of the major warehouse management challenges faced today is ensuring the safety of the workforce. The warehousing industry has a higher-than-average fatality rate. There are several potential hazards for warehouse workers.

(x) Redundant activities: The existence of unnecessary, excessive handling of product plagues many warehouses, with cases or pallets being moved through several intermediate locations. Often, though, redundant activities can be less obvious. Duplication of information and duplicate data entry are examples of major time wasters.

11. What are the pros and cons of Fulfilment by X company? 

Ans: (i) FBA Pros are as follows: 

(a) Prime: Probably the biggest driver for FBA is the Prime listing. X company Prime customers look for the Prime logo to know that they can get their product in two days with free shipping. 

(b) Hands-Free Fulfilment: For business owners who are looking for a lifestyle business or minimal management, FBA is by far the easiest option, handling the product from receipt to delivery. 

(c) Shipping Discounts: Since X company is one of the largest shippers in the world, the price to ship products can be greatly reduced, especially for such fast turnaround times. 

(ii) FBA Cons are as follows:

(a) Fulfilment Fees: Since X company controls the supply chain, there are fees for handling and fulfilling products. This can be a big cost for small sellers. 

(b) Long-Term Storage Fees: X company will add additional carrying charges for products that sit in the warehouse for longer than six months based on square feet utilised on the shelf. Smaller products with faster inventory turnover rates are not at risk though. 

(c) Dictated Stocking Levels: Brands may have to send in more than estimated to a fulfilment centre further than would be favourable even though the product will be broken down and shipped across the U.S. 

(d) Product Labelling: X company specific labels need to be applied to the product by the manufacturer or by X company’s labelling service. 

12. What are the pros and cons of Fulfilment by Merchant?

Ans: (i) FBM Pros are as follows: 

(a) Increased Ownership: The largest benefit of fulfilling their own product is that the merchants can better control the relationship with the customer. 

(b) Fewer Fees: When the merchant owns the distribution channel, they have more control over the costs and savings. 

(c) Higher Margins: At scale, a merchant with a robust supply chain or the right third party logistics (3PL) partner might be able to realise better margins using their own existing resources. 

(ii) FBM Cons are as follows: 

(a) Prime Expectations: Not every merchant and product will qualify for Prime. When X company customers expect the product to their door in just two days, it can mean damaging reviews if the merchant can’t meet that expectation. 

(b) Overhead Costs: For merchants that don’t already have warehousing and fulfilment resources, the costs of space and staffing can be staggering. 

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