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NIOS Class 10 English Chapter 8 A Birthday Letter
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A Birthday Letter
BOOK – I
8.2.1 PART – 1
In 1930, ………………. having a talk.
Do you have friends and family who live far away from where you do? How do you stay in touch with them? How does it feel when you receive letters from them? In this section Pt. Nehru, who is imprisoned in Naini Jail by the British, sends a letter as a gift to his daughter Indira on her birthday. Let’s read on to find out what he writes.
Q.1. In which jail was Pt. Nehru imprisoned by the British?
Ans. Pt. Nehru was imprisoned in Naini jail.
Q.2. Why was Pt. Nehru not able to send a gift to his daughter on her birthday?
Ans. Pt. Nehru was not able to send a gift to Indira on her birthday because he was imprisoned by British in Naini prison.
Q.3. What did Pt. Nehru not like to do?
Ans. Pandit Nehru did not like to give sermons and advice.
Q.4. Why did Pt. Nehru dislike lecturing?
Ans. Pt. Nehru feels that lecturing is one sided affair. It lacks opportunity to talk.
Q. 5. What suggestion did he give to Indira in his letter to her?
Ans. Nehru suggested that Indira should discuss and talk with others. Only after the talk the decision should be taken.
Q. 6. Imagine that you want to discuss something very important with your friend. Would you write a letter, email, call up (phone) or discuss it face to face? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans. In ways as writing a letter, sending email, and calling up is same, to giving a message. Here we are just conversing and missing the expression. The best way is to talk face to face so that talk becomes more effective.
LET US LEARN NEW WORDS 8.1
Look at the pairs of words given below Read them aloud.
Notice that they sound similar but are spelt
Exercise – 1
Write words to complete the similar -sounding pairs.
1. lose ……………….
Ans. lose – loose.
2. peace ……………….
Ans. peace – piece.
3. Week ………………
Ans. week – weak.
4. Waste ………………
Ans. waste – waist.
5. Cast ………………
Ans. cast – caste.
Exercise – 2
Choose the correct word from each pair in Exercise 1 and complete the following sentences.
1 a. Do not …………. your time.
b. This pair of jeans is tight at the …………..
2. a The people were eager to ………….. their vote.
b. We should not discriminate on the basis of …………….
3. a. Gandhiji believed in …………… and non-violence.
b. Give me a ……………. of cake.
4. a. Please don’t …………… my book.
b. Sameer always wears a ………….. shirt.
5. a. A …………. has seven days.
b. Rani is ………….. in English.
8.2.2 PART – 2
In history we …………………. in this great drama.
Have you heard of the contribution of the freedom fighters to India’s independence? Whose names come to your mind when we speak of the leaders of India’s struggle for independence? Is Gandhiji one of them? In this section Pt. Nehru writes to his daughter to tell her how Bapuji motivated the common man to become a part of the struggle for freedom. He speaks about how men and women also become heroes when they fight for a cause.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 8.2
Q.1. Which two factors make ordinary men heroes?
Ans. The two factors which make ordinary men heroes are:
(a) full faith in great cause.
(b) love and respect for the nation.
Q.2. Who according to Nehru has inspired millions of people to fight for freedom?
Ans. According to Nehru, Mahatma Gandhi has inspired millions of people to fight for freedom from the British.
Q.3. What does phrase ‘great drama’ refer to?
Ans. The phrase ‘great drama’ refers to men, women and little children. These are coming out to take part in freedom fight.
Q.4. Who inspires you the most in your life? What are the qualities that he/she has that you admire the most? Why do you advice this person?
Ans. I am inspired the most by people having pasive attitude in life. I look for a person who is loving, smart and successful. I like one of my friend Anurudh very much he has a very clear cut goal in life. He looks forward to help the poor and downtrodden.
LET US DO 8.2
We all know that India had to struggle very hard in its fight for independence. Many great leaders made a lot of sacrifices. Quite a number of movements were carried out during that time.
Given below is a list of some moments for various causes. Tick the ones that are related to India’s freedom struggle.
Civil Disobedience Movement
Narmada Bachao Andolan
Jail Bharo Movement
Quit India Movement.
Civil Disobedience Movement
Quit India Movement
8.2.3 PART – 3
What part shall we play in it? …………… Your loving father (Jawaharlal Nehru).
How do you decide what is right and what is wrong? While doing something, do you feel that there are times when you need to hide from your elders? Does the fear of being caught tell you that you are wrong? In this section, Pt. Nehru tells Indira about the importance of understanding and doing what is right just like Gandhiji. He tells her that fighting for freedom was the right thing to do and that she should not fear being a part of the movement.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 8.3
Q.1. What soldier like qualities does Pt. Nehru want Indira to develop?
Ans. Nehru wants Indira to develop many qualities. He wants her to have honour, trust and patriotism. She should be able to identify right and wrong.
Q.2. Why do people hide things?
Ans. People hide things because they are afraid of what they are doing. They are not sure about what is right or wrong. They fear the consequences.
Q.3. Under whose leadership did the freedom movement take place?
Ans. The freedom movement took place under leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
Q.4. During the freedom movement, what did Gandhi focus on? Answer with reference to the text.
Ans. Gandhiji focussed on truth, courage fearlessness, hard work and non-violence.
Q.5. Under Gandhiji’s leadership India became free of oppression. But oppression continues in different ways even after independence. For example you must have heard or seen children below 14 years of age being employed in hazardous (risky/unsafe jobs like making crackers, hand- knotted carpets, etc. The government has introduced laws to protect the rights of children. What do you feel about it? Suggest three things that you can do to protect the rights of these children?
Ans. The government is taking steps to stop child labour, say ‘No’ to crackers and not to employ children in hazardous task.
To protect the rights of these children steps to be taken are:
1. Don’t employ children below age of fourteen at my place.
2. Report the case of child labour to authorities.
3. Try to make such children go to school.
LET US DO 8.3
In the above DO YOU NOW box you read about Baba Amte. Using the given information write a paragraph about him.
Baba Amte was a post independence Gandhian leader He was born on 26 December 1914. He was both a social worker and a social activist. He served as a defence lower for leaders of the Indian freedom movement. He worked for the rehabilitation and empowerment of people suffering from leprosy. He worked for many social causes such as wildlife preservation on and Narmda Bachao Andolan. For his works he was awarded Padma Shree in 1977, Padma Vibushan in 1986 and Gandhi Peace Prize in 1999. He contributed largely to society by working for a social cause.
He passed away on February 9, 2008.
8.3 LET US LEARN GRAMMAR
A. Constructing ‘Wh’ Questions
In this lesson every contains a question. beginning with a ‘Wh‘ question word.
What present can I send you from Naini Prison?
What am I to do then?
What part shall we play in it?
There are nine ‘Wh‘ question words.
|when what where why who whom whose which how|
Exercise – 1
a. Complete the following conversation between three people three people by supplying suitable ‘Wh’ question words from the above given list.
Abhimanyu: (a) are you going Vivek?
Vivek: I am going to the doctor.
Anirudh: (b) are you going to see a doctor?
Vivek: I’ve got a terrible stomach ache.
Abhimanyu: (c) doctor will you go to, Dr Solanki or Dr Gupta?
Anirudh: You should go to Dr. Solanki.
Abhimanyu: But (d) are his timings to see the patients and (e) will you go there Vivek?
Vivek: I don’t know the timings I will call up and check. I think will take a cab.
Ans. (a) where, (b) why, (c) which, (d) what, (e) how.
(b) Read the above conversation and write another conversation with ‘Wh’ words.
Ans. Rakesh: Where are you going today?
Sunil: I am going to the trade fair.
Rakesh: When will you go.
Sunil: I shall take 10 a.m. metro.
Rakesh: Which Pavillions you are planning to visit?
Sunil: I am planning to visit China Pavillion and Russian Pavillion.
Rakesh: What will you buy there?
Sunil: I shall buy few electronic items.
Exercise – 2
Frame at least 6 ‘Wh’ questions from the table given below using one word/phrase from each column.
Ans. 1. What does she like to drink?
2. When did he go for shopping?
3. Why do you disturb me?
4. Where will you meet Anita?
5. How did he spend holidays?
6. Whom do they want to select?
B. Imperative Sentences
Read the sentences given below:
|Obey your elders.||Don’t tell a lie.|
|Give Devraj his book.||Never fear.|
|Always go to school.||Don’t be afraid of the dark.|
|Put off the lights.|
The sentences given above are used for giving instructions. They are Imperative Sentences. In an imperative sentence, the verb comes before the subject. The sentences in Column B begin with ‘Don’t’ or ‘Never’ and are called Negative Imperative Sentences.
Exercise – 1
Match the verbs in Column A with the words in Column B to make Imperative Sentences. Write them in the spaces given below:
|Study||your neighbour and friends|
Ans. 1. Eat healthy food.
2. Love your neighbours and friends.
3. Respect elders.
4. Follow traffic rules.
5. Study every day/regularly.
6. Exercise regularly/everyday.
Exercise – 2
Look at the sentences given below. Rewrite the sentences beginning with a verb to make them imperative sentences.
1. One should never hide the truth.
Ans. Never hide the truth.
2. You shouldn’t stay out late.
Ans.Don’t stay out late.
3. One should not play with fire.
Ans. Don’t play with fire.
4. You should keep your classroom clean.
Ans. Keep your classroom clean.
5. You should not go barefoot outside.
Ans. Never walk barefoot.
6. One shouldn’t eat spicy food.
Ans.Don’t eat spicy food.
7. One should go to school regularly
Ans. Go to school regularly.
8. You should read good story books.
Ans. Read good story books.
8. 4 LET US WRITE
Pandit Nehru’s letter to Indira was an informal letter Let’s read another example of an informal letter.
This is a letter written by Hitendra, a Major in the Indian army, to his son Udyan. In the letter Major Hitendra tells his son about his experiences and life if Kargil where he is posted.
Jan. 25, 2011
My dear Udyan,
Hope everything is fine at home. I have just reached Kargil on my new posting. At present it is very cold and the temperature is -20°C. We try to keep ourselves warm by lighting fires and eating a lot of dry fruits. The area is very sensitive because militants can cross over easily. Although the situation is well under control we have to be vigilant all the time. Infiltrators enter our country with ease in the guise of shepherds because of the dense trees and frozen rivers. Every movement has to be monitored with alertness.
Take care of yourself and look after your grandparents and mother and keep writing to me.
Now imagine you are Udyan. Write a letter to your father giving him news about yourself and your family, and about what is happening in your life. Use the format given below.
Date: 24 Nov 20XX
I was really happy to get your letter. It was really thrilling to know about your routine. I am proud of what you are going for your country. You need not at all worry about family responsibilities. I am taking good care of mother and grandparents. I took grandmother twice to hospital. She is doing fine. Mother gets sad at time but we often go out on holidays. I have finished my first term exams I got highest marks
Rest all is fine
WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT
In this lesson, Pt. Nehru sends Indira a letter as a birthday present since he was unable to send her a gift as he was in jail. Though presents are appreciated, letters can also be equally cherished as a gift. We have learnt that it is important to do things without fear and recognise right from wrong. When faced with problems we can resolve them by discussing them with near and dear ones. Letters can also be used to convey our feelings when we cannot discuss things face to face. Your have also learnt to value the contribution of our leaders to the fight for freedom. We have also learnt the value of the qualities exhibited by these leaders.
Q.1. According to Pt. Nehru, how does a great leader help?
Ans. According to Nehru great people inspire others with great action and noble sacrifice. They make others follow. They make oppressed happy and free.
Q.2. What does Pt. Nehru mean by ‘make friends with the sun and work in the light’?
Ans. Nehru wanted that one should try to spread sunshine in their task. Everything should be open. Nothing should be hidden. We should work without fear. We all should be open and not secretive. We should be straight and forward like light. The way light travels in straight line. We should also not cheat and remain honest.
Q. 3. Imagine that you had a discussion with your parents about your career plans. Write in about 50 words what was discussed, what advice your parents gave you and how you felt?
Ans. My parents always had difference with me regarding career plans. They wanted me to take up science. But I always had interest in music. They tried in every manner to discourage. I made them understand that music is my life. With music I can rock the world. I can take it as my career and become famous. It was very difficult to make my parents believe that music can be taken as profession. Finally seeing my strong determination they agreed. Today, I am very happy
PASSAGES FOR COMPREHENSION
Read the passages given below and answer the questions that follow each:
PASSAGE – 1
On your birthday you have been in the habit of receiving presents and good wishes. Good wishes you will still have in full measure, but what present can I send you from Naini prison? My presents cannot be very material or solid. They can be of the mind and spirit, …………….. Things that even the high walls of prison cannot stop.
1. Name the occasion of writing the letter.
Ans.It was the occasion of Indira’s 13th birthday.
2. From where and to whom was the letter written?
Ans. The letter was written from Naini prison to Indira.
3. Why could Nehru not send solid presents?
Ans. She used to receive present and good wishes.
4. Give the noun form of word ‘Habit’
Ans. Habit – Habitat.
PASSAGE – 2
You know sweetheart, how I dislike sermonizing and doling out good advice ………… I have always thought that the best way to find out what is right and what is not right, what should be done and what should not be done, is not by giving a sermon, but by talking and discussing, and out of discussion sometimes a little bit ot truth comes out.
1. What was disliked by Nehru?
Ans. Nehru did not like sermonzing and giving good advice.
2. What comes out of discussion?
Ans. During discussion a little bit of truth comes out.
3. Why should one need not to be bored?
Ans. One need not be bored because we have a wide world and beyond that another world.
4. Find word from the passage which means ‘preaching”.
Ans. Preaching – sermonizing
PASSAGE – 3
In history we read of great periods in the life of nations, of great men and women …….. do you remember how fascinated you were when you first read the story of Jeanne d’Arc, and how your ambition was to be something like her? Ordinary men and women are not usually heroic. They think of their bread and butter, of their children, of their household worries and the like. But a time comes when whole people become interested in a great cause. Then history helps even simple, ordinary men and women to become heroes. Great leaders have something in them which inspires a whole people and makes them do great deeds. In India a great leader, full of love for all who suffer and eager to help them, has inspired our people to great actions and noble sacrifice. He has helped to make the starving, the poor and the oppressed free and happy.
1. What do we read in history?
Ans. In history we read of great periods in life of nations.
2. Whose story fascinated Indira?
Ans. Indira was fascinated by story of Jeanne d’Arc.
3. Why are the ordinary people not heroic?
Ans. They are not heroic because they think only of earning their livelihood.
4. Give the antonymn of remember.
Ans. Remember – forget.
PASSAGE – 4
If we were to be India’s soldiers we have to respect India’s honour, and that honour is a sacred trust …….. It is not easy matter to decide what is right and what is not. One little test I shall ask you to apply whenever you are in doubt …….. Never do anything in secret or anything that you would wish to hide. For the desire to hide anything means that you are afraid, and fear is a bad thing and unworthy of you. Be brave, and all the rest follows ……… You know that in our great Freedom Movement, under Bapuji’s leadership, there is no room for secrecy or hiding. We have nothing to hide.
1. What have the Indian soldiers to do?
Ans. Indian soldiers have to respect India’s soldiers.
2. What does to hide things mean?
Ans. To hide things means that one is afraid and in fear.
3. Why was India’s leader of freedom movement?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi was leader of India’s freedom.
4. Give the antonym of ‘brave’.
Ans. Brave – coward.
PASSAGE – 5
We are not afraid of what we do or what we say. We work in the sun and in the light. Even so in our private lives let us make friends with the sun and work in the light and do nothing secretly…and if you do so, my dear you will grow up a child of the light, unafraid and serene and unruffled, whatever may happen.
1. Who are not afraid of their a actions?
Ans. People who work in sun and light are not afraid of their actions.
2. What will be the result if we work in sunlight?
Ans. If we work in sunlight we shall grow up as child of light, unafraid, serene and unruffled.
3. Who does ‘dear’ refer to?
Ans. ‘Dear’ refers to Indira Gandhi.
4. Give the past tense of ‘make’.
Ans. Make made.