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NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 15 Constitutional Values and Political System in India
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Constitutional Values and Political System in India
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS WITH THEIR ANSWERS
INTEXT QUESTIONS 15.1
Q. 1.What is the meaning of Constitution?
Ans: A constitution means a body of rules according to which the government of a country functions. It determines the power of the various organs of the government and their mutual relationship. It also defines the rights of the citizen and the relation between government and its citizens.
Q. 2. Fill in the blanks:
(i) The Indian Constitution is the _________ constitution.
(ii) The Indian Constitution was prepared by _________.
Ans: The Constituent Assembly.
(iii) The Constitution of India is a living document because it needs to be _________.
Ans: Amended as and when required to keep it updates.
(iv) The 26 January is celebrated every year as _________. because the Constitution came in to effect on _________.
Ans: Republic Day, 26th January 1950.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 15.2
Q. 1. What do you mean by the term value?
Ans: Value is that which is very essential or ‘worth having and observing’ for the existence of human society as an entity.
Q. 2. State two important constitutional values embodied in the Preamble of Indian Constitution. Why do you consider these two values as very important?
Ans: The values expressed in the Preamble are expressed as objectives of the constitution. These are: sovereignty, socialism, secularism, democracy, republican character of Indian State, justice, liberty, equality, fraternity, human dignity and the unity and integrity of the nation.
These values are the universal, human and democratic of the modern age. The constitutional values also permeate all the salient features of Indian Constitution.
Q. 3. Match the values/objectives given below in column ‘A’ with the statements in column ‘B’.
|(i) Sovereignty||(a) promoting social change to end all forms of inequalities.|
|(ii) Socialism||(b) government of the people, by the people and for the people.|
|(iii) Secularism||(c) equal treatment without any discri- mination.|
|(iv) Democracy||(d) the Head of the State is an elected person.|
|(v) Equality||(e) freedom to profess, preach and practice any religion.|
|(vi) Liberty||(f) international peace and security and honorable relations among nations.|
|(vii) Fraternity||(g) complete political freedom and supreme authority.|
|(viii) International peace and just international order||(h) freedom of thought, expression and belief.|
|(ix) Republic||(i) the spirit of common brotherhood.|
|(i) Sovereignty||(g) complete political freedom and supreme authority.|
|(ii) Socialism||(a) promoting social change to end all forms of inequalities.|
|(iii) Secularism||(e) freedom to profess, preach and practice any religion.|
|(iv) Democracy||(b) government of the people, by the people and for the people.|
|(v) Equality||(c) equal treatment without any discri- mination.|
|(vi) Liberty||(h) freedom of thought, expression and belief.|
|(vii) Fraternity||(i) the spirit of common brotherhood.|
|(viii) International peace and just international order||(f) international peace and security and honorable relations among nations.|
|(ix) Republic||(d) the Head of the State is an elected person.|
INTEXT QUESTIONS 15.3
Q. 1. What are the main features of the Indian Constitution?
Ans: The main features of the Indian Constitution are following:
(i) Written constitution.
(ii) Unique blend of rigidity and flexibility.
(iii) Fundamental Rights and Duties of citizens.
(iv) Directive Principles of State Policy.
(v) Integrated judicial system.
(vi) Single citizenship.
(vii) Universal Adult Franchise.
(viii) Federal System.
(ix) Parliamentary Form of Government.
Q. 2. What are the constitutional values reflected in the Directive Principles of State Policy?
Ans: The following constitutional values are reflected in the Directive Principles of
State Policy: (i) Social and economic equity,
(ii) Elimination of social discrimination
(iii) International peace.
Q. 3. Why Indian judiciary is called an integrated judiciary?
Ans: The Indian Constitution has established an integrated judicial system. Although the Supreme Court is at the national level, High Courts at the state level and subordinate courts at the district and lower level, there is a single hierarchy of courts. At the top of the hierarchy is the Supreme Court. This unified judicial system is aimed at promoting and ensuring justice to all the citizens in uniform manner. Moreover, the constitutional provisions ensure the independence of Indian Judiciary which is free from the influence of the executive and the legislature.
Q. 4. What is the meaning of single citizenship?
Ans: Single citizenship means that every Indian is a citizen of India irrespective of the place of his/her residence or birth in the country.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 15.4
Q. 1. What are the main features of a federal system?
Ans: The main features of a federal system are following:
(i) Two tier government at the center and at the state level.
(ii) Division of powers between the center and the states.
(iii) Written constitution.
(iv) Supremacy of judiciary.
Q. 2. State two important reasons why is it said that “India is federal in form, but unitary in spirit”?
Ans: (i) The Central Government has sole power on the territory of India. The very existence of a state including its territorial integrity is in the hands of the Parliament.
(ii) The division of powers between the Centre and the States is in favor of the Union Government. The Union List contains all the key subjects.
(iii) India has a unified or integrated judiciary with the Supreme Court at the apex.
(iv) Union government becomes very powerful when any of the three kinds of emergencies are proclaimed.
(v) During all the three types of emergencies, the Union government becomes all powerful, and India becomes almost a unitary state.
(vi) According to the constitutional provisions, the executive powers of the Centre are superior to those of the States.
Q. 3. The States of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttarakhand were created during 2000 and 2001. Find out from which states they were separated. State also the reasons why were they created.
|Name of State||State from which they were separated|
|1. Chhattisgarh||Madhya Pradesh|
|3. Uttarakhand||Uttar Pradesh|
These states are created as the parent states are large in size. Administrative convenience is another reason.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 15.5
Q. 1. In a parliamentary system, what kind of relation is between the executive and the legislature?
Ans: There is a close relationship between the executive. i.e. the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head and the legislature. i.e. the Parliament. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Parliament. If the Lok Sabha passes a no- confidence motion against the Council of Ministers it has to resign.
Q. 2. Why is the President of India only the nominal executive?
Ans: The President who is the Head of the State is the nominal and formal executive. Theoretically, all the executive. powers are vested by the Constitution in the President of India. But in practice these are not exercised by him/her. These are actually used by the Prime Minister and the Council pf Ministers. The Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head is the real executive. The President can not act without the advice of the Council of Ministers. The President is elected by an Electoral College that consists of the Members of Parliament. If the Parliament passes an impeachment against the President, he/she leaves the office.
Q. 3. What is the meaning of collective responsibility?
Ans: It means that the responsibility of every minister is the responsibility of the entire Council of Ministers. Even one ministry is criticized, the entire Council of Ministers is considered responsible for that.
Q. 4. How do both the Houses of Parliament have control over the Council of Ministers?
Ans: They do it by asking questions and supplementary questions on the policies, programmes and functioning of the government. They can move adjournment motion and calling attention notices. No bill considered by the Council of Ministers can become a law unless it is approved by the Parliament. The annual budget also is to be passed by the Parliament.
Q. 1. Answer the following questions in brief:
(i) Define Preamble.
Ans: Preamble: The Preamble to any constitution is a brief introductory statement that conveys the guiding principles of the document.
(ii) What is a constitution?
Ans: A constitution means a body of rules according to which the government of a country functions. It determines the powers of the various organs of the government and their mutual relationship. It also defines the rights of the citizens and the relation between the government and its citizens.
(iii) Who framed the Constitution of India?
Ans: The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly which was established in 1946 under the Cabinet Mission Plan. This assembly included eminent persons like Dr. Rajendra Prashad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, B. R. Ambedkar, Maulana Azad, G.B. Pant and Sir Feroz Khan Noon.
(iv) What is meant by ‘Universal Adult Franchise’?
Ans: Universal Adult Franchise: Universal Adult Franchise means that every citizen who is 18 years of age or more is entitled to cast his/her vote irrespective of his caste, creed, sex, religion or place of birth.
Q. 2. Answer the following questions:
(i) Describe the importance of the constitution.
Ans: The constitution has great importance for every state. It defines and limits the powers of the government. It also defines the powers and functions of the various organs of the government which minimizes the chances of any conflict between them. The constitution defines the rights of the citizens and their relationship with the government.
(ii) What are the major constitutional values embodied in the Preamble ? How are these being practiced in our daily lives?
Ans: The constitutional values are reflected in the entire Constitution of India, but its Permeable embodies, the fundamental values and the philosophy on which the constitution is based. These are: sovereignty, socialism, secularism, democracy, republican character, justice, liberty, equality, fraternity, human dignity and the unity and integrity of Nation.
These constitutional values are very much affected in one’s daily life. We can feel them in every aspect of our life.
Being sovereign India has complete political freedom. It can frame its policy without any outside interferences, Socialism means is to promoting social change and transformation to end all forms of inequalities. Now the day government and the people planned and coordinated social development in all fields. Secularism implies that our country is not guided by any one religion. India is a home to almost all major religions in the world.
Being a democratic country all Indians enjoy several rights within certain limits. The President of India is elected by the people indirectly. Everybody in society treated with justice. All Indians have liberty of thought, expression, belief and faith.
Our constitution provides fraternity and dignity of individual. In India, every citizen is equal in the eye of law. Constitution gives equality to all the citizens which realize the dignity of the individual. It also expects from all the citizens to uphold and protect the unity and integrity of their nation India.
(iii) What are the salient features of the Constitution of India?
Ans: The Salient Features of the Indian Constitution:
(i) Written Constitution: Constitution of India is the longest written constitution. It contains a Preamble, 395 Articles, 12 Schedules and 5 Appendices.
(ii) A Unique Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility: Indian Constitution having a unique blend of rigidity and flexibility. There are three ways of amending the Constitution of India.
(iii) Fundamental Rights and Duties: The Constitution of India guarantees some fundamental rights to every citizen. Besides the rights the constitution has provisions identifying fundamental duties, though these are not enforceable as the fundamental rights are.
(iv) Directive Principles of State Policy: It is a unique feature of the constitution. It is aimed at ensuring greater social and economic reforms. It help to remove poverty of the masses and eliminate social discrimination.
(v) Integrated Judicial System: Indian Constitution has established an integrated judicial system. It is aimed at promoting and ensuring justice to all the citizens in uniform manner.
(vi) Single Citizenship: Indian Constitution has provision for single citizenship. It definitely reinforce the values of equality, unity and integrity.
(vii) Universal Adult Franchise: Every Indian after attaining certain age (18 years), has right to vote.
(viii) Federal system and Parliamentary Form of Government: Indian Constitution is that it provides for a federal system of state and Parliamentary form of government.
(iv) Explain any three federal features of the Indian Constitution.
Ans: The three Federal Features of the Indian Constitution: Some of the most important federal features of the Indian Constitution are the following:
1. Dual Government: There is co- existence of two Governments (Central and State) with limited and co-ordinate authority.
2. Distribution of Power: All subjects of legislation and administration have been. classified into three lists-The Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List.
3. Supremacy of the Constitution: The Constitution is a written document and is supreme. The part of the Constitution, which pertains to relations between the union and the states, can be amended by a special procedure only after seeking ratification by at least half of the states.
4. Independent and impartial judiciary: The existence of an independent judiciary to interpret the Constitution and to resolve disputes between the Centre and the State Governments is the prerequisite of a federation. The Supreme Court acts as a guardian of our constitution.
(v) How can you say that the Constitution of India is rigid as well as flexible?
Ans: The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of the world. In daily life it is not easy to bring about changes in a written document, generally written Constitutions are rigid. But Indian constitution is not rigid, in this way it is flexible. There are three ways of amending the Constitution of India.
1. Some of its provisions can be amended by the simple majority in the Parliament.
2. Some by special majority.
3. While some amendments require special majority in the parliament and approval of states as well.
(vi) Why is India called a federal state in form but unitary in spirit?
Ans: Federal system means a system of Government in which both the central and the state Governments derive their powers and authority from the constitution. They have their distinct areas of functioning. Neither the Central Government nor the State Governments can usually interfere in the area which belongs to the other.
Unlike other federations, in India the center clearly has advantages over the states. The Union List has more subjects and has subject of national importance. In the concurrent list, the constitution gives greater power to the center.
In a federation normally we find dual citizenship. In the USA which is a federation, every person is a citizen of his/her state. But in India we have single citizenship only. In an election a citizen votes as an individual or an Indian and not as a Punjabi or a Bengali, a Tamil or a Gujarati.
The Constitution of India does not use the term federal. It says India is a Union of States.
Finally, there are some provisions in the Constitution of India, known as emergency provisions. The constitution specifies certain conditions when an emergency, the Central Government has surely been given more powers than the State Government.
(vii) Examine the nature of the parliamentary form of government in India.
Ans: In the Indian Constitution, the administration of the State and Centre has been set up in a Parliamentary form Government. It means that in the States, State Legislative Assembly and at the Centre Lok Sabha have powers with them. Though the Government is carried one of the Governor in the State the administration is actually carried on by Council of Ministers which is responsible for legislature. The central cabinet of ministers is elected from the members of Parliament and these ministers can hold the office till they have confidence of the Parliament.
India is a Parliamentary Democracy, India has adopted a Parliamentary form of Government based on the British model. The President is the constitutional head of State. The real executive powers are exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are Members of the Parliament. Ministers remain in office as long as they enjoy the confidence of a majority support in the Lok Sabha. The governmental set up at the state level is also based on the Parliamentary model.
(viii) Have you ever been part of the Republic Day celebration in your own area/region as a participant or a spectator? If so, mention the highlights of that function.
Ans: I have been attend the Republic Day Celebration in my society as a spectator last year. It was a great celebration. The celebration starts at about 10 a.m. The President of our society hoisted the National Flag. He delivers few words to the people about Republic Day. The Children of our society performed various programmes. After that some refreshment distributed to all the spectator’s and participants. It was a great and joyful celebration.
(ix) Given below is the recorded conversation between a Saudi Arabian Citizen and an Indian. The points made by the Saudi Arabian are given below, whereas the replies by the Indian could not be recorded and hence are left blank. On the basis of what you have read in this lesson and your general knowledge, complete the conversation with relevant replies. SA stands for the Saudi Arabian and I stands for the Indian.
(a) SA: Our country is ruled by a hereditary King. We cannot change him. So, we have a monarchial form of government.
(b) SA: We, in Saudi Arabia do not have any such system as yours, because we have no political parties. There are no elections and the people do not have any say in the formation of the government. So much so that even media cannot report anything that the King does not like.
(c) SA: In our country, there is only one religion. Hence, there is no freedom of religion. Every citizen is required to be Muslim. ___________________.
(d) SA: Yes, Non-Muslims are allowed to follow their own religion but only privately and not in public.
(e) SA: In my country, there is discri- mination on the basis of sex. Women are not considered equal to men. They are subjected to many public restrictions. So much so that testimony of one man is considered equal to that of two women.
Ans: VIEWS EXPRESSED BY THE INDIAN
1. After Independence no king rules in India. Instead, we have a President who is elected by the people indirectly. So, India is a republic with a parliamentary form of Government wherein political parties play a major role as representatives of the people.
2. In this regard, we are very lucky. We have the freedom to form associations, Unions as well as political parties. Every Indian citizen has the right to vote and contest elections. Besides, the media in India is also free to express its views on any issue in spite of the fact that India is a multi-cultural, multi- lingual and multi-religious country.
3. But we are a secular nation. The state does not have any religion of its own. Every citizen has a fundamental right as freedom of religion guaranteed by the Constitution. Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, and others have freedom to practice his/her religion.
4. Strange enough! In our country the Constitution guarantees right to profess, preach and practice any religion publically.
5. In India, the Constitution provides for gender equality, though in practise we also have to go a long way. But women have equal rights in every sphere of life. They are engaged in all kinds of job and business. They have also been made the beneficiary of reservations.
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The Member of India’s Constituent Assembly were:
Ans: (a) 308.
2. India got political independence in:
Ans: (a) 1947.
3. Who was a member of India’s Constituent Assembly?
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(b) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
(c) Dr. H.P. Modi
(d) Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma
Ans: (c) Dr. H.P. Modi.
4. Independent India’s Constitution was enforced in:
Ans: (b) 1950.
5. India’s first President was:
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(b) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) V. V. Giri
(d) Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma
Ans: (a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
6. Who was the Chairman of Drafting Committee of Indian Constitution:
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(b) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
(c) Dr. H.P. Modi
(d) Dr. V. V. Giri
Ans: (b) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.
7. The Congress decided to fight for complete independence in its __________ session.
Ans: (b) Lahore.
8. Who was the President of Indian Constituent Assembly:
(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(b) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
(c) Dr. H. P. Modi
(d) Dr. V. V. Giri
Ans: (a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
9. How many days the Constituent Assembly met?
(a) 365 days
(b) 1048 days
(c) 1068 days
(d) 166 days
Ans: (d) 166 days.
10. The Indian Constitution was passed by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November ____________.
Ans: (b) 1949.
11. Which of the following country has the longest written constitution in the world?
Ans: (c) India.
12. Which value express ‘We the People of India’?
Ans: (c) Sovereignty.
13. How many Articles are in Indian Constitution?
Ans: (c) 395.
14. At what age, a citizen of India got a right to vote.
(a) 18 years
(b) 21 years
(c) 20 years
(d) 16 years
Ans: (a) 18 years.
15. Union List consists of subjects of national importance such as defense, railways, post and telegraph etc.
Ans: (b) 97.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. What do constitutional values? you mean
Ans: The constitution of any country serves several purposes. It lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of country that we as a citizen to aspire to live in. It defines and limits the persons of the government. It also defines the powers and functions of the various organs of the government which minimizes the chances of any conflict between them.
Q. 2. Write any three features of our Constitution.
Ans. The three features of the Indian Constitution are:
1. It establishes Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, democratic Republic in India.
2. It provides Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties to the citizens of India.
3. The constitution has adopted the Parliamentary system of Government at the, Centre and the States as well.
Q. 3. Why is the Preamble very important?
Ans: The Preamble serves as the guideline of the constitution. It states the nature of the Indian states which is Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic.
Q. 4. How is India a secular state?
Ans: The Constitution declares India to be a secular state. In India we have Hindu, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Parsis etc. but their religions are matters of their private belief. All religions are treated and respected alike and no favor is shown to any religion by the state. Thus India is a secular state.
Q. 5. What is meant by political equality?
Ans: Political equality means that in a democratic country everybody irrespective of his caste, creed, religion and sex has equal political rights. Everyone has one vote and has equal access to all office of authority.
Q. 6. Mention two major constitutional provisions for the protection of women and children in India.
Ans: The Constitution guarantees equality by the forces of law to all persons within the territory of India. At the same time it prescribes that nothing shall prevent the state from making any special provision for women and children. Child labour Prohibition Act, 1956 was passed. It protects children from exploitation and prohibits employment of children in certain hazardous occupations.
Q. 7. India has a Parliamentary form of government. Explain.
Ans: Indian Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government. President is nominal head of the state. In actual practice, the government is run by the Prime Minister and other members of the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Parliament.
Q. 8. Why is the Indian Federation called a centralized federation?
Ans: The Constitution of India has established the federal form of Government in India. It possesses all the necessary. characteristics of a federation i.e., the Indian Constitution is a written and rigid one, the powers between the centre and the state have been divided. But the union Government has been given more powers than the state Governments and there is a single citizenship of a country. So, Indian Federation is a centralized federation.
Q. 9. Define Universal Adult Franchise.
Ans: The Constitution provides for Universal Adult Franchise. It means that every citizen who is 18 years of age or more is entitled to caste his/her vote irrespective of his caste, creed, sex, religion or place of birth.
Q. 10. What do you mean by democracy?
Ans: Democracy means that the power of the government is vested in the hands of the people. People exercise this power through their elected representatives who, in turn, are responsible to them. All the citizens enjoy equal political rights.
Q. 11. Write a note on the ‘Union List’.
Ans: The Parliament has the exclusive power to legislate on matters enumerated in the Union List which contains 97. These are all subjects of national importance. Some of the subjects enumerated under this list are defense, foreign affairs, war and peace, trade and commerce with other countries, posts and telegraphs, maritime, shipping and navigation, railways, currency and foreign exchange etc.
Q. 12. When do you say that a state is sovereign?
Ans: The Preamble of the Indian Constitution declares India a sovereign state. Sovereignty means absolute independence, a government which is not controlled by any other powers. When India was under British rule, it could not be called a sovereign country. But now after achieving independence, India is a sovereign country like Britain, United States of America, France, etc.
Q. 13. What is the procedure of amendment of Indian Constitution?
Ans: For the purpose of amendment of Indian Constitution procedure has been divided into three parts:
(i) Certain provisions of the Constitution can be amended by parliament by simple majority.
(ii) Certain other provisions can be amended if passed by two-third majority in Parliament and then satisfied by at least fifty percent states.
(iii) The remaining part of the Constitution can be amended by two- third majority of Parliament. Hence, our Constitution in both flexible as well as rigid.